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云南省建水县防火树种筛选研究

顾汪明 卢泽洋 黄春良 李逸凡 关颖慧

顾汪明, 卢泽洋, 黄春良, 李逸凡, 关颖慧. 云南省建水县防火树种筛选研究[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2020, 42(2): 49-60. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20180378
引用本文: 顾汪明, 卢泽洋, 黄春良, 李逸凡, 关颖慧. 云南省建水县防火树种筛选研究[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2020, 42(2): 49-60. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20180378
Gu Wangming, Lu Zeyang, Huang Chunliang, Li Yifan, Guan Yinghui. Screening study of fire resistant tree species in Jianshui County, Yunnan Province of southwestern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2020, 42(2): 49-60. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20180378
Citation: Gu Wangming, Lu Zeyang, Huang Chunliang, Li Yifan, Guan Yinghui. Screening study of fire resistant tree species in Jianshui County, Yunnan Province of southwestern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2020, 42(2): 49-60. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20180378

云南省建水县防火树种筛选研究

doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20180378
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划课题(2016YFC0502500、2016YFC0502504)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    顾汪明。主要研究方向:土壤侵蚀与植被修复。Email: guwangming123@sina.com  地址:100083 北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学水土保持学院

    责任作者:

    关颖慧,博士,讲师。主要研究方向:气候变化与植被恢复。 Email: gyhdem@bjfu.edu.cn  地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S762

Screening study of fire resistant tree species in Jianshui County, Yunnan Province of southwestern China

  • 摘要: 目的根据云南省建水县森林火灾和造林树种组成的特点,选取当地18种主要造林树种作为研究对象,旨在筛选出适宜建水县林业发展的防火树种,以期为该区森林火灾预防提供一定的理论依据。方法以含水率、粗脂肪、灰分等树种的理化性质和燃烧性能,树冠浓密稀疏、叶质地厚薄、树皮厚度等树种的生物学、生态学特性,自然更新能力、种苗来源、造林技术等树种的造林学特性共16项指标作为评价因子,采用典型采样、选点调查、实验测定、层次分析等方法对18种树种的防火性能进行综合评判。结果按照防火性能综合评价结果,通过聚类分析可以将树种分为4类。Ⅰ类(最优防火树种):火力楠、黄连木、油茶、短萼海桐,是营造防火林带的首选树种;Ⅱ类(较优防火树种):厚皮香、石楠、女贞、滇青冈、山矾,可作为防火树种营造生物防火林带;Ⅲ类(一般防火树种):红叶乌桕、麻栎、栓皮栎、清香木,难以作为防火树种大量种植,但可用于营林防火;Ⅳ类(非防火树种):云南松、白枪杆、蓝桉、马尾松、侧柏,防火性能差,不宜作为防火树种,应予保护。结论针对目前建水县林分结构单一、纯林面积大的林分组成特点,建议未来可以I类和II类防火树种为主营建生物防火林带,以达到阻隔林火蔓延的目的;III类树种的防火性能一般,实地可根据立地条件和地域特征与I类和II类防火树种搭配栽植。

     

  • 图  1  树种防火性能综合评判指标体系

    Figure  1.  Comprehensive evaluation index system for fire resistance of tree species

    图  2  防火树种聚类分析图

    Figure  2.  Cluster analysis graph of fire-proof tree species

    表  1  平均随机一致性指标(RI)的取值

    Table  1.   Values of average random consistency index RI

    阶数 OrderRI
    1 0
    2 0
    3 0.58
    4 0.9
    5 1.12
    6 1.24
    7 1.32
    8 1.41
    9 1.45
    10 1.49
    11 1.51
    12 1.48
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  B层指标的判断矩阵

    Table  2.   Distinguishing matrix of B layer

    A层
    Layer A
    抗火因子
    Fire resistant factor (B1)
    生物生态学特性
    Bioecology characteristics (B2)
    造林经济学特性
    Characteristics of afforestation
    economics (B3)
    抗火因子
    Fire resistance factor (B1)
    157
    生物生态学特性
    Bioecology characteristics (B2)
    1/513
    造林经济学特性
    Characteristics of afforestation economics (B3)
    1/71/31
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  造林学特性的判断矩阵

    Table  5.   Distinguishing matrix of silvicultural characteristics of diverse tree species

    造林经济学特性
    Characteristics of afforestation
    economics (B3)
    经济性状
    Economic
    characters (C13)
    自然更新能力
    Natural renewal
    capability (C14)
    种苗来源
    Source of
    seedlings (C15)
    造林技术
    Afforestation
    technology (C16)
    经济性状 Economic characters (C13)121/21/3
    自然更新能力 Natural renewal capability (C14)1/211/31/3
    种苗来源 Source of seedlings (C15 )2312
    造林技术 Afforestation Technology (C16)331/21
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  树种燃烧特性的判断矩阵

    Table  3.   Distinguishing matrix of combustibility

    抗火因子
    Fire resistance factor (B1)
    含水率
    Water content (C1)
    燃点
    Ignition point (C2)
    热值
    Calorific value (C3)
    粗灰分
    Crude ash (C4)
    粗脂肪
    Crude fat (C5)
    含水率 Water content (C1)12395
    燃点 Ignition point (C2)1/21283
    热值 Calorific value (C3)1/31/2121
    粗灰分 Crude ash (C4)1/91/81/211/4
    粗脂肪 Crude fat (C5)1/51/3141
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  树种生物学生态学特性的判断矩阵

    Table  4.   Distinguishing matrix of biological and ecological characteristics of diverse tree species

    生物生态学特性
    Bioecology
    characteristics (B2)
    树冠疏密度
    Density of crown
    cover (C6)
    叶大小厚薄
    Leaf size and thickness (C7)
    树皮厚薄
    Bark thickness (C8)
    生长快慢
    Growth rate (C9)
    环境适应性
    Environmental adaptability (C10)
    萌芽力
    Sprouting ability (C11)
    自然整枝力
    Naturalpruning
    force (C12)
    树冠疏密度
    Density of crown cover (C6)
    12231/331/2
    叶大小、厚薄
    Leaf size and thickness (C7)
    1/21221/61/21/3
    树皮厚薄
    Bark thickness (C8)
    1/21/211/21/521/5
    生长快慢
    Growth rate (C9)
    1/31/2211/221/2
    环境适应性
    Environmental adaptability (C10)
    3652152
    萌芽力
    Sprouting ability (C11)
    1/321/21/21/511/5
    自然整枝力
    Natural pruning force (C12)
    23521/251
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  树种防火性能综合评判各指标权重

    Table  6.   Comprehensive evaluation index weight of fire resistance of tree species

    A 层
    Layer A
    B 层指标
    Layer B index
    权重 WeightC 层指标
    Layer C index
    权重 Weight总权重
    Total weight
    树种防火性能综合评判指标
    Comprehensive evaluation
    index of fire protection
    performance of tree species
    抗火因子
    Fire resistance factor (B1)
    0.696 1 含水率 Water content (C1) 0.417 1 0.290 2
    燃点 Ignition point (C2) 0.303 2 0.210 9
    热值 Calorific value (C3) 0.101 3 0.070 3
    粗灰分 Crude ash (C4) 0.042 4 0.029 2
    粗脂肪 Crude fat (C5) 0.137 2 0.095 4
    生物生态学特性
    Bioecology characteristics (B2)
    0.225 2 树冠疏密度 Density of crown cover (C6) 0.153 0 0.034 4
    叶大小、厚薄 Leaf size and thickness (C7) 0.084 3 0.018 9
    树皮厚薄 Bark thickness (C8) 0.064 1 0.014 4
    生长快慢 Growth rate (C9) 0.088 0 0.019 8
    环境适应性 Environmental adaptability (C10) 0.311 4 0.070 0
    萌芽力 Sprouting ability (C11) 0.061 4 0.013 7
    自然整枝力 Natural pruning force (C12) 0.239 3 0.053 8
    造林学经济学特性
    Characteristics of
    afforestation economics (B3)
    0.079 4 经济性状 Economic characters (C13) 0.178 2 0.014 1
    自然更新能力 Natural renewal capability (C14) 0.101 4 0.008 0
    种苗来源 Source of seedlings (C15) 0.372 3 0.029 4
    造林技术 Afforestation technology (C16) 0.349 1 0.027 6
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  理化性质及燃烧性能指标测定值

    Table  7.   Physicochemical properties and combustion performance indicators

    树种
    Tree species
    含水率
    Water content
    (C1)/%
    燃点
    Ignition point
    (C2)/℃
    热值
    Calorific value
    (C3)/(kJ·kg− 1)
    粗灰分
    Crude ash
    (C4)/%
    粗脂肪
    Crude fat
    (C5)/%
    女贞 Ligustrum lucidum51.56242.1020 416.105.283.29
    栓皮栎 Quercus variabilis45.46231.4022 267.205.493.96
    滇青冈 Cyclobalanopsis glaucoides49.69241.1022 095.405.022.97
    石楠 Photinia serrulata52.35242.8020 752.205.573.77
    麻栎 Quercus acutissima46.49223.5022 259.404.113.77
    厚皮香 Ternstroemia gymnanthera50.86252.8020 304.805.403.57
    短萼海桐 Pittosporum brevicalyx55.58245.1020 731.405.913.42
    侧柏 Platycladus orientalis45.60222.5022 919.206.1211.03
    油茶 Camellia oleifera52.99260.7019 066.306.922.26
    火力楠 Michelia macclurei53.41255.9018 634.806.103.52
    蓝桉 Eucalyptus globulus44.50224.6023 428.402.675.71
    云南松 Pinus yunnanensis47.12222.7021 624.602.745.56
    马尾松 Pinus massoniana43.55228.3025 056.202.925.24
    白枪杆 Fraxinus malacophylla43.96225.8020 856.404.655.35
    红叶乌桕 Euphorbia cotinifolia50.34232.1021 623.205.234.58
    清香木 Pistacia weinmannifolia47.57230.1024 246.204.873.47
    黄连木 Pistacia chinensis53.14255.3019 034.406.692.63
    山矾 Symplocos sumuntia46.92252.6021 152.109.833.21
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  理化性质及燃烧性能综合评价

    Table  8.   Comprehensive evaluation of physicochemical properties and combustion performance

    树种
    Tree species
    含水率
    Water content
    (C1)/%
    燃点
    Ignition point (C2)/℃
    热值
    Calorific value (C3)/(kJ·kg− 1)
    粗灰分
    Crude ash (C4)/%
    粗脂肪
    Crude fat (C5)/%
    综合评价值
    Comprehensive
    evaluation value (U1)
    油茶
    Camellia oleifera
    0.806 3 1.000 0 0.939 6 0.633 9 1.000 0 0.624 9
    火力楠
    Michelia macclurei
    0.837 6 0.886 9 1.000 0 0.531 4 0.871 9 0.599 1
    黄连木
    Pistacia chinensis
    0.817 4 0.872 8 0.944 0 0.605 0 0.962 0 0.597 1
    短萼海桐
    Pittosporum brevicalyx
    1.000 0 0.630 1 0.7061 0.507 5 0.880 9 0.571 6
    厚皮香
    Ternstroemia gymnanthera
    0.647 0 0.813 9 0.765 9 0.443 7 0.865 6 0.508 8
    石楠
    Photinia serrulata
    0.758 5 0.578 3 0.703 2 0.464 9 0.844 9 0.485 7
    女贞
    Ligustrum lucidum
    0.699 3 0.559 4 0.750 3 0.428 5 0.893 9 0.471 5
    山矾
    Symplocos sumuntia
    0.351 9 0.809 2 0.647 2 1.000 0 0.903 0 0.433 6
    滇青冈
    Cyclobalanopsis glaucoides
    0.559 2 0.538 2 0.515 0 0.395 7 0.927 0 0.412 2
    红叶乌桕
    Euphorbia cotinifolia
    0.607 8 0.326 2 0.581 1 0.422 6 0.762 1 0.371 1
    清香木
    Pistacia weinmannifolia
    0.400 7 0.279 1 0.213 5 0.377 1 0.876 1 0.284 7
    栓皮栎
    Quercus variabilis
    0.242 8 0.309 7 0.490 9 0.454 9 0.825 8 0.262 4
    麻栎
    Quercus acutissima
    0.320 2 0.123 6 0.492 0 0.281 6 0.844 7 0.242 4
    云南松
    Pinus yunnanensis
    0.358 1 0.104 7 0.580 9 0.108 8 0.661 1 0.233 1
    白枪杆
    Fraxinus malacophylla
    0.130 7 0.177 7 0.688 6 0.349 3 0.683 0 0.199 2
    蓝桉
    Eucalyptus globulus
    0.171 1 0.149 5 0.328 1 0.100 0 0.646 1 0.168 8
    马尾松
    Pinus massoniana
    0.100 0 0.236 6 0.100 0 0.131 7 0.694 6 0.156 1
    侧柏
    Platycladus orientalis
    0.253 6 0.100 0 0.399 5 0.533 5 0.100 0 0.147 9
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  9  生物学、生态学特性综合评价值

    Table  9.   Comprehensive evaluation values of biological and ecological characteristics

    树种
    Tree species
    树冠浓密
    Dense
    crown (C6)
    叶大小厚薄
    Leaf size and
    thickness (C7)
    树皮厚薄
    Bark thickness (C8)
    生长快慢
    Growth
    rate (C9)
    环境适应性
    Environmental
    adaptability (C10)
    萌芽力
    Sprouting
    ability (C11)
    自然整枝力
    Natural
    pruning
    force (C12)
    综合评价值
    Comprehensive
    evaluation
    value (U2)
    滇青冈 Cyclobalanopsis glaucoides 1.000 0 0.550 0 0.550 0 1.000 0 1.000 0 1.000 0 1.000 0 0.210 0
    火力楠
    Michelia macclurei
    1.000 0 0.550 0 0.550 0 1.000 0 0.550 0 1.000 0 1.000 0 0.178 5
    短萼海桐
    Pittosporum brevicalyx
    1.000 0 0.550 0 0.550 0 0.550 0 1.000 0 0.550 0 0.550 0 0.170 7
    麻栎
    Quercus acutissima
    0.550 0 0.550 0 0.550 0 1.000 0 1.000 0 1.000 0 0.550 0 0.170 3
    黄连木
    Pistacia chinensis
    1.000 0 0.100 0 0.550 0 0.550 0 1.000 0 1.000 0 0.550 0 0.168 4
    栓皮栎
    Quercus variabilis
    0.550 0 0.550 0 1.000 0 0.550 0 1.000 0 1.000 0 0.550 0 0.167 9
    女贞
    Ligustrum lucidum
    1.000 0 1.000 0 0.550 0 1.000 0 0.550 0 1.000 0 0.550 0 0.162 8
    厚皮香
    Ternstroemia gymnanthera
    0.550 0 1.000 0 1.000 0 0.550 0 0.550 0 0.100 0 1.000 0 0.156 8
    石楠
    Photinia serrulata
    1.000 0 0.550 0 0.550 0 0.550 0 0.550 0 1.000 0 0.550 0 0.145 4
    清香木
    Pistacia weinmannifolia
    0.550 0 0.100 0 0.550 0 0.100 0 0.550 0 1.000 0 1.000 0 0.136 7
    云南松
    Pinus yunnanensis
    0.550 0 0.100 0 0.100 0 0.550 0 0.550 0 0.550 0 1.000 0 0.133 0
    马尾松
    Pinus massoniana
    0.100 0 0.100 0 0.100 0 1.000 0 0.550 0 1.000 0 1.000 0 0.132 6
    蓝桉
    Eucalyptus globulus
    0.550 0 0.550 0 0.100 0 1.000 0 0.550 0 1.000 0 0.550 0 0.132 3
    山矾
    Symplocos sumuntia
    1.000 0 0.550 0 0.100 0 0.550 0 0.100 0 1.000 0 1.000 0 0.131 6
    油茶
    Camellia oleifera
    0.550 0 0.550 0 0.550 0 0.550 0 0.550 0 1.000 0 0.550 0 0.129 9
    白枪杆
    Fraxinus malacophylla
    0.550 0 0.550 0 0.100 0 0.550 0 0.550 0 0.550 0 0.550 0 0.117 3
    侧柏
    Platycladus orientalis
    0.550 0 0.100 0 0.100 0 0.100 0 0.550 0 1.000 0 0.550 0 0.106 0
    红叶乌桕
    Euphorbia cotinifolia
    0.550 0 0.550 0 0.550 0 0.100 0 0.550 0 0.550 0 0.100 0 0.090 6
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  10  造林学特性综合评价值

    Table  10.   Comprehensive evaluation of afforestation characteristics

    树种
    Tree species
    经济性状
    Economic
    characters (C13)
    自然更新能力
    Natural renewal
    capability (C14)
    种苗来源
    Source of
    seedlings (C15)
    造林技术
    Afforestation
    technology (C16)
    综合评价值
    Comprehensive
    evaluation value (U3 )
    麻栎 Quercus acutissima 0.100 0 0.100 0 1.000 0 1.000 0 0.059 2
    火力楠 Michelia macclurei 0.100 0 0.100 0 1.000 0 1.000 0 0.059 2
    石楠 Photinia serrulata 0.100 0 0.100 0 0.550 0 1.000 0 0.046 0
    侧柏 Platycladus orientalis 0.100 0 0.100 0 0.550 0 1.000 0 0.046 0
    栓皮栎 Quercus variabilis 0.100 0 0.100 0 1.000 0 0.100 0 0.034 4
    短萼海桐 Pittosporum brevicalyx 0.100 0 0.100 0 1.000 0 0.100 0 0.034 4
    女贞 Ligustrum lucidum 1.000 0 0.100 0 0.550 0 0.100 0 0.033 8
    滇青冈 Cyclobalanopsis glaucoides 1.000 0 0.100 0 0.550 0 0.100 0 0.033 8
    油茶 Camellia oleifera 1.000 0 0.100 0 0.550 0 0.100 0 0.033 8
    蓝桉 Eucalyptus globulus 1.000 0 0.100 0 0.550 0 0.100 0 0.033 8
    白枪杆 Fraxinus malacophylla 1.000 0 0.100 0 0.550 0 0.100 0 0.033 8
    黄连木 Pistacia chinensis 1.000 0 0.100 0 0.550 0 0.100 0 0.033 8
    云南松 Pinus yunnanensis 0.100 0 1.000 0 0.550 0 0.100 0 0.028 3
    厚皮香 Ternstroemia gymnanthera 0.100 0 0.100 0 0.550 0 0.100 0 0.021 1
    红叶乌桕 Euphorbia cotinifolia 0.100 0 0.100 0 0.550 0 0.100 0 0.021 1
    清香木 Pistacia weinmannifolia 0.100 0 0.100 0 0.550 0 0.100 0 0.021 1
    山矾 Symplocos sumuntia 0.100 0 0.100 0 0.550 0 0.100 0 0.021 1
    马尾松 Pinus massoniana 1.000 0 0.100 0 1.000 0 0.100 0 0.020 6
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2018-11-21
  • 修回日期:  2019-04-15
  • 网络出版日期:  2019-09-03
  • 刊出日期:  2020-03-03

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