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基于生态系统服务功能模拟演算的绿色空间规划框架

李方正 刘阳 施瑶 胡凯富 郑曦

李方正, 刘阳, 施瑶, 胡凯富, 郑曦. 基于生态系统服务功能模拟演算的绿色空间规划框架————以北京市浅山区为例[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2019, 41(11): 125-136. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20190149
引用本文: 李方正, 刘阳, 施瑶, 胡凯富, 郑曦. 基于生态系统服务功能模拟演算的绿色空间规划框架————以北京市浅山区为例[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2019, 41(11): 125-136. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20190149
Li Fangzheng, Liu Yang, Shi Yao, Hu Kaifu, Zheng Xi. Construction of green space planning framework based on ecosystem service function simulation: a case study of shallow mountain area in Beijing[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2019, 41(11): 125-136. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20190149
Citation: Li Fangzheng, Liu Yang, Shi Yao, Hu Kaifu, Zheng Xi. Construction of green space planning framework based on ecosystem service function simulation: a case study of shallow mountain area in Beijing[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2019, 41(11): 125-136. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20190149

基于生态系统服务功能模拟演算的绿色空间规划框架

————以北京市浅山区为例

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20190149
基金项目: 北京市科技计划项目(D171100000217003)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    李方正,博士,讲师。主要研究方向:风景园林与城乡规划学。Email:375066107@qq.com 地址:100083北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学园林学院

    责任作者:

    郑曦,教授,博士生导师。主要研究方向:风景园林学。Email:zhengxi@bjfu.edu.cn  地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S731.1

Construction of green space planning framework based on ecosystem service function simulation: a case study of shallow mountain area in Beijing

  • 摘要: 目的在快速城镇化以及全球气候变化的背景下,生态环境不断恶化给人类生活和健康带来了巨大的影响。生态系统服务功能评估作为一种应对气候变化、构建绿色宜居生存环境的方法得到推广。建立基于生态系统服务功能模拟演算的绿色空间规划框架,对于客观评价绿色空间的服务功能、构建可持续发展的绿色空间网络具有科学的指导意义。方法本文在总结国内外学者相关研究的基础上,以北京市浅山地区为例,构建基于生态系统服务功能评估的绿色空间规划框架,选取缓解热岛效应、水土保持、固碳释氧、气候调节、生物多样性保护、文化娱乐6种功能指标,采用径流系数公式计算、MaxEnt模型模拟等方法进行评价,识别区域不同服务类型的关键绿色空间位置并提出适宜的绿色空间类型,最后通过构建游憩绿道以及生态廊道加强绿色空间联系,完善绿色空间布局。结果不同类型生态系统服务效益空间分布呈现一定差异性,根据不同区域提供的服务差异划定湿地公园、森林公园、郊野公园、城市公园、地质公园、风景名胜区以及生态保育绿地7种绿色空间类型,新增6条绿道(195 km)连接平原与浅山区,在温泉镇、延寿镇、十三陵镇、峪口镇等村镇构建生态廊道,建立以目标动物保护为目的的线性绿色空间。结论绿色空间能够提供多种重要的生态系统服务功能,构建绿色空间规划框架对于加强落实浅山区生态优先的发展战略,推动形成可持续的绿色发展方式有重要意义。

     

  • 图  1  研究框架

    Figure  1.  Research framework

    图  2  热岛分布

    Figure  2.  Distribution of heat island

    图  3  植被释氧量分布

    Figure  3.  Distribution of oxygen release from vegetation

    图  4  通风潜力分布

    Figure  4.  Ventilation potential distribution

    图  5  水土保持分布

    Figure  5.  Soil and water conservation distribution

    图  6  生境适宜性

    Figure  6.  Habitat suitability

    图  7  游憩空间适宜性

    Figure  7.  Suitability of recreational space

    图  8  平原−浅山绿道联动

    Figure  8.  Plain-shallow mountain greenway linkage

    图  9  生态廊道连接区域

    Figure  9.  Ecological corridor connection areas

    表  1  主要研究方法和技术手段

    Table  1.   Main research methods and technical means

    类型 Type方法 Method具体内容 Concrete content
    指数分析法
    Exponential analysis
    指标分析
    Index analysis
    土地利用变化率、土地利用程度、景观格局指数、径流系数等
    Land use change rate, land use degree, landscape pattern index, runoff coefficient, etc.
    数学方法分析
    Mathematical method
    相关分析与多元回归分析、主成分分析、敏感性分析
    Correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, principal component analysis and sensitivity analysis
    市场价值法
    Market value method
    直接市场价值法
    Direct market value method
    生态系统提供的服务可以根据实际或替代物质量的价值市场价格直接进行衡量
    Services provided by ecosystems can be measured directly according to the value market price of actual or alternative substances
    间接市场价值法
    Indirect market value method
    通过估算其替代品的价值对生态系统服务进行间接估算,其中最常用的包括机会成本法、生产成本法、影子工程法
    Indirect estimates of ecosystem services are made by estimating the value of alternatives, including opportunity cost method, production cost method and shadow engineering method
    模型模拟法
    Model simulation method
    Maxent 模拟物种潜在区域,进行生物多样性评估
    Simulating potential areas of species for biodiversity assessment
    生态检测分析
    Ecotect Analysis
    模拟通风潜力区域
    Simulated ventilation potential area
    i-TREE 对森林生态效益、经济效益评估
    Assessment of ecological and economic benefits of forests
    耗费距离模型
    Consumption distance model
    模拟重要生态廊道,优化城市景观结构
    Simulating the important ecological corridor and optimizing the urban landscape structure
    动态情景模拟分析Dynamic simulation scenario analysis InVEST 模拟不同土地覆被情景下生态服务系统物质量和价值量的变化
    Simulating the changes of material and value of ecosystem services under different land cover scenarios
    CLUE-S、FLUS 兼顾土地利用系统中的社会经济和生物物理驱动因子, 并在空间上反映土地利用变化的过程和结果
    Considering socio-economic and biophysical driving factors in land use system and reflecting the process and results of land use change in space
    CA_MARKOV 对土地利用结构数量及空间分布进行预测
    Predicting the quantity and spatial distribution of land use structure
    LCM 快速分析土地覆盖变化,根据经验建模与解释变量的关系,并模拟未来的土地变化情景
    Rapid analysis of land cover change, empirical modeling and interpretation of the relationship between variables, and simulation of future land change scenarios
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  基于生态系统服务的绿色空间评价指标

    Table  2.   Green space evaluation indicators based on ecosystem services

    服务功能
    Ecosystem services
    功能内涵
    Functional connotation
    指标
    Index
    指标描述
    Indicator description
    绿色空间类型
    Types of green space
    调节服务
    Adjustment services
    生态系统为人类提供诸如维持空气质量、调节气候、控制侵蚀以及净化水源等调节性效益
    Regulatory benefits of ecosystem for human beings, including maintaining air quality, regulating climate, controlling erosion, and purifying water source
    缓解热岛效益
    Mitigation of heat island effect
    低于最热月平均温度
    Below the hottest monthly mean temperature
    森林公园、湿地公园、生态保育绿地
    Forest park, wetland park, ecological conservation green space
    水土保持效益
    Water and soil conservation effect
    计算土壤径流系数进行评价
    Calculating runoff coefficient and evaluating
    固碳释氧效益
    Carbon fixation and oxygen release effect
    年平均固碳释氧量
    Average annual carbon sequestration and oxygen release
    调节气候效益
    Climate regulation effect
    通风潜力大小
    Ventilation potential
    支持服务
    Support services
    生态系统生产和支撑其他服务功能的基础功能
    Basic functions of ecosystem production and supporting other service functions
    保护生物多样性效益
    Conservation of biodiversity effect
    栖息地适宜性评价
    Habitat suitability assessment
    森林公园、湿地公园、生态保育绿地
    Forest park, wetland park, ecological conservation green space
    文化服务
    Cultural services
    通过丰富精神生活、发展认知、休闲娱乐,以及美学欣赏等方式而使人类从生态系统获得的非物质效益
    Non-material benefits of mankind from ecosystem, including enriching spiritual life, developing cognition, recreation and entertainment, and aesthetic appreciation, etc
    娱乐机会
    Entertainment opportunities
    道路可达性
    Road accessibility
    风景名胜区、地质公园、城市公园、郊野公园
    Scenic spots, geoparks, urban parks, country parks
    文化美学效益
    Cultural aesthetics effect
    文化遗产、旅游景区核密度分析
    Analysis of nuclear density of cultural heritage and tourist scenic spots
    注:表2内容来源于参考文献[20]。Note: the contents of Tab. 2 are cited from reference [20].
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同植被覆盖类型固碳能力

    Table  3.   Carbon sequestration capacity of different vegetation cover types g·d− 1

    植被类型
    Vegetation
    type
    地上部分单位固碳量
    Carbon sequestration per
    unit of aerial part
    地下部分单位固碳量
    Underground carbon
    sequestration per unit
    土壤固碳量
    Soil carbon
    sequestration
    总固碳量
    Total carbon
    sequestration
    单位释氧量
    Unit oxygen
    release
    阔叶树 Broadleaf 1.600 0.288 0.93 2.818 1.163
    针叶树 Conifer 1.554 0.342 2.63 4.526 1.130
    灌木 Shrub 0.970 0.175 0.27 1.415 0.706
    草地 Grassland 0.27 0.27
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  评价指标与阈值范围

    Table  4.   Evaluation indicators and threshold range

    指标
    Index
    日均气温差值
    Daily mean temperature
    difference (Bio2)
    温度季节变动
    Seasonal variation of
    temperature (Bio4)
    最冷季平均温度
    Average temperature in
    the coldest season (Bio11)
    坡度
    Slope
    高程
    Altitude
    归一化植被指数Normalized difference vegetation index
    (NDVI)
    阈值 Threshold< 12.25 ℃< 1 157< − 2.2 ℃> 3°> 50 m> 0.43
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  关键绿色空间类型划分

    Table  5.   Classification of key green space types

    生态系统服务功能
    Ecosystem service function
    缓解热岛效应
    Mitigation of heat island effect
    固碳释氧
    Carbon fixation and oxygen release
    通风潜力
    Ventilation potential
    绿色空间类型
    Types of green space
    湿地公园、森林公园
    Wetland park, forest park
    湿地公园、森林公园
    Wetland park, forest park
    湿地公园、森林公园、郊野公园、城市公园
    Wetland park, forest park, country park,
    urban park
    生态系统服务功能
    Ecosystem service function
    生物多样性保护
    Biodiversity conservation
    水土保持
    Water and soil conservation
    休闲游憩
    Recreation
    绿色空间类型
    Types of green space
    生态保育绿地、湿地公园、森林公园
    Ecological conservation green space, wetland park, forest park
    生态保育绿地、湿地公园
    Ecological conservation green space, wetland park
    风景名胜区、森林公园、湿地公园、郊野公园、城市公园、地质公园
    Scenic spots, forest park, wetland park, country park, urban park, geological park
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  新增绿道长度

    Table  6.   Length of the newly added greenway

    编号 No.123456
    长度 Length/km46713113758
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2019-03-19
  • 修回日期:  2019-07-30
  • 网络出版日期:  2019-10-17
  • 刊出日期:  2019-11-01

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