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杨树根系形态、分布、动态特征及其吸水特性

席本野

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杨树根系形态、分布、动态特征及其吸水特性

    作者简介: 席本野,博士,副教授。主要研究方向:人工林水分关系和用材林培育理论与技术。Email:benyexi@bjfu.edu.cn 地址:100083 北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学.

Morphology, distribution, dynamic characteristics of poplar roots and its water uptake habits

  • 摘要: 根系是连接植物与土壤的纽带,也是植物吸收水养资源的器官,在树木生理生活中发挥着至关重要的作用。杨树在我国北方被广泛栽植,其木材产量占我国总木材产量的30%。因此,了解杨树根系的各种特点有助于深入认识其生存和生长机制,以及在各种环境下的生态适应策略,从而为杨树林地高效经营管理技术的优化、林分质量和产量的双提升提供理论基础。本文基于已有研究,对杨树根系形态、分布、动态特征以及吸水特性等内容及部分研究方法进行了综述。首先,本文总结了已有研究中采用的各种根系分级方法,指出其各自的不足与可取之处,并提出更适合杨树根系分级的方法。其次,对现有研究中发现的各种杨树根系构型、形态、分布以及生长动态等特征进行了归纳总结,探讨了各种特征产生的原因以及对杨树根系吸收效率产生的影响。然后,总结了杨树根系在各种条件下的吸水特性与机制,并在最后提出了现有杨树根系研究的不足以及今后的发展方向。
  • 图 1  典型杨树根型

    Figure 1.  Typical types of poplar root system

    图 2  三倍体毛白杨侧根的构型和生长路径

    Figure 2.  Architecture and growth path of the lateral roots of (P. tomentsoa × P. bolleana) × P. tomentosa

    图 3  粉土立地上7年生毛白杨垂直根生长与构型特征(扎根深度2.7 m)

    Figure 3.  Growth and architecture characteristics of a vertical root in a 7-year-old Populus tomentosa plantation on silt soil (rooting depth of 2.7 m)

    图 4  不同地区不同杨树品种水平侧根分布的俯视图

    Figure 4.  Plan view of the horizontal lateral root distribution of different poplar species in different regions

    图 5  杨树根系分布深度与地下水位的关系

    Figure 5.  Relationship between root distributing depth of poplar and underground water table

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