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基于鸟类栖息地营建的郊野公园规划设计研究

闫佳伦 董宇翔 叶可陌 索筠博 闫娜 韩莉 林辰松

闫佳伦, 董宇翔, 叶可陌, 索筠博, 闫娜, 韩莉, 林辰松. 基于鸟类栖息地营建的郊野公园规划设计研究————以石家庄龙泉湖公园东区为例[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2019, 41(12): 153-166. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20190372
引用本文: 闫佳伦, 董宇翔, 叶可陌, 索筠博, 闫娜, 韩莉, 林辰松. 基于鸟类栖息地营建的郊野公园规划设计研究————以石家庄龙泉湖公园东区为例[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2019, 41(12): 153-166. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20190372
Yan Jialun, Dong Yuxiang, Ye Kemo, Suo Yunbo, Yan Na, Han Li, Lin Chensong. Country park planning and design based on bird habitat construction: a case study of Longquan Lake Park east district, Shijiazhuang of northern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2019, 41(12): 153-166. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20190372
Citation: Yan Jialun, Dong Yuxiang, Ye Kemo, Suo Yunbo, Yan Na, Han Li, Lin Chensong. Country park planning and design based on bird habitat construction: a case study of Longquan Lake Park east district, Shijiazhuang of northern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2019, 41(12): 153-166. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20190372

基于鸟类栖息地营建的郊野公园规划设计研究

————以石家庄龙泉湖公园东区为例

doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20190372
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(31800606),中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金资助(BLX201712),北京市重点研发计划“基于生态效果提升的植物多种种植方式研究及示范”(D171100007117003),北京市共建项目(2015BLUREE01)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    闫佳伦。主要研究方向:风景园林规划与设计。Email:1483128754@qq.com 地址:100083 北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学园林学院

    责任作者:

    林辰松,博士,讲师。主要研究方向:风景园林规划与设计。Email:7884231@qq.com 地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S731.2

Country park planning and design based on bird habitat construction: a case study of Longquan Lake Park east district, Shijiazhuang of northern China

  • 摘要: 目的以物种多样性保护为目标,鸟类栖息地营建为切入点,提出郊野公园景观提升方法及策略方法通过对石家庄龙泉湖公园周边地区进行鸟类研究,选择出现频次和研究资料较多的鸟类为目标种,并对其生态习性进行研究,归纳目标鸟类对栖息地的需求。从空间角度构建水平、垂直两个维度的鸟类栖息地适宜性指标体系,分别对水体类型、水域面积、驳岸类型及水岸形态、滨水缓冲带、植物覆盖度、惊飞距离、水深、植物高度等指标进行研究分析,得出郊野公园鸟类栖息地景观设计依据及方法。结果共确定23个鸟类目标种,建立鸟类栖息地约20.3 hm2,其中水域栖息地约11.4 hm2,共有6个分区:各分区水域面积在2.6 ~ 5.8 hm2之间;水生植物覆盖度在30% ~ 65%之间;惊飞距离为50 m;平均水深在0.8 ~ 2.5 m之间;水生植物高度平均为0.3 ~ 1.8 m。陆域栖息地约8.9 hm2,共有6个分区:各分区滨水过渡带乔木覆盖度在10% ~ 16%之间,灌木覆盖度在35% ~ 44%之间,草本覆盖度在40% ~ 55%之间;植物平均高度为8.6 ~ 22.5 m;地被种类在12 ~ 31种之间;惊飞距离为50 m。结论(1)从空间尺度指标入手,构建鸟类栖息地适宜性指标体系,提出营建策略,可以为郊野公园的规划设计提供理论支撑和实践指导。(2)郊野公园应设置大小不同,功能丰富,具备蜿蜒自然缓坡驳岸和一定水深的水体空间;植物景观在满足鸟类对水域、近岸缓冲带、陆域范围植物覆盖度、群落组成形式、高度需求的同时还应提升地被丰富度;园路及场地应采用近自然材质和低鸟类干扰的策略。(3)在郊野公园规划设计过程中既要重视鸟类对栖息地的需求和不同鸟类的种间关系,同时还应满足人类休闲游憩的需求,实现人−鸟的和谐共处。

     

  • 图  1  石家庄市域生态组团示意图

    Figure  1.  Schematic diagram of Shijiazhuang ecological group

    图  2  龙泉湖公园东区现状图

    Figure  2.  Site conditions of Longquan Lake Park east district

    图  3  技术路线图

    Figure  3.  Technical route

    图  4  栖息地范围分布平面图

    Figure  4.  Habitat area distribution

    图  5  水环境设计

    Figure  5.  Water condition design

    图  6  水生植物覆盖度设计

    Figure  6.  Coverage design for aquatic plant

    图  7  滨水缓冲区植物覆盖度设计

    Figure  7.  Plant coverage design in waterfront buffer

    图  8  植物高度设计

    Figure  8.  Plant height design

    图  9  地被数量设计

    Figure  9.  Herbaceous quantity design

    图  10  观鸟设施设计

    Figure  10.  Birdwatching facility design

    表  1  鸟类生态类群统计表

    Table  1.   Survey and statistics of surrounding birds

    生态类群
    Ecological group
    代表科属
    Families genera
    代表种
    Typical species
    种个数
    Species number
    游禽 Natatore 䴙䴘科、鸭科等
    Podicipedidae, Anatidae, etc.
    小䴙䴘、赤麻鸭等
    Tachybaptus ruficollis, Tadorna ferruginea, etc.
    27
    涉禽 Grallatore 鹭科、鹤科、鹬科等
    Ardeidae, Gruidae, Scolopacidae, etc.
    白鹭、灰鹤、青脚鹬等
    Egretta garzetta,Grus grus, Tringa nebularia, etc.
    50
    鸣禽 Oscine 百灵科、莺科、雀科等
    Alaudidae, Sylviidae, Fringillidae, etc.
    云雀、黄眉柳莺、金翅雀等
    Alauda arvensis, Phylloscopus sinornatus, Carduelis sinica, etc.
    99
    攀禽 Scansore 杜鹃科、翠鸟科、啄木鸟科等
    Cuculidae, Alcedinidae, Picidae, etc.
    大杜鹃、蓝翡翠、大斑啄木鸟等
    Cuculus canorus, Halcyon pileata, Dendrocopos major, etc.
    14
    陆禽 Terrestore 雉科、鸠鸽科等
    Phasianidae, Columbidae, etc.
    鹌鹑、珠颈斑鸠等
    Coturnix coturnix, Spilopelia chinensis, etc.
    8
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  代表性目标种鸟类栖息地适宜性指标

    Table  2.   Habitat suitability index for representative species of birds

    生态类群
    Ecological group
    种名
    Species
    生境类型
    Habitat type
    水平空间适宜性指标
    Horizontal habitat suitability index
    垂直空间适宜性指标
    Vertical habitat suitability index
    水体类型
    Water type
    水域面积
    Water area
    水岸形态
    Bank form
    滨水缓冲带
    Buffer zone
    植物覆盖度
    Plant coverage
    惊飞距离
    Flush distance
    水深
    Water depth
    植物高度
    Plant height
    游禽
    Natatore
    赤麻鸭
    T. ferruginea
    水域、滩涂
    Water area, benchland
    浅水滩、
    湿地[50]
    Shallow water, wetlands
    300 ~ 500 m2 [49]
    300−500 square meters of water surface
    草坡、滩
    石驳岸[50]
    Grass slope, beach stone revetment
    60 ~ 120 m[49]
    60 to 120 meters
    50% ~ 75%[47]
    Vegetation coverage 50%−75%
    不小于50 m[51]
    Flush distance is no less than 50 meters
    0.2 ~ 2 m[41]
    0.2 to 2 meters
    涉禽
    Grallatore
    白鹭
    E. garzetta
    水域、滩涂
    Water area, benchland
    鱼塘、浅滩[52]
    Fish pond, shoal
    不小于5 hm2[53]
    The water area is no less than 5 hectares
    草坡驳岸
    Grass revetment
    觅食区为
    40% ~ 60%;筑巢区
    小于25%[54]
    The vegetation coverage of foraging area is 40%−60%,coverage of nesting area is less than 25%
    不小于50 m[55]
    Flush distance is no less than 50 meters
    觅食区为
    0.1 ~ 0.4 m;
    筑巢区为
    0.05 ~ 0.15 m
    Foraging areas prefer water depth of 0.1−0.4 meters. nesting areas prefer of 0.05−0.15m
    觅食区为0.3 ~ 2 m [56]
    筑巢区乔木高度
    大于25 m [57]
    The height of reeds in the foraging area is 0.3−2m. Nest tree height is greater than 25 meters
    鸣禽
    Oscine
    黑卷尾
    Dicrurus macrocercus
    农田、草地、
    林地
    Farmland, grassland,
    forest land
    草坡驳岸
    Grass revetment
    20 ~ 200 m[58]
    20 to 200 meters
    灌木覆盖度为
    60% ~ 80%[49]
    Shrub coverage is 60%−80%
    30 ~ 50 m[49]
    Flush distance is 30 to 50 meters
    筑巢区乔木高度为
    8.5 ~ 21.5 m[58]
    Nest tree height
    8.5 to 21.5 m
    攀禽
    Scansore
    大斑啄木鸟
    P. major
    林地
    Forest land
    草坡驳岸
    Grass revetment
    70 ~ 500 m[59]
    70 to 500 meters
    乔木覆盖度
    小于30%[49]
    Tree coverage is less than 30%
    大于15 m[59]
    More than 15 meters
    筑巢区乔木高度为
    0.3 ~ 30 m[60]
    Nest tree height is 0.3−30 m
    陆禽
    Terrestore
    雉鸡
    Phasianus colchicus
    农田、草地、
    林地
    Farmland grassland
    forest land
    草坡驳岸
    Grass revetment
    30 ~ 200 m [61]
    30−200 meters
    筑巢区
    为87%[61]
    Plant coverage of nesting sites is about 87%
    大于300 m[62]
    More than 300 m
    筑巢区乔木平均高度10 m,灌草平均高度0.9 m [61]
    The average height of trees is 10 meters, and the height of grass is
    0.9 meters
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2019-09-25
  • 修回日期:  2019-11-18
  • 网络出版日期:  2019-11-30
  • 刊出日期:  2019-12-01

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