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锡林郭勒草原灌丛化对灌丛间地草本群落物种多样性和生物量的影响

图雅 刘艳书 朱媛君 杨晓晖 张克斌

图雅, 刘艳书, 朱媛君, 杨晓晖, 张克斌. 锡林郭勒草原灌丛化对灌丛间地草本群落物种多样性和生物量的影响[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2019, 41(10): 57-67. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180411
引用本文: 图雅, 刘艳书, 朱媛君, 杨晓晖, 张克斌. 锡林郭勒草原灌丛化对灌丛间地草本群落物种多样性和生物量的影响[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2019, 41(10): 57-67. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180411
Tuya, Liu Yanshu, Zhu Yuanjun, Yang Xiaohui, Zhang Kebin. Effects of shrub encroachment in Xilin Gol Steppe on the species diversity and biomass of herbaceous communities in shrub interspaces area[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2019, 41(10): 57-67. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180411
Citation: Tuya, Liu Yanshu, Zhu Yuanjun, Yang Xiaohui, Zhang Kebin. Effects of shrub encroachment in Xilin Gol Steppe on the species diversity and biomass of herbaceous communities in shrub interspaces area[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2019, 41(10): 57-67. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180411

锡林郭勒草原灌丛化对灌丛间地草本群落物种多样性和生物量的影响

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20180411
基金项目: 国家国际科技合作专项项目(2015DFR31130),国家重点研发计划(2016YFC0500804),国家自然科学基金项目(31200350、41471029、41271033)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    图雅。主要研究方向:荒漠生态学。Email:tuya1105@foxmail.com  地址:100083 北京市清华东路35号北京林业大学水土保持学院

    责任作者:

    张克斌,博士,教授。主要研究方向:荒漠化防治与监测、土地退化监测与评价。Email:ctccd@126.com 地址:同上

Effects of shrub encroachment in Xilin Gol Steppe on the species diversity and biomass of herbaceous communities in shrub interspaces area

  • 摘要: 目的灌丛化是全球性的热点问题,草原区灌丛化必然会改变草原生态系统的结构与功能。本文通过研究灌丛化对群落的物种多样性及生物量的影响,对后续治理和控制草原区灌丛化提供参考依据。方法对内蒙古锡林郭勒典型草原区灌丛化样地进行群落生态学调查,依据灌丛特征及灌丛间地草本群落特征,提出典型草原灌丛化指数(TSSEI),并对草原灌丛化等级进行划分,分别定义为轻度灌丛化草原(Ⅰ级)、中度灌丛化草原(Ⅱ级)和重度灌丛化草原(Ⅲ级);对不同灌丛化等级样地内的灌丛特征指标、灌丛间地草本植物群落的α多样性指数及草本群落的生物量进行单因素方差分析、Pearson相关性分析、LSD多重比较分析。结果通过分析发现:(1)Ⅰ级与Ⅱ级灌丛化样地之间的丰富度指数、Shannon-Wiener指数和Simpson多样性指数均无显著性差异,但是均显著高于Ⅲ级灌丛化样地,即当灌丛化程度从中度灌丛化向重度灌丛化发展时,灌丛间地群落的物种多样性是显著降低的,重度灌丛化样地灌丛间地群落的物种多样性最低。(2)不同灌丛化等级样地中的灌丛间地地上生物量与灌丛间地枯落物的质量均无显著性差异;灌丛间地地下生物量与灌丛间地总生物量在Ⅱ级灌丛化样地中最低,Ⅲ级灌丛化样地中最高,其中Ⅰ级灌丛化样地的灌丛间地地下生物量和灌丛间地总生物量与Ⅱ级和Ⅲ级灌丛化样地无显著差异。(3)TSSEI与Shannon-Wiener指数和Simpson指数呈极显著负相关(P < 0.01),与丰富度指数呈显著负相关(P < 0.05),与Pielou均匀度指数呈极显著正相关(P < 0.01);TSSEI与灌丛间地草本群落的地上生物量、地下生物量、灌丛间地枯落物及灌丛间地总生物量均无显著相关性。结论研究认为,典型草原轻度及中度灌丛化对于灌丛间草本群落物种多样性并不构成显著影响,重度灌丛化将显著降低灌丛间地草本群落物种多样性。典型草原灌丛化对灌丛间草本群落地上生物量及枯落物质量没有显著影响,重度灌丛化样地的草本群落地下生物量及总生物量显著高于中度灌丛化样地。典型草原灌丛化现象显著影响灌丛间地草本群落的物种多样性,而对于灌丛间地草本群落的生物量的影响较小,均不存在显著相关性。

     

  • 图  1  不同灌丛化等级样地灌丛间地草本群落物种多样性的差异

    相同小写字母表示数据间差异不显著。Same lowercase letters indicate non-significant difference between different sites.

    Figure  1.  Differences in species diversity of herbaceous communities in different shrub-level sites

    图  2  不同灌丛化等级样地灌丛间地群落生物量的差异

    Figure  2.  Differences in biomass of herbaceous communities in different shrub-level sites

    图  3  灌丛化指数与灌丛间地群落物种多样性及生物量的相关性

    H′. Shannon-Wiener多样性指数;P. Simpson多样性指数;E. Pielou均匀度指数;S. 丰富度;AGB. 灌丛间地地上生物量;LQ. 灌丛间地枯落物质量;BGB. 灌丛间地地下生物量;TB. 灌丛间地群落总生物量。H′, Shannon-Wiener diversity index; P, Simpson diversity index; E, Pielou evenness index; S, richness; AGB, aboveground biomass of shrub interspace community; LQ, quality of litter in shrub interspace community; BGB, belowground biomass of shrub interspace community; TB, total biomass of shrub interspace community.

    Figure  3.  Correlation between TSSEI and species diversity and biomass of shrub interspace community

    图  4  灌丛化指数TSSEI与灌丛间地群落物种多样性的关系

    Figure  4.  Relationship between TSSEI and species diversity of shrub interspace communities

    图  5  灌丛化指数TSSEI与灌丛间地草本群落生物量的关系

    Figure  5.  Relationship between TSSEI and biomass of shrub interspaces communities

    表  1  不同灌丛化等级样地划分标准

    Table  1.   Standards for site classification of different shrubbery grades

    灌丛化等级
    Shrub
    encroachment
    level
    TSSEI样地数
    Site
    number
    灌丛盖度
    Shrub coverage/%
    灌丛多度
    Shrub abundance
    灌丛平均高度
    Average shrub
    height/cm
    灌丛总活枝数
    Total number of live
    shrub branch
    草本植株高度
    Herbaceous
    plant height/cm
    草本群落盖度
    Herbaceous
    community
    coverage/%
    Ⅰ级 Level Ⅰ 0 ≤ TSSEI < 1.8 21 1.1 ~ 6.8 3 ~ 14 20.9 ~ 38.0 17 ~ 160 5.9 ~ 8.7 20 ~ 36
    Ⅱ级 Level Ⅱ 1.8 ≤ TSSEI < 2.3 19 2.7 ~ 10.7 5 ~ 18 19.4 ~ 42.3 90 ~ 294 5.6 ~ 8.0 17 ~ 32
    Ⅲ级 Level Ⅲ 2.3 ≤ TSSEI < 4.4 10 7.2 ~ 26.9 6 ~ 19 22.2 ~ 48.4 70 ~ 409 6.4 ~ 9.2 13 ~ 29
    注:TSSEI. 典型草原灌丛化指数。下同。Notes: TSSEI, typical steppe shrub encroachment index. The same below.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同灌丛化等级样地群落特征

    Table  2.   Community characteristics of sample sites with different shrubbery grades

    灌丛化等级
    Shrub encroach-
    ment level
    建群种
    Constructive species
    优势种
    Dominant species
    Ⅰ级 Level Ⅰ 野韭 Allium ramosum、羊草 Leymus chinensis、寸草苔 Carex duriuscula、西北针茅 Stipa sareptana var. krylovii 糙隐子草 Cleistogenes squarrosa、天门冬 Asparagus cochinchinensis、蒺藜 Tribulus terrester、蒙古葱 Allium mongolicum
    Ⅱ级 Level Ⅱ 寸草苔 Carex duriuscula、野韭 Allium ramosum、双齿葱 Allium bidentatum、知母 Anermarrhena asphodeloides、天门冬 Asparagus cochinchinensis、糙隐子草 Cleistogenes squarrosa 木地肤 Kochia prostrata、西北针茅 Stipa sareptana var. krylovii、羊草 Leymus chinensis、狗尾草 Setaria viridis
    Ⅲ级 Level Ⅲ 糙隐子草 Cleistogenes squarrosa、寸草苔 Carex duriuscula、冰草 Agropyron cristatum、野韭 Allium ramosum 狗尾草 Setaria viridis、灰绿藜 Chenopodium glaucum、天门冬 Asparagus cochinchinensis、矮葱 Allium anisopodium、羊草 Leymus chinensis、黄蒿 Artemisia annua
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2018-12-11
  • 修回日期:  2019-03-20
  • 网络出版日期:  2019-09-03
  • 刊出日期:  2019-10-01

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