[1] 沈国舫. 集约育林−世界林业研究的主要课题[J]. 世界林业研究, 1991(3):1−6.

Shen G F. Intensive afforestation-the main topic of world forestry research[J]. World Forestry Research, 1991(3): 1−6.
[2] Evans J. Sustainability of forest plantations: a review of evidence and future prospects[J]. International Forestry Review, 1999, 1(3): 153−162.
[3] 杨玉盛. 杉木林经营模式及可持续利用的研究[D]. 南京: 南京林业大学, 1997.

Yang Y S. Study on the management mode and sustainable utilization of Chinese fir forest[D]. Nanjing: Nanjing Forestry University, 1997.
[4] 温佐吾. 不同密度2代连栽马尾松人工林生产力水平比较[J]. 浙江农林大学学报, 2004, 21(1):22−27. doi:  10.3969/j.issn.2095-0756.2004.01.005

Wen Z W. Comparison of productivity between first and second rotation stands of Pinus massoniana planted in different densities[J]. Journal of Zhejiang Forestry College, 2004, 21(1): 22−27. doi:  10.3969/j.issn.2095-0756.2004.01.005
[5] 杨承栋. 中国主要造林树种土壤质量演化与调控机理[M]. 北京: 科学出版社, 2009.

Yang C D. Quality evolution and cultivation mechanism of soil for Chinese main afforestation platation[M]. Beijing: Science Press, 2009.
[6] 辜翔, 张仕吉, 刘兆丹, 等. 中亚热带植被恢复对土壤有机碳含量、碳密度的影响[J]. 植物生态学报, 2018, 42(5):595−608. doi:  10.17521/cjpe.2018.0021

Gu X, Zhang S J, Liu Z D, et al. Effects of vegetation restoration on soil organic carbon concentration and density in the mid-subtropical region of China[J]. Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology, 2018, 42(5): 595−608. doi:  10.17521/cjpe.2018.0021
[7] 杨承栋. 我国人工林土壤有机质的量和质下降是制约林木生长的关键因子[J]. 林业科学, 2016, 52(12):1−12. doi:  10.11707/j.1001-7488.20161201

Yang C D. Decline of quantity and quality of soil organic matter is the key factor restricting the growth of plantation in China[J]. Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 2016, 52(12): 1−12. doi:  10.11707/j.1001-7488.20161201
[8] 马祥庆, 黄宝龙. 人工林地力衰退研究综述[J]. 南京林业大学学报(自然科学版), 1997, 21(2):77−82.

Ma X Q, Huang B L. Advance in research on site productivity decline of timber plantations[J]. Journal of Nanjing Forestry University(Natural Sciences Edition), 1997, 21(2): 77−82.
[9] 段春华, 翟建平, 杜立民. 杨树人工林地力衰退研究现状及防止措施[J]. 山东林业科技, 2009(2):97−101. doi:  10.3969/j.issn.1002-2724.2009.02.031

Duan C H, Zhai J P, Du L M. Research status and preventive measures of poplar plantation degradation[J]. Shandong Forestry Science and Technology, 2009(2): 97−101. doi:  10.3969/j.issn.1002-2724.2009.02.031
[10] Henri C J. Soil-site productivity of Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis forest plantations in western Venezuela[J]. Forest Ecology & Management, 2001, 144(1): 255−264.
[11] 康冰, 刘世荣, 蔡道雄, 等. 南亚热带不同植被恢复模式下土壤理化性质[J]. 应用生态学报, 2010, 21(10):2479−2486.

Kang B, Liu S R, Cai D X, et al. Soil physical and chemical characteristics under different vegetation restoration patterns in China south subtropical area[J]. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 2010, 21(10): 2479−2486.
[12] Bueis T, Turrión M B, Bravo F, et al. Factors determining enzyme activities in soils under Pinus halepensis and Pinus sylvestris plantations in Spain: a basis for establishing sustainable forest management strategies[J/OL]. Annals of Forest Science, 2018, 75: 34 [2018−10−15]. http://doi.org/10.1007/S13595-018-0720-Z.
[13] 刘占锋, 傅伯杰, 刘国华, 等. 土壤质量与土壤质量指标及其评价[J]. 生态学报, 2006, 26(3):901−913. doi:  10.3321/j.issn:1000-0933.2006.03.036

Liu Z F, Fu B J, Liu G H, et al. Soil quality: concept, indicators and its assessment[J]. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 2006, 26(3): 901−913. doi:  10.3321/j.issn:1000-0933.2006.03.036
[14] 张海鑫, 曾全超, 安韶山, 等. 子午岭典型植被凋落叶−土壤养分与酶活性特征[J]. 生态学报, 2018, 38(7):2262−2270.

Zhang H X, Zeng Q C, An S S, et al. Soil enzyme activities, soil and leaf litter nutrients of typical vegetation in Ziwuling Mountain[J]. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 2018, 38(7): 2262−2270.
[15] 鲍士旦. 土壤农化分析[M]. 北京: 中国农业出版社, 2008.

Bao S D. Soil and agricultural chemistry analysis[M]. Beijing: China Agriculture Press, 2008.
[16] 关松荫. 土壤酶及其研究法[M]. 北京: 中国农业出版社, 1986.

Guan S Y. Soil enzyme and its research method[M]. Beijing: China Agriculture Press, 1986.
[17] 陈雪, 马履一, 贾忠奎, 等. 影响油松人工林土壤质量的关键指标[J]. 中南林业科技大学学报, 2012, 32(8):46−51.

Chen X, Ma L Y, Jia Z K, et al. Study of key indexes affecting soil quality in Pinus tabulaeformis plantations[J]. Journal of Central South University of Forestry & Technology, 2012, 32(8): 46−51.
[18] 李国雷, 刘勇, 李瑞生, 等. 油松人工林土壤质量的演变[J]. 林业科学, 2008, 44(9):76−81. doi:  10.3321/j.issn:1001-7488.2008.09.014

Li G L, Liu Y, Li R S, et al. Change of soil quality affected by forest age of Pinus tabuliformis plantations[J]. Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 2008, 44(9): 76−81. doi:  10.3321/j.issn:1001-7488.2008.09.014
[19] 邵英男, 田松岩, 刘延坤, 等. 密度调控对长白落叶松人工林土壤呼吸的影响[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2017, 39(6):51−59.

Shao Y N, Tian S Y, Liu Y K, et al. Effect of density control on soil respiration in Larix olgensis plantation[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2017, 39(6): 51−59.
[20] 党鹏, 王乃江, 王娟婷, 等. 黄土高原子午岭不同发育阶段油松人工林土壤理化性质的变化[J]. 西北农林科技大学学报(自然科学版), 2014, 42(6):115−121.

Dang P, Wang N J, Wang J T, et al. Change of soil physical-chemical properties of Pinus tabuliformis plantations at different developmental stages in Ziwuling region of Loess Plateau[J]. Journal of Northwest A&F University (Natural Sciences Edition), 2014, 42(6): 115−121.
[21] 邱新彩, 彭道黎, 李伟丽, 等. 北京延庆区不同林龄油松人工林土壤理化性质[J]. 应用与环境生物学报, 2018, 24(2):221−229.

Qiu X C, Peng D L, Li W L, et al. Soil physicochemical properties of Pinus tabuliformis plantations of different ages in Yanqing, Beijing[J]. Chin J Appl Environ Biol, 2018, 24(2): 221−229.
[22] Johnson C E, Johnson A H, Huntington T G, et al. Whole-tree clear-cutting effects on soil horizons and organic-matter pools[J]. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 1991, 55(2): 497−502. doi:  10.2136/sssaj1991.03615995005500020034x
[23] Simard D G, Fyles J W, Pare D, et al. Impacts of clearcut harvesting and wildfire on soil nutrient status in the Quebec boreal forest[J]. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 2001, 81(2): 229−237. doi:  10.4141/S00-028
[24] Hynes H M, Germida J J. A chronsequential approach to investigating microbial community shifts following clearcutting in Boreal Plain forest soils[J]. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 2012, 42(12): 2078−2089. doi:  10.1139/cjfr-2012-0038
[25] Jang W, Pagedumroese D S, Keyes C R. Long-term soil changes from forest harvesting and residue management in the northern rocky mountains[J]. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 2016, 80: 727−741. doi:  10.2136/sssaj2015.11.0413
[26] 陈立新. 落叶松人工林土壤质量变化规律与调控措施的研究[D]. 北京: 中国林业科学研究院, 2003.

Chen L X. Studies on changing rules of soil quality, adjustment and control measures in Larix olgensis plantations[D]. Beijing: Chinese Academy of Forestry, 2003.
[27] 盛炜彤, 范少辉. 杉木人工林的育林干扰对长期立地生产力的影响[J]. 林业科学, 2003, 39(5):37−43. doi:  10.3321/j.issn:1001-7488.2003.05.006

Sheng W T, Fan S H. Impact of cultivation activities on the long term site productivity of Chinese fir plantations[J]. Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 2003, 39(5): 37−43. doi:  10.3321/j.issn:1001-7488.2003.05.006
[28] 张鼎华, 范少辉. 亚热带常绿阔叶林和杉木林皆伐后林地土壤肥力的变化[J]. 应用与环境生物学报, 2002, 8(2):115−119. doi:  10.3321/j.issn:1006-687X.2002.02.002

Zhang D H, Fan S H. Changes of soil fertility in the evergreen broad-leaved and Chinese fir forest lands in sub-tropical after clear cuttings[J]. Chinese Journal of Applied and Environmental Biology, 2002, 8(2): 115−119. doi:  10.3321/j.issn:1006-687X.2002.02.002
[29] Slesak R A, Harrington T B, Peter D H, et al. Effects of intensive management practices on 10-year Douglas-fir growth, soil nutrient pools, and vegetation communities in the Pacific Northwest, USA[J]. Forest Ecology and Management, 2016, 365: 22−33. doi:  10.1016/j.foreco.2016.01.019
[30] Zhao D, Kane M, Borders B E. Growth responses to planting density and management intensity in loblolly pine plantations in the southeastern USA Lower Coastal Plain[J]. Annals of Forest Science, 2011, 68(3): 625−635. doi:  10.1007/s13595-011-0045-7
[31] 秦倩倩, 王海燕. 基于Meta-analysis的土壤氮素对采伐的响应研究[J]. 林业科学研究, 2018, 31(4):90−97.

Qin Q Q, Wang H Y. Response of soil nitrogen to cutting intensity based on meta-analysis[J]. Forest Research, 2018, 31(4): 90−97.
[32] 何佩云, 丁贵杰, 谌红辉. 连栽马尾松人工林土壤肥力比较研究[J]. 林业科学研究, 2011, 24(3):357−362.

He P Y, Ding G J, Shen H H. Comparison on soil fertilities of masson pine plantations of different generations[J]. Forestry Research, 2011, 24(3): 357−362.
[33] 满秀玲, 屈宜春, 蔡体久, 等. 森林采伐与造林对土壤化学性质的影响[J]. 东北林业大学学报, 1998, 26(4):14−16.

Man X L, Qu Y C, Cai T J, et al. Effect of forest harvesting and afforestation on chemical property of soil[J]. Journal of Northeast Forestry University, 1998, 26(4): 14−16.
[34] 王改玲, 王青杵. 晋北黄土丘陵区不同人工植被对土壤质量的影响[J]. 生态学杂志, 2014, 33(6):1487−1491.

Wang G L, Wang Q C. Effects of artificial vegetation types on soil quality in loess hilly area in northern Shanxi Province[J]. Chinese Journal of Ecology, 2014, 33(6): 1487−1491.
[35] 程瑞梅, 肖文发, 王晓荣, 等. 三峡库区植被不同演替阶段的土壤养分特征[J]. 林业科学, 2010, 46(9):1−6. doi:  10.11707/j.1001-7488.20100901

Cheng R M, Xiao W F, Wang X R, et al. Soil nutrient characteristics in different vegetation successional stages of Three Gorges Reservoir area[J]. Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 2010, 46(9): 1−6. doi:  10.11707/j.1001-7488.20100901
[36] 耿玉清, 余新晓, 岳永杰, 等. 北京山地森林的土壤养分状况[J]. 林业科学, 2010, 46(5):169−175. doi:  10.11707/j.1001-7488.20100527

Geng Y Q, Yu X X, Yue Y J, et al. Variation of forest soil nutrient content in mountainous areas, Beijing[J]. Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 2010, 46(5): 169−175. doi:  10.11707/j.1001-7488.20100527
[37] 耿玉清, 白翠霞, 赵铁蕊, 等. 北京八达岭地区土壤酶活性及其与土壤肥力的关系[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2006, 28(5):7−11. doi:  10.3321/j.issn:1000-1522.2006.05.002

Geng Y Q, Bai C X, Zhao T R, et al. Soil enzyme activity and its relationship with the soil fertility in Badaling Mountain Area of Beijing[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2006, 28(5): 7−11. doi:  10.3321/j.issn:1000-1522.2006.05.002
[38] 李玥, 张金池, 李奕建, 等. 上海市沿海防护林下土壤养分、微生物及酶的典型相关关系[J]. 生态环境学报, 2010, 19(2):360−366. doi:  10.3969/j.issn.1674-5906.2010.02.020

Li Y, Zhang J C, Li Y J, et al. Canonical correlations of soil nutrients, microorganism and enzyme activity of coastal protective forest in Shanghai[J]. Ecology and Environment Science, 2010, 19(2): 360−366. doi:  10.3969/j.issn.1674-5906.2010.02.020
[39] 叶协锋, 杨超, 李正, 等. 绿肥对植烟土壤酶活性及土壤肥力的影响[J]. 植物营养与肥料学报, 2013, 19(2):445−454. doi:  10.11674/zwyf.2013.0222

Ye X F, Yang C, Li Z, et al. Effects of green manure in corporation on soil enzyme activities and fertility in tobacco-planting soils[J]. Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer Science, 2013, 19(2): 445−454. doi:  10.11674/zwyf.2013.0222
[40] 孙双红, 陈立新, 李少博, 等. 阔叶红松林不同演替阶段土壤酶活性与养分特征及其相关性[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2016, 38(2):20−28.

Sun S H, Chen L X, Li S B, et al. Characteristics of soil enzyme activity and nutrient content and their correlations at different succession stages of broadleaf-Korean pine forest[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2016, 38(2): 20−28.