[1] 蔺鹏飞, 张晓萍, 刘二佳, 等. 黄土高原典型流域水沙关系对退耕还林(草)的响应[J]. 水土保持学报, 2015, 29(1):1−6.

Lin P F, Zhang X P, Liu E J, et al. Response of the water and sediment behavior to vegetation restoration in tipical catchments on Loess Plateau[J]. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 2015, 29(1): 1−6.
[2] 彭珂珊, 上官周平. 中国西部地区退耕还林的作用和战略对策[J]. 世界林业研究, 2003(3):41−46. doi:  10.3969/j.issn.1001-4241.2003.03.009

Peng K S, Shangguan Z P. The role of closing cropland for forestry and the countermeasure in western China[J]. World Forestry Research, 2003(3): 41−46. doi:  10.3969/j.issn.1001-4241.2003.03.009
[3] 宋同清, 彭晚霞, 曾馥平, 等. 喀斯特峰丛洼地退耕还林还草的土壤生态效应[J]. 土壤学报, 2011, 48(6):1219−1226. doi:  10.11766/trxb201005270211

Song T Q, Peng W X, Zeng F P, et al. Soil ecological effects of converting cropland to forest and grassland in depressions betweens karst hills[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica, 2011, 48(6): 1219−1226. doi:  10.11766/trxb201005270211
[4] 杨亚辉. 黄土丘陵沟壑区植被恢复对土壤理化性质影响分析[D]. 北京: 中国科学院大学(中国科学院教育部水土保持与生态环境研究中心), 2017.

Yang Y H. Impacts of vegetation restoration on soil physical and chemical properties in the loess hilly gully region of Loess Plateau[D]. Beijing: University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Research Center for Soil and Water Conservation and Ecological Environment Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Education), 2017.
[5] Saini G R. Organic matter as a measure of bulk density of soil[J]. Nature, 1966, 210: 1295−1296. doi:  10.1038/2101295a0
[6] Suuster E, Ritz C, Roostalu H, et al. Soil bulk density pedotransfer functions of the humus horizon in arable soils[J]. Geoderma, 2011, 163(1/2): 74−82.
[7] 郑纪勇, 邵明安, 张兴昌. 黄土区坡面表层土壤容重和饱和导水率空间变异特征[J]. 水土保持学报, 2004, 18(3):53−56. doi:  10.3321/j.issn:1009-2242.2004.03.014

Zheng J Y, Shao M A, Zhang X C. Spatial variability of surface soil's bulk density and saturated hydraulic conductivity on slope in loess region[J]. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 2004, 18(3): 53−56. doi:  10.3321/j.issn:1009-2242.2004.03.014
[8] 李志洪, 王淑华. 土壤容重对土壤物理性状和小麦生长的影响[J]. 土壤通报, 2000, 31(2):55−57. doi:  10.3321/j.issn:0564-3945.2000.02.003

Li Z H, Wang S H. Effects of soil bulk density on soil physical properties and wheat growth[J]. Soil Bulletin, 2000, 31(2): 55−57. doi:  10.3321/j.issn:0564-3945.2000.02.003
[9] 李裕元, 邵明安, 陈洪松, 等. 水蚀风蚀交错带植被恢复对土壤物理性质的影响[J]. 生态学报, 2010, 30(16):4306−4316.

Li Y Y, Shao M A, Chen H S, et al. Impacts of vegetation recovery on soil physical properties in the cross area of wind-water erosion[J]. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 2010, 30(16): 4306−4316.
[10] 李茜. 黄土高原不同树种枯落叶混合分解对土壤性质的影响[D]. 杨凌: 西北农林科技大学, 2013.

Li Q. Effects of mixed litter decomposition from different tree species on soil properties in the Loess Plateau[D]. Yangling: Northwest A&F University, 2013.
[11] 安韶山, 黄懿梅, 李壁成, 等. 黄土丘陵区植被恢复中土壤团聚体演变及其与土壤性质的关系[J]. 土壤通报, 2006, 37(1):45−50. doi:  10.3321/j.issn:0564-3945.2006.01.010

An S S, Huang Y M, Li B C, et al. Characteristics of soil water stable aggregates and relationship with soil properties during vegetation rehabliation in loess hilly region [J]. Soil Bulletin, 2006, 37(1): 45−50. doi:  10.3321/j.issn:0564-3945.2006.01.010
[12] 郑芳, 张建军. 晋西黄土区不同植被覆盖流域的水文响应[J]. 生态学报, 2010, 30(20):5475−5484.

Zheng F, Zhang J J. Hydrological response to changes in vegetation covers at a watershed scale in western Shanxi, Loess Plateau, China[J]. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 2010, 30(20): 5475−5484.
[13] 李东海, 杨小波, 邓运武, 等. 桉树人工林林下植被、地面覆盖物与土壤物理性质的关系[J]. 生态学杂志, 2006, 25(6):607−611. doi:  10.3321/j.issn:1000-4890.2006.06.003

Li D H, Yang X B, Deng Y W, et al. Soil physical properties under effects of Eucalyptus understory vegetation and litter[J]. Chinese Journal of Ecology, 2006, 25(6): 607−611. doi:  10.3321/j.issn:1000-4890.2006.06.003
[14] Peng S L, Chen A Q, Fang H D, et al. Effects of vegetation restoration types on soil quality in Yuanmou Dry-Hot Valley, China[J]. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 2013, 59(3): 347−360. doi:  10.1080/00380768.2013.785918
[15] 李永涛, 李宗泰, 王振猛, 等. 滨海盐碱区不同林龄柽柳人工林土壤水分物理性质差异性[J]. 东北林业大学报, 2018,46(9):75−79.

Li Y T, Li Z T, Wang Z M, et al. Soil water-physical properties of Tamarix chinensis plantations with different ages in coastal saline-alkali region[J]. Journal of Northeast Forestry University, 2018,46(9): 75−79.
[16] 罗海波, 钱晓刚, 刘方, 等. 喀斯特山区退耕还林(草)保持水土生态效益研究[J]. 水土保持学报, 2003,17(4):31−34, 41. doi:  10.3321/j.issn:1009-2242.2003.04.008

Luo H B, Qian X G, Liu F, et al. Ecological benefit of soil and water conservation in hilly areas by de farming and reafforestation[J]. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 2003,17(4): 31−34, 41. doi:  10.3321/j.issn:1009-2242.2003.04.008
[17] 何艳, 孙保平, 肖恩邦, 等. 重庆合川区退耕还林地土壤改良效应研究[J]. 土壤通报, 2015, 46(6):1392−1398.

He Y, Sun B P, Xiao E B, et al. Soil improvement effect of returning farmland to forest in Hechuan District, Chongqing[J]. Chinese Journal of Soil Science, 2015, 46(6): 1392−1398.
[18] 李建军, 吴斌, 佐藤俊, 等. 晋西黄土残塬沟壑区不同林地土壤水分动态研究[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 1994, 16(增刊 4):36−43.

Li J J, Wu B, Zuo T J, et al. Study on soil moisture dynamics of different forest lands in the loess gully area of western Shanxi Province[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 1994, 16(Suppl. 4): 36−43.
[19] 朱金兆, 张建军, 魏天兴, 等. 中国生态系统定位观测与研究数据集·森林生态系统卷: 山西吉县站(1978—2006)[M].北京: 中国农业出版社, 2010: 141−154.

Zhu J Z, Zhang J J, Wei T X, et al. China ecosystem positioning observation and research dataset·forest ecosystem volume: Shanxi Jixian Station (1978−2006)[M]. Beijing: China Agriculture Press, 2010: 141−154.
[20] 张建军, 吴斌, 朱金兆, 等. 晋西黄土残塬沟壑区水土保持林地土壤水分有效性的研究[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 1994, 16(增刊 4):59−65.

Zhang J J, Wu B, Zhu J Z, et al. Study on soil water availability of soil and water conservation forest land in the loess gully area of western Shanxi Province[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 1994, 16(Suppl. 4): 59−65.
[21] 国家林业局. 中华人民共和国林业行业标准LY/T 1215—1999森林土壤分析方法[S]. 北京: 中国标准出版社, 1999.

State Forestry Administration. People’s Republic of China Forestry Industry Standard LY/T 1215−1999 forest soil analysis method[S]. Beijing: China Standard Press, 1999.
[22] 张万儒. 森林土壤分析方法[M]. 北京: 中国标准出版社, 1999: 22−24.

Zhang W R. Forest soil analysis method[M]. Beijing: China Standard Press, 1999: 22−24.
[23] 林业部科技司. 森林生态系统定位研究方法[S]. 北京: 中国科学技术出版社, 1994.

Department of Science and Technology of the Ministry of Forestry. Forest ecosystem positioning research method[S]. Beijing: China Science and Technology Press, 1994.
[24] 王昭艳, 左长清, 曹文洪, 等. 红壤丘陵区不同植被恢复模式土壤理化性质相关分析[J]. 土壤学报, 2011, 48(4):715−724. doi:  10.11766/trxb201011090467

Wang Z Y, Zuo C Q, Cao W H, et al. Physical and chemical properties of soils under different vegetation restoration models in red soil hilly region[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica, 2011, 48(4): 715−724. doi:  10.11766/trxb201011090467
[25] 张希彪, 上官周平. 人为干扰对黄土高原子午岭油松人工林土壤物理性质的影响[J]. 生态学报, 2006, 26(11):3685−3695. doi:  10.3321/j.issn:1000-0933.2006.11.022

Zhang X B, Shangguan Z P. Effects of human-induced disturbance on physical properties of soil in artificial Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. forests of Loess Plateau[J]. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 2006, 26(11): 3685−3695. doi:  10.3321/j.issn:1000-0933.2006.11.022
[26] 刘月秀, 李银, 曹福亮. 广东桉树林土壤物理性质及其影响因子分析[J]. 林业科技开发, 2012, 26(4):13−18. doi:  10.3969/j.issn.1000-8101.2012.04.004

Liu Y X, Li Y, Cao F L. Soil physical properties their influencing factors under Eucalyptus forest in Guangdong Probince[J]. Forestry Science & Technology Development, 2012, 26(4): 13−18. doi:  10.3969/j.issn.1000-8101.2012.04.004
[27] 赵筱青, 和春兰, 易琦. 大面积桉树引种区土壤水分及水源涵养性能研究[J]. 水土保持学报, 2012, 26(3):205−210.

Zhao X Q, He C L, Yi Q. Soil moisture and water conservation in Eucalyptus uraphylla spp. introduction area[J]. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 2012, 26(3): 205−210.
[28] Gimenez D, Perfect E, Rawls W J, et al. Fractal models for predicting soil hydraulic properties: a review[J]. Engineering Geology, 1997, 48(3−4): 161−183. doi:  10.1016/S0013-7952(97)00038-0
[29] Huang G, Zhang R. Evaluation of soil water retention curve with the pore-solid fractal model[J]. Geoderma, 2005, 127(1): 52−61.
[30] Montero E. Rényi dimensions analysis of soil particle-size distributions[J]. Ecological Modelling, 2005, 182(3): 305−315.
[31] 唐炎林, 邓晓保, 李玉武, 等. 西双版纳不同林分土壤机械组成及其肥力比较[J]. 中南林业科技大学学报, 2007, 27(1):70−75. doi:  10.3969/j.issn.1673-923X.2007.01.013

Tang Y L, Deng X B, Li Y W, et al. Comparison of the mechanical composition and soil fertility between tropical seasonal rain forest soil and rubber forest soil in Xishuangbanna[J]. Journal of Central South University of Forestry and Technology, 2007, 27(1): 70−75. doi:  10.3969/j.issn.1673-923X.2007.01.013
[32] 彭文英, 张科利, 陈瑶, 等. 黄土坡耕地退耕还林后土壤性质变化研究[J]. 自然资源学报, 2005, 20(2):272−278. doi:  10.3321/j.issn:1000-3037.2005.02.016

Peng W Y, Zhang K L, Chen Y, et al. Study on the improving soil properties of forest vegetation in different land where returning farmland to forest in Loess Plateau[J]. Journal of Natural Resources, 2005, 20(2): 272−278. doi:  10.3321/j.issn:1000-3037.2005.02.016
[33] 杨光, 丁国栋, 常国梁, 等. 黄土高原不同退耕还林地森林植被改良土壤特性研究[J]. 水土保持研究, 2006, 13(3):204−207, 210. doi:  10.3969/j.issn.1005-3409.2006.03.068

Yang G, Ding G D, Chang G L, et al. Study on improving soil properties of forest vegetation in different land where returning farmland to forests in Loess Plateau[J]. Research of Soil and Water Conservation, 2006, 13(3): 204−207, 210. doi:  10.3969/j.issn.1005-3409.2006.03.068
[34] 郭雨华. 中国西北地区退耕还林工程效益监测与评价[D]. 北京: 北京林业大学, 2009.

Guo Y H. Effective monitoring and evaluation of the land conversion program Chinese northwest region[D]. Beijing: Beijing Forestry University, 2009.
[35] 罗国占. 陕西省吴旗县退耕还林(草)生态恢复效果研究[D].北京: 北京林业大学, 2007.

Luo G Z. Study on the ecology restoration effect of consersion cropland to forest and grassland in Wuqi County, Shaanxi Province[D]. Beijing: Beijing Forestry University, 2007.
[36] 田宁宁, 张建军, 李玉婷, 等. 晋西黄土区退耕还林地涵养水源和保育土壤功能评价[J]. 水土保持学报, 2015, 29(5):124−129.

Tian N N, Zhang J J, Li Y T, et al. Functional assessment of soil and water conservation under conservation of cropland to forest in the Loess Plateau of western Shanxi Province[J]. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 2015, 29(5): 124−129.
[37] 丁康. 长武塬边坡不同植被对土壤物理性质的影响研究[D]. 杨凌: 西北农林科技大学, 2018.

Ding K. Influence of different vegetation types on soil physical properties in Changwu tableland slope [D]. Yangling: Northwest A&F University, 2018.
[38] 张晓霞, 杨宗儒, 查同刚, 等. 晋西黄土区退耕还林22年后林地土壤物理性质的变化[J]. 生态学报, 2017, 37(2):416−424.

Zhang X X, Yang Z R, Zha T G, et al. Changes in the physical properties of soil in forestlands 22 years under the influence of the conversion of cropland into farmland project in Loess Region, western Shanxi Province[J]. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 2017, 37(2): 416−424.
[39] 贾立志, 张建辉, 王勇, 等. 耕作侵蚀对紫色土坡耕地土壤容重和有机质二维分布的影响[J]. 土壤通报, 2016, 47(6):1461−1467.

Jia L Z, Zhang J H, Wang Y, et al. Effects of tillage erosion on the two dimensional distribution of soil bulk density and organic matter on a steep hillslope[J]. Chinese Journal of Soil Science, 2016, 47(6): 1461−1467.
[40] Li X G, Li F M, Zed R, et al. Soil physical properties and their relations to organic carbon pools as affected by landuse in an alpine pastureland[J]. Geoderma, 2007, 139(1/2): 98−105.
[41] Zhao H L, Guo Y R, Zhou R L, et al. The effects of plantation development on biological soil crust and topsoil properties in a desert in northern China[J]. Geoderma, 2011, 160(3/4): 367−372.
[42] Bowman R A, Vigil M F, Nielsen D C, et al. Soil organic matter changes in intensively cropped dryland systems[J]. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 1999, 63(1): 186−191. doi:  10.2136/sssaj1999.03615995006300010026x