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北京六环内校园林木树冠覆盖与森林结构分析

李晓婷 马杰 刘佳 贾宝全 姜莎莎

李晓婷, 马杰, 刘佳, 贾宝全, 姜莎莎. 北京六环内校园林木树冠覆盖与森林结构分析[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2020, 42(3): 110-118. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20190259
引用本文: 李晓婷, 马杰, 刘佳, 贾宝全, 姜莎莎. 北京六环内校园林木树冠覆盖与森林结构分析[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2020, 42(3): 110-118. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20190259
Li Xiaoting, Ma Jie, Liu Jia, Jia Baoquan, Jiang Shasha. Analysis on tree canopy coverage and forest structure in schools within the Sixth Ring Road of Beijing[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2020, 42(3): 110-118. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20190259
Citation: Li Xiaoting, Ma Jie, Liu Jia, Jia Baoquan, Jiang Shasha. Analysis on tree canopy coverage and forest structure in schools within the Sixth Ring Road of Beijing[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2020, 42(3): 110-118. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20190259

北京六环内校园林木树冠覆盖与森林结构分析

doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20190259
基金项目: 林业公益性行业科研专项(201404301)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    李晓婷。主要研究方向:城市景观生态。Email:2459024105@qq.com  地址:100091北京市海淀区香山路东小府一号

    责任作者:

    贾宝全,博士生导师。主要研究方向:城市景观生态。Email:jiabaoquan2006@163.com  地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S731.8; Q14; X32

Analysis on tree canopy coverage and forest structure in schools within the Sixth Ring Road of Beijing

  • 摘要: 目的校园是青少年群体的主要活动场所,本文旨在通过探究校园城市森林的数量与质量基础现状,为进一步丰富城市森林内涵,提高未来的校园环境绿化质量提供理论依据和实践参考,使未来校园城市森林的建设及城市森林功能的拓展得到重视,真正满足城市青年群体的需求。方法本论文以2013年北京城区0.5 m分辨率的World -View- 2卫星影像以及树冠覆盖栅格与矢量图为数据源,对北京市六环内984所学校校园林木树冠覆盖率进行统计;并随机抽取了126所学校,对其城市森林结构进行典型样地调查,记录调查样地内乔灌木植物种类、胸径(乔木)或地径(灌木)、树高、冠幅指标,据此进行校园森林群落结构分析。结果大学、中学、小学树冠覆盖率分别为31.91%、16.52%、17.08%,潜在树冠覆盖率分别为4.81%、0.62%、0.42%。学校整体物种丰富度指数(R)、Shannon-Wiener指数(H)、Pielou指数(J)分别为6.30、1.55、0.91,大学新校区物种多样性低于老校区。校园内树木平均胸径、冠幅和树高分别为23.93 cm、6.02 m和7.80 m。结论北京市校园森林群落林木树冠覆盖低于北京市整体林木树冠覆盖水平,且潜在绿化空间不足。大学物种丰富度高于中小学,同类校园内部物种多样性差异也较大,校园绿化水平参差不齐。胸径在10 ~ 20 cm,冠幅在4 ~ 6 m以及树高在5 ~ 10 m等级的青、壮年树木在学校城市森林中的数量占比最多,树冠自然扩展的潜力较强,是今后提高校园林木树冠覆盖的后备力量。校园城市森林树冠覆盖率,树冠覆盖斑块大小,树木胸径平均值均与校园面积显著正相关。

     

  • 图  1  北京六环内全部学校与学校抽样点分布图

    Figure  1.  Distribution map of the schools and sampling school points within the Sixth Ring Road of Beijing

    图  2  不同类别校园林木树冠覆盖等级分布

    Figure  2.  Coverage level distribution of forest canopy in different kinds of schools

    图  3  校园城市森林空间结构特征

    Figure  3.  Spatial structure characteristics of school urban forests

    图  4  校园面积与林木树冠面积关系

    Figure  4.  Relations between campus area and forest canopy area

    表  1  乔木胸径、冠幅、树高分级

    Table  1.   Grading standards of arbor DBH, crown width and tree height

    等级编号
    Grade No.
    胸径等级
    DBH class/cm
    树高等级
    Tree height (H) class/m
    冠幅等级
    Crown width (G) class/m
    1DBH < 10H < 5G < 2
    210 ≤ DBH < 205 ≤ H < 102 ≤ G < 4
    320 ≤ DBH < 3010 ≤ H < 154 ≤ G < 6
    430 ≤ DBH < 4015 ≤ H < 206 ≤ G < 8
    540 ≤ DBH < 50H ≥ 208 ≤ G < 10
    6DBH ≥ 50G ≥ 10
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  校园林木树冠覆盖等级统计

    Table  2.   Statistical analysis in levels of school tree canopy coverage

    项目
    Item
    极低覆盖度
    Severe low coverage level
    低覆盖度
    Low coverage level
    中覆盖度
    Medium coverage level
    高覆盖度
    High coverage level
    极高覆盖度
    Severe high coverage level
    覆盖范围
    Coverage range/%
    < 1.5 1.5 ~ 12.012.0 ~ 22.522.5 ~ 33.0 ≥ 33.0
    数量总计
    Total number
    1933935918186
    数量占比
    Rate to total number/%
    1.9334.4536.4818.398.74
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  UTC斑块规模数量分布比例

    Table  3.   Distribution pattern of UTC patches in different school categories %

    项目
    Item
    小斑块
    Small patch
    (≤ 500 m2)
    中斑块
    Medium patch
    (500 ~ 2 000 m2)
    大斑块
    Large patch
    (2 000 ~ 10 000 m2)
    特大斑块
    Extra large patch
    (10 000 ~ 50 000 m2)
    巨斑块
    Huge patch
    (> 50 000 m2)
    大学 University77.7615.115.521.400.21
    中学 High school84.0613.032.820.090.00
    小学 Primary school87.2210.791.860.130.00
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  大学校园人均UTC分级

    Table  4.   Distribution of per capita UTC in university campus

    项目
    Item
    ≤ 2 m22 ~ 5 m25 ~ 10 m210 ~ 15 m215 ~ 20 m2> 20 m2总计 Total
    学校数量 School number15122142458
    学校数量占比 Proportion of school/%25.8620.6936.216.903.456.90100
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  校园城市森林各项多样性指数

    Table  5.   Diversity indexes of urban forests in different school categories

    项目
    Item
    丰富度指数
    Richness index (R)
    Shannon-Wiener指数
    Shannon-Wiener index (H)
    Pielou指数
    Pielou index (J)
    平均值
    Average
    变差系数
    Coefficient of variation
    平均值
    Average
    变差系数
    Coefficient of variation
    平均值
    Average
    变差系数
    Coefficient of variation
    大学 University8.900.351.930.220.910.04
    中学 High school6.700.491.590.330.870.20
    小学 Primary school6.100.541.520.350.920.09
    全部学校 Total school6.300.531.550.350.910.11
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  校园城市森林乔木平均水平

    Table  6.   Average level of urban forest trees in different school categories

    项目
    Item
    平均胸径
    Average
    DBH/cm
    平均冠幅
    Average crown width/m
    平均树高
    Average tree height/m
    大学
    University
    23.566.037.7
    中学
    High school
    23.25.867.82
    小学
    Primary school
    25.596.148.41
    全部学校
    Total school
    23.746.027.8
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  新旧校区各项指标比较

    Table  7.   Comparison in each index between old and new campuses

    项目
    Item
    丰富度指数
    Richness
    index (R)
    Shannon-Wiener指数
    Shannon-Wiener
    index (H)
    Pielou指数
    Pielou
    index (J)
    现实树冠覆盖率
    Existing canopy
    coverage (EUTCR)/%
    潜在树冠覆盖率
    Potential canopy
    coverage (PUTCR)/%
    老校区 Old campus5.421.460.9030.790.00
    新校区 New campus4.911.200.7427.760.08
    差值 D-value− 0.51 − 0.26 − 0.16 − 3.030.08
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2019-06-18
  • 修回日期:  2019-11-19
  • 网络出版日期:  2020-03-21
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