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北京鹫峰景观格局空间特征与森林火险的关联分析

陈羚 陈锋 牛树奎 李连强 陶长森

陈羚, 陈锋, 牛树奎, 李连强, 陶长森. 北京鹫峰景观格局空间特征与森林火险的关联分析[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2021, 43(6): 41-49. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20180431
引用本文: 陈羚, 陈锋, 牛树奎, 李连强, 陶长森. 北京鹫峰景观格局空间特征与森林火险的关联分析[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2021, 43(6): 41-49. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20180431
Chen Ling, Chen Feng, Niu Shukui, Li Lianqiang, Tao Changsen. Correlation analysis between the spatial characteristics of landscape pattern and risk of forest fire in Jiufeng Forest Park of Beijing[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2021, 43(6): 41-49. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20180431
Citation: Chen Ling, Chen Feng, Niu Shukui, Li Lianqiang, Tao Changsen. Correlation analysis between the spatial characteristics of landscape pattern and risk of forest fire in Jiufeng Forest Park of Beijing[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2021, 43(6): 41-49. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20180431

北京鹫峰景观格局空间特征与森林火险的关联分析

doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20180431
基金项目: 林业科技推广项目(2015−04)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    陈羚。主要研究方向:林火生态。Email:718843268@qq.com 地址:100083 北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学生态与自然保护学院

    责任作者:

    陈锋,讲师。主要研究方向:林火生态。Email:chenfeng1208bjfu.edu.cn 地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S762.1

Correlation analysis between the spatial characteristics of landscape pattern and risk of forest fire in Jiufeng Forest Park of Beijing

  • 摘要:   目的  研究景观格局空间特征与森林火险的关系与影响,为深入研究基于景观尺度的森林空间布局对降低森林火灾风险的影响奠定理论基础。  方法  本研究以北京市鹫峰林场区域为研究对象,利用层次分析法计算森林火险指数并做火险等级评价,提取景观尺度下景观格局信息,探索各景观指数与森林火险指数的关系。先对所获得的GF-1高峰一号遥感影像进行预处理并分类,得到鹫峰土地利用分类图。利用Fragstats4.2计算林场各小班的景观指数,用层次分析法结合二类清查资料计算各个小班火险指数,并对火险分5个等级。统计各火险等级的景观指数,采用灰色关联度分析和相关性分析法,研究景观格局空间特征与森林火险指数的关系。  结果  (1)景观形状指数LSI,景观丰度指数PR,香浓多样性指数SHDI在低火险区最大值最高。说明在一定程度上斑块形状越复杂,景观分割度越大,生物多样性越大,阻火性能越好。(2)在低火险区,7种景观指数(斑块数量NP,斑块密度PD,蔓延度CONTAG,景观分割度DIVISION,景观丰度PR,景观丰都密度PRD,香浓多样性SHDI)对森林火险的线性影响均不大;在中火险等级区域中,与森林火险指数的关联度最低的是斑块密度指数PD,关联度最高的是景观丰度密度指数PRD。在较低火险等级(II),高(IV)、较高火险(V)等级中,均是斑块密度指数PD与森林火险指数的关联度最小,PR与森林火险指数关联度最大,PR与森林火险指数相关系数分别为−0.452和−0.497呈负相关,相关性较显著,说明景观异质性随着景观要素种类增多而提高,景观异质性越高,森林火灾发生的危险性越小。  结论  在一定程度上,景观斑块密度越大,景观丰度越高,蔓延度越低,越不容易发生火灾,在火灾中抗干扰能力和阻碍能力最强。景观格局内异质性低、生物多样性少则更容易发生火灾。通过对众多景观指数与森林火险指数的灰色关联度和相关性计算,筛选更能表征与森林抗火性有关的指数,其中蔓延度指数CONTAG,景观分割度指数DIVISION,香农多样性指数SHDI,景观丰度PR和景观丰度密度指数PRD等能更好的表达对森林景观的抗火性。

     

  • 图  1  北京市鹫峰林场土地利用类型

    Figure  1.  Land use types in Jiufeng Forest Farm, Beijing

    图  2  森林火险指数划分层次图

    Figure  2.  Classification diagram of forest fire risk index

    图  3  不同森林火险等级景观水平指数统计

    Figure  3.  Statistics of land landscape pattern index with different forest fire danger classes

    表  1  森 林火险准则层判断矩阵

    Table  1.   Criterion layer judgment matrix for forest fire risk

    项目
    Item
    地形因素
    Terrain factor (B1)
    可燃物性质
    Characteristics of
    fuel (B2)
    权重
    Weight (Wi)
    地形因素
    Terrain factor (B1)
    1 1/5 0.168
    可燃物性质
    Characteristics of fuel (B2)
    5 1 0.833
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  判断矩阵-地形因素

    Table  2.   Judgment matrix for terrain factors

    项目
    Item
    坡度
    Slope degree (C1)
    坡向
    Slope aspect (C2)
    海拔
    Altitude
    (C3)
    权重
    Weight
    (Wi)
    坡度
    Slope degree (C1)
    1 1/9 1/3 0.070
    坡向
    Slope aspect (C2)
    9 1 5 0.751
    海拔
    Altitude (C3)
    3 1/5 1 0.178
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  判断矩阵-可燃物性质

    Table  3.   Judgment matrix for characteristics of fuel

    项目
    Item
    树种
    Tree species
    (C4)
    胸径
    DBH
    (C5)
    郁闭度
    Canopy density
    (C6)
    权重
    Weight
    (Wi)
    树种
    Tree species (C4)
    1 3 1/5 0.188
    胸径
    DBH (C5)
    1/3 1 1/7 0.081
    郁闭度
    Canopy density (C6)
    5 7 1 0.731
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  各指标对森林火险的权重

    Table  4.   Weight of indexes to the risk of forest fire

    评判指标 Judgment index郁闭度 Canopy density树种 Tree species坡向 Slope aspect胸径 DBH海拔 Altitude坡度 Slope degree
    权重 Weight0.6090.1570.1250.0680.0300.012
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  可燃物因子的赋值

    Table  5.   Assignment of fuel factor

    胸径
    DBH/cm
    赋值
    Assignment
    郁闭度
    Canopy density
    赋值
    Assignment
    树种
    Tree species
    赋值
    Assignment
    20 ~ 25 1 0.8 ~ 1.0 1 板栗 Castanea mollissima山桃 Amygdalus davidiana
    山杏 Armeniaca sibirica
    1
    15 ~ 20 3 0.6 ~ 0.8 3 五角枫 Acer mono ,栓皮栎 Quercus variabilis
    栾树 Koelreuteria paniculata,槲树 Quercus aliena
    刺槐 Robinia pseudoacacia,杨树 Populus spp.,
    黄菠萝 Phellodendron amurense
    3
    10 ~ 15 5 0.4 ~ 0.6 5 华北落叶松 Larix principis-rupprechtii 6
    5 ~ 10 7 0.2 ~ 0.4 7 华山松 Pinus armandii 7
    0 ~ 5 9 0 ~ 0.2 9 侧柏 Platycladus orientalis,油松 Pinus tabuliformis 8
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  各地形因子的赋值

    Table  6.   Assignment of each terrain factor

    编号
    No.
    因素
    Factor
    类别
    Class
    赋值
    Assignment
    1 坡度
    Slope degree/(°)
    0 ~ 5 1
    5 ~ 15 3
    15 ~ 25 5
    25 ~ 35 7
    > 35 10
    2 海拔
    Altitude/m
    > 900 1
    800 ~ 900 3
    700 ~ 800 5
    600 ~ 700 7
    500 ~ 600 9
    0 ~ 500 10
    3 坡向
    Slope aspect
    北 North 2
    西北,东北 Northwest, northeast 4
    西,东 West, east 6
    东南,西南 Southeast, southwest 8
    南 South 10
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  火险等级划分

    Table  7.   Classification in forest fire risk

    火险等级 Forest fire risk rating低 Low
    (grade I)
    较低 Lower
    (grade II)
    中度 Moderate
    (grade III)
    高 High
    (grade IV)
    极高 Extremely high
    (grade V)
    森林火险指数 Forest fire risk index (FFR) 0 < FFR ≤ 2 2 < FFR ≤ 4 4 < FFR ≤ 6 6 < FFR ≤ 8 FFR ≥ 8
    小班数量 Number of subcompartment 11 37 25 2 19
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  景观指数与森林火险指数的相关系数和显著性

    Table  8.   Correlation coefficients and significance between landscape index and FFR

    景观指数 Landscape index低火险 Grade I较低火险 Grade II
    r P R r P R
    斑块数量 NP −0.329 0.323 0.882 0.391* 0.017 0.936
    斑块密度指数 PD −0.396 0.227 0.596 0.459** 0.004 0.640
    蔓延度指数 CONTAG −0.281 0.403 0.801 0.716** 0.000 0.866
    景观分割度指数 DIVISION −0.007 0.984 0.998 −0.643** 0.000 0.994
    景观丰度指数 PR −0.141 0.678 0.981 −0.452** 0.005 0.995
    景观丰都密度指数 PRD −0.302 0.366 0.895 0.229 0.173 0.896
    香浓多样性指数 SHDI −0.337 0.321 0.997 0.679** 0.000 0.994
    景观指数 Landscape index 中火险 Grade III 高、极高火险 Grade IV&V
    r P R r P R
    斑块数量 NP −0.458** 0.006 0.965 0.284 0.239 0.987
    斑块密度指数 PD 0.355** 0.036 0.592 0.121 0.622 0.562
    蔓延度指数 CONTAG −0.011 0.948 0.912 0.285 0.237 0.906
    景观分割度指数 DIVISION −0.266 0.123 0.993 −0.260 0.282 0.986
    景观丰度指数 PR −0.296 0.084 0.846 −0.497* 0.030 0.992
    景观丰都密度指数 PRD 0.670** 0.000 0.998 0.056 0.820 0.739
    香浓多样性指数 SHDI −0.088 0.615 0.993 0.172 0.482 0.986
    注:*表示P < 0.05显著相关。**表示P < 0.01极显著相关。Notes: * means significant correlation at P < 0.05 level, ** means significant correlation at P < 0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2018-12-25
  • 修回日期:  2019-07-08
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-06-12
  • 刊出日期:  2021-06-30

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