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城市绿地致敏指数的改进研究及应用

闫珂 杨华 李文芳 李云

闫珂, 杨华, 李文芳, 李云. 城市绿地致敏指数的改进研究及应用[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2020, 42(5): 96-105. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20190376
引用本文: 闫珂, 杨华, 李文芳, 李云. 城市绿地致敏指数的改进研究及应用[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2020, 42(5): 96-105. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20190376
Yan Ke, Yang Hua, Li Wenfang, Li Yun. Improvement research and application of urban green zone allergenicity index[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2020, 42(5): 96-105. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20190376
Citation: Yan Ke, Yang Hua, Li Wenfang, Li Yun. Improvement research and application of urban green zone allergenicity index[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2020, 42(5): 96-105. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20190376

城市绿地致敏指数的改进研究及应用

doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20190376
基金项目: 北京社科基金项目“京津冀地区森林旅游精准扶贫效率评价及空间格局分析”(17GLB028)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    闫珂。主要研究方向:城市林业。Email:315010946@qq.com  地址:100083 北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学林学院

    责任作者:

    杨华,博士,副教授。主要研究方向:城市林业。Email:huayang8747@163.com  地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S732

Improvement research and application of urban green zone allergenicity index

  • 摘要: 目的城市绿地致敏指数(IUGZA)的构建考虑了绿色空间内植物特有的生物学特性和形态特性,为使该指数应用更广泛,本文对其进行改进研究并探讨该指数的实际应用,可为城市绿地的管理和维护提供理论依据。方法基于高斯公式对城市绿地致敏指数进行分析并改进了该指数( I'UGZA),应用指数评估绿地的致敏潜力,并进行不同区域致敏潜力大小对比,探究该指数在绿地致敏潜力评估中的实际应用。同时使用Spearman相关性分析和主成分分析(PCA),分析IUGZA与其他参数(区域面积、植株数量、林木密度、物种丰富度和Shannon-Wiener指数(H')之间的相关性。结果(1)绿地整体的IUGZA值为0.214 1,I'UGZA值为0.219 3,具有低过敏潜力,研究区内生长的植物排放的花粉不会对花粉过敏患者造成高风险。但对研究区进行分区对比时,部分区域的IUGZA值大于0.3,具有高过敏潜力。同时距离致敏性植物346 m范围内可引起敏感人群的过敏症状,距离场源中心1 000 m处I'UGZA值趋近于0,几乎没有致敏影响;(2)绿地种植低致敏性植物较多,占比为65.7%。高致敏性植物有油松、栓皮栎、洋白蜡、毛白杨、臭椿、白桦、白榆、圆柏等植物,主要属于柏科、松科、杨柳科、悬铃木科、豆科、苦木科、榆科、桦木科、壳斗科;(3)主成分分析(PCA)与Spearman相关性分析的结果一致,IUGZA和物种丰富度之间存在显著相关性(P < 0.05),与其他参数的相关性不显著。结论改进的指数可反映距离绿地空间不同位置的致敏潜力以及对周边环境的致敏影响,是评估城市绿地致敏潜力的有效工具,用于量化绿色空间不同区域空气中花粉排放形成的致敏潜力;可反映每种植物产生的花粉在绿色空间中的贡献大小,进而明确城市绿地中具有高致敏性的植物;还可作为分析绿地区域内植物种类丰富程度的工具。

     

  • 图  1  各类型植物SH参数的计算方法

                         引自参考文献[17]。Cite from reference [17].

    Figure  1.  Calculation methods for S and H parameters of various types of plants

    图  2  林荫大道、休闲广场和功能分区示意图

    Figure  2.  Schematic diagram of avenues, leisure plazas and functional areas

    图  3  林荫大道(A)、休闲广场(B)和功能分区(C)IUGZA值对比

    Figure  3.  Comparison in IUGZA values between avenues (A), leisure plazas (B) and functional areas (C)

    图  4  I'UGZA 与调查半径R的函数图

    Figure  4.  Function diagram of I'UGZA and survey radius R

    图  5  PCA分析图

    Figure  5.  PCA analysis results

    表  1  ap、pe、ppp参数的取值

    Table  1.   Values of ap, pe, ppp parameters

    参数
    Parameter
    取值
    Value
    参数
    Parameter
    取值
    Value
    参数
    Parameter
    取值
    Value
    ap 0 = 无致敏
    0 means non-allergenic
    pe 0 = 雌雄异株的雌性个体
    0 means only female-sex individuals
    ppp 1 =1 ~ 3周
    1 means 1−3 weeks
    1 = 致敏程度较低
    1 means low allergenicity
    1 = 虫媒
    1 means entomophilous
    2 = 4 ~ 6周
    2 means 4−6 weeks
    2 = 致敏程度中等
    2 means moderate allergenicity
    2 = 虫媒或风媒
    2 means entomophilous or anemophilous
    3 = 大于6周
    3 means more than 6 weeks
    3 = 致敏程度高
    3 means high allergenicity
    3 = 风媒
    3 means anemophilous
    4 = 当地主要的过敏源
    4 means main local allergens
    注:表中内容来源于参考文献[17]。Note: the date mainly cited from reference [17].
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  绿地主要调查结果及计算结果

    Table  2.   Main investigating and calculating results of green space

    编号
    No.
    类别
    Type
    名称
    Name
    区域面积
    Area/m2
    植株数量
    Plant number

    Section

    Genus
    林木密度/(株·hm− 2
    Stand density/(tree·ha− 1)
    物种丰富度
    Species richness
    Shannon-Wiener指数
    Shannon-Wiener index (H')
    I 林荫大道
    Avenue
    A1 807.57 58 8 13 718.20 18 3.763
    A2 3 629.46 68 1 1 187.36 1 0
    A3 3 873.52 174 11 17 449.20 19 3.318
    A4 1 348.26 160 9 12 1 186.71 13 2.306
    II 休闲广场
    Leisure plaza
    B1 3 756.17 33 9 9 87.86 9 2.353
    B2 5 826.63 131 24 33 224.83 39 4.631
    B3 7 316.99 526 24 40 718.87 49 4.194
    B4 3 207.37 64 10 11 199.54 11 2.428
    III 功能分区Functional area C1 32 347.28 1 727 39 71 533.89 158 4.316
    C2 36 501.34 554 24 30 151.78 32 4.836
    C3 95 675.81 1 408 43 88 147.16 117 5.892
    C4 9 892.08 548 29 48 553.98 62 4.848
    C5 6 148.91 193 13 21 313.88 26 3.809
    C6 82 219.01 1 621 52 95 197.16 142 5.845
    C7 50 198.16 417 17 24 83.07 27 3.451
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  绿地高致敏性植物

    Table  3.   Highly allergenic plants in green space

    主要致敏植物 Main allergenicity plantap × pe × ppp
    油松 Pinus tabuliformis 27
    栓皮栎 Quercus variabilis 27
    洋白蜡 Fraxinus pennsylvanica 27
    毛白杨 Populus tomentosa 27
    臭椿 Ailanthus altissima 27
    白桦 Betula platyphylla 27
    白榆 Ulmus pumila 24
    圆柏 Juniperus chinensis 24
    美桐 Platanus occidentalis 18
    国槐 Sophora japonica 18
    水杉 Metasequoia glyptostroboides 18
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  IUGZA和其他参数之间Spearman相关性分析

    Table  4.   Spearman’s correlations between IUGZA and other parameters

    项目
    Item
    区域面积
    Area/m2
    植株数量
    Plant number
    林木密度(株·hm−2
    Stand density/(tree·ha−1)
    物种丰富度
    Species richness
    Shannon-Wiener指数
    Shannon-Wiener index (H')
    IUGZA 0.321 0.786* 0.286 0.893** 0.393
    0.482 0.036 0.535 0.007 0.383
    注:*. 在置信度(双测)为0.05 时,相关性是显著的; **. 在置信度(双测)为0.01时,相关性是显著的。Notes: *, when the confidence (double test) is 0.05, the correlation is significant; **, when the confidence (double test) is 0.01, the correlation is significant.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2019-09-26
  • 修回日期:  2020-01-06
  • 网络出版日期:  2020-05-18
  • 刊出日期:  2020-07-01

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