[1] 樊后保, 臧润国, 李德志. 蒙古栎种群天然更新的研究[J]. 生态学杂志, 1996, 15(3):15−20.

Fan H B, Zang R G, Li D Z. Natural regeneration of Mongolian oak population[J]. Chinese Journal of Ecology, 1996, 15(3): 15−20.
[2] 王文权. 辽宁森林资源.北京[M]. 北京: 中国林业出版社, 2007.

Wang W Q. Forest resources in Liaoning Province[M]. Beijing: China Forestry Publishing House, 2007 .
[3] 何友均, 梁星云, 覃林, 等. 南亚热带马尾松红椎人工林群落结构、物种多样性及基于自然的森林经营[J]. 林业科学, 2013, 49(4):24−33.

He Y J, Liang X Y, Qin L, et al. Community structure, species diversity of Pinus massoniana and Castanopsis hystrix plantation and the nature-based forest management in the southern subtropical China[J]. Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 2013, 49(4): 24−33.
[4] Demirc M, Bettinger P. Using mixed integer multi-objective goal programming for stand tending block designation: a case study from Turkey[J]. Forest Policy and Economics, 2015, 55: 28−36. doi:  10.1016/j.forpol.2015.03.007
[5] 盛炜彤. 我国应将天然次生林的经营放在重要位置[J]. 林业科技通讯, 2016(2):10−13.

Sheng W T. China should put an important position for the management of natural secondary forests[J]. Forest Science and Technology, 2016(2): 10−13.
[6] Miller G W, Stringer J W, Mercker D C. Technical guide to crop tree release in hardwood forests[R/OL]//The University of Tennessee Agricultural Extension Service Publication Series. Knoxville: University of Tennessee, 2007: 1−24. [2018−10−10]. http://trace.tennessee.edu/utk_agexfores/19.
[7] 陆元昌.近自然森林经营理论与实践[M]. 北京: 科学出版社, 2006.

Lu Y C. Theory and practice of close-to-nature forest management[M]. Beijing: Science Press, 2006.
[8] Healy W M, Lewis A M, Boose E F. Variation of red oak acorn production[J]. Forest Ecology and Management, 1999, 116(1−3): 1−11. doi:  10.1016/S0378-1127(98)00460-5
[9] 宁金魁, 陆元昌, 赵浩彦, 等. 北京西山地区油松人工林近自然化改造效果评价[J]. 东北林业大学学报, 2009, 37(7):42−44. doi:  10.3969/j.issn.1000-5382.2009.07.015

Ning J K, Lu Y C, Zhao H Y, et al. Assessment on close-to- nature transformation of Pinus tabuliformis plantations in Xishan Region, Beijing[J]. Journal of Northeast Forestry University, 2009, 37(7): 42−44. doi:  10.3969/j.issn.1000-5382.2009.07.015
[10] 王懿祥, 张守攻, 陆元昌, 等. 干扰树间伐对马尾松人工林目标树生长的初期效应[J]. 林业科学, 2014, 50(10):67−73.

Wang Y X, Zhang S G, Lu Y C, et al. Initial effects of crop tees growth after crop tree release on Pinus massoniana plantation[J]. Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 2014, 50(10): 67−73.
[11] 李婷婷, 陆元昌, 姜俊, 等. 马尾松人工林森林经营模式评价[J]. 西北林学院学报, 2015, 30(1):164−171. doi:  10.3969/j.issn.1001-7461.2015.01.27

Li T T, Lu Y C, Jiang J, et al. Assessment of forest management model of Pinus massoniana plantation[J]. Journal of Northwest Forestry University, 2015, 30(1): 164−171. doi:  10.3969/j.issn.1001-7461.2015.01.27
[12] 张晓红, 张会儒, 卢军, 等. 美国目标树经营体系及其经营效果研究进展[J]. 世界林业研究, 2016, 29(2):91−96.

Zhang X H, Zhang H R, Lu J, et al. Crop tree release in United States and progress on management effect[J]. World Forestry Research, 2016, 29(2): 91−96.
[13] 李俊清, 牛树奎, 刘艳红.森林生态学[M]. 3版.北京: 高等教育出版社.2017.

Li J Q, Niu S K, Liu Y H. Forest ecology[M]. 3rd ed. Beijing: Higher Education Press, 2017.
[14] 臧润国, 杨彦承, 蒋有绪. 海南岛霸王岭热带山地雨林群落结构及树种多样性特征的研究[J]. 植物生态学报, 2001, 25(3):270−275. doi:  10.3321/j.issn:1005-264X.2001.03.003

Zang R G, Yang Y C, Jiang Y X. Community structure and tree species diversity characteristics in a tropical montane rain forest in bawangling nature reserve, Hainan Island[J]. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica, 2001, 25(3): 270−275. doi:  10.3321/j.issn:1005-264X.2001.03.003
[15] 惠刚盈, Gadow K V, 胡艳波, 等. 结构化森林经营[M]. 北京: 中国林业出版社, 2007.

Hui G Y, Gadow K V, Hu Y B, et al. Structure based forest management[M]. Beijing: China Forestry Publishing House, 2007.
[16] Latham P A, Zuuring H R, Coble D W. A method for quantifying vertical forest structure[J]. Forest Ecology and Management, 1998, 104(1): 157−170.
[17] Ishii H T, Tanabe S, Hiura T. Exploring the relationships among canopy structure, stand productivity, and biodiversity of temperate forest ecosystems[J]. Forest Science, 2004, 50(3): 342−355.
[18] 郑景明, 张春雨, 周金星, 等. 云蒙山典型森林群落垂直结构研究[J]. 林业科学研究, 2007, 20(6):768−774. doi:  10.3321/j.issn:1001-1498.2007.06.006

Zheng J M, Zhang C Y, Zhou J X, et al. Study on vertical structue of forest communities in Yunmengshan[J]. Forest research, 2007, 20(6): 768−774. doi:  10.3321/j.issn:1001-1498.2007.06.006
[19] 玉宝, 张秋良, 王立明. 中幼龄兴安落叶松过伐林垂直结构综合特征[J]. 林业科学, 2015, 51(1):132−139.

Yu B, Zhang Q L, Wang L M. Comprehensive characteristics of the vertical structure of middle young over cutting forest of Larix gmelinii[J]. Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 2015, 51(1): 132−139.
[20] 惠刚盈, 胡艳波, 赵中华, 等. 基于交角的林木竞争指数[J]. 林业科学, 2013, 49(6):68−73.

Hui G Y, Hu Y B, Zhao Z H, et al. Forest competition index based on intersection angle[J]. Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 2013, 49(6): 68−73.
[21] 惠刚盈. 基于相邻木关系的林分空间结构参数应用研究[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2013, 35(4):l−9.

Hui G Y. Studies on the application of stand spatial structure parameters based on the relationship of neighborhood trees[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2013, 35(4): l−9.
[22] 孟宪宇. 测树学[M]. 3版. 北京: 中国林业出版社, 2006.

Meng X Y. Forest mensuration[M]. 3rd ed. Beijing: China Forestry Publishing House, 2006.
[23] 吕勇, 臧颢, 万献军, 等. 基于林层指数的青椆混交林林层结构研究[J]. 林业资源管理, 2012(3):81−84. doi:  10.3969/j.issn.1002-6622.2012.03.018

Lü Y, Zang H, Wan X J, et al. Storey structure study of Cyclobalanopsis myrsinaefolia mixed stand based on storey index[J]. Forest Resources Management, 2012(3): 81−84. doi:  10.3969/j.issn.1002-6622.2012.03.018
[24] 陈科屹, 张会儒, 雷相东, 等. 云冷杉过伐林垂直结构特征分析[J]. 林业科学研究, 2017, 30(3):450−459.

Chen K Y, Zhang H R, Lei X D, et al. Analysis of vertical structure characteristics for spruce-fir over-cutting forest[J]. Forest Research, 2017, 30(3): 450−459.
[25] 马履一, 李春义, 王希群, 等. 不同强度间伐对北京山区油松生长及其林下植物多样性的影响[J]. 林业科学, 2007, 43(5):1−9. doi:  10.3321/j.issn:1001-7488.2007.05.001

Ma L Y, Li C Y, Wang X Q, et al. Effects of thinning on growth and diversity of undergrowth of Pinus tabuliformis plantation in Beijing Mountainous Areas[J]. Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 2007, 43(5): 1−9. doi:  10.3321/j.issn:1001-7488.2007.05.001
[26] 段劼, 马履一, 贾黎明, 等. 抚育间伐对侧柏人工林及林下植被生长的影响[J]. 生态学报, 2010, 30(6):1431−1441.

Duan J, Ma L Y, Jia L M, et al. Effects of thinning on growth of Platycladus orientalis plantation and undergrowth vegetations[J]. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 2010, 30(6): 1431−1441.
[27] 徐金良, 毛玉明, 郑成忠, 等. 抚育间伐对杉木人工林生长及出材量的影响[J]. 林业科学研究, 2014, 27(1):99−107.

Xu J L, Mao Y M, Zheng C Z, et al. Effect of thinning on growth and timber qutturn in Cunninghamia lanceolate plantation[J]. Forest Research, 2014, 27(1): 99−107.
[28] 尤文忠, 赵刚, 张慧东, 等. 抚育间伐对蒙古栎次生林生长的影响[J]. 生态学报, 2015, 35(1):56−64.

You W Z, Zhao G, Zhang H D, et al. Effects of thinning on growth of mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) secondary forests[J]. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 2015, 35(1): 56−64.
[29] Miller G W, Kochenderfer J N, Fekedulgn D B. Influence of individual reserve trees on nearby reproduction in two-aged appalachian hardwood stands[J]. Forest Ecology and Management, 2006, 224(3): 241−251. doi:  10.1016/j.foreco.2005.12.035
[30] 陆元昌, 张守攻, 雷相东, 等. 人工林近自然化改造的理论基础和实施技术[J]. 世界林业研究, 2009, 22(1):20−27.

Lu Y C, Zhang S G, Lei X D, et al. Theoretical basis and implementation techniques on close-to-nature transformation of plantations[J]. World Forestry Research, 2009, 22(1): 20−27.
[31] Gary D L. Ten year growth response of red and white oak crop trees to intensity of crown release[R]//Walrop T A. General technical report (SRS-20). Asheville: Department of Agriculture, Forestry Service, Southern Research Station, 1998: 163−167.
[32] Lin Y C, Chang L W, Yang K C, et al. Point patterns of tree distribution determined by habitat heterogeneity and dispersal limitation[J]. Ocecologia, 2011, 165(1): 175−184. doi:  10.1007/s00442-010-1718-x
[33] Shchuler T M. Crop tree release improves competitiveness of northern red oak growing in association with black cherry[J]. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry, 2006, 23(2): 77−82.
[34] Ward J S. Intensity of precommercial crop tree release increases diameter growth and survival of upland oaks[J]. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 2009, 39(1): 118−130. doi:  10.1139/X08-165
[35] Ward J S. Precommercial crop tree release increases upper canopy persistence and diameter growth of oak saplings[J]. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry, 2013, 30(4): 156−163. doi:  10.5849/njaf.13-017
[36] Leak W B. Smith M L. Long-term species and structural changes after cleaning young even-aged northern hardwoods in New Hampshire, USA[J]. Forest Ecology and Management, 1997, 95(1): 11−20. doi:  10.1016/S0378-1127(97)00011-X
[37] Lamson N I. Precommercial thinning increases diameter growth of Appalachian hardwood stump sprouts[J]. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry, 1983, 7(2): 93−97.