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杨树根系形态、分布、动态特征及其吸水特性

席本野

席本野. 杨树根系形态、分布、动态特征及其吸水特性[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2019, 41(12): 37-49. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20190400
引用本文: 席本野. 杨树根系形态、分布、动态特征及其吸水特性[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2019, 41(12): 37-49. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20190400
Xi Benye. Morphology, distribution, dynamic characteristics of poplar roots and its water uptake habits[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2019, 41(12): 37-49. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20190400
Citation: Xi Benye. Morphology, distribution, dynamic characteristics of poplar roots and its water uptake habits[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2019, 41(12): 37-49. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20190400

杨树根系形态、分布、动态特征及其吸水特性

doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20190400
基金项目: 北京林业大学中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金项目(2018ZY26),国家科学自然基金项目(31872702、31670625、31971640),“十二五”国家科技支撑计划(2015BAD09B02),国家重点研发计划(2016YFD0600403)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    席本野,博士,副教授。主要研究方向:人工林水分关系和用材林培育理论与技术。Email:benyexi@bjfu.edu.cn 地址:100083 北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学

Morphology, distribution, dynamic characteristics of poplar roots and its water uptake habits

  • 摘要: 根系是连接植物与土壤的纽带,也是植物吸收水养资源的器官,在树木生理生活中发挥着至关重要的作用。杨树在我国北方被广泛栽植,其木材产量占我国总木材产量的30%。因此,了解杨树根系的各种特点有助于深入认识其生存和生长机制,以及在各种环境下的生态适应策略,从而为杨树林地高效经营管理技术的优化、林分质量和产量的双提升提供理论基础。本文基于已有研究,对杨树根系形态、分布、动态特征以及吸水特性等内容及部分研究方法进行了综述。首先,本文总结了已有研究中采用的各种根系分级方法,指出其各自的不足与可取之处,并提出更适合杨树根系分级的方法。其次,对现有研究中发现的各种杨树根系构型、形态、分布以及生长动态等特征进行了归纳总结,探讨了各种特征产生的原因以及对杨树根系吸收效率产生的影响。然后,总结了杨树根系在各种条件下的吸水特性与机制,并在最后提出了现有杨树根系研究的不足以及今后的发展方向。

     

  • 图  1  典型杨树根型

    a.法国莱茵河附近较粗质地土壤上杨树的主根型根系系统(引自文献[46]);b.中国山东高唐粉壤土立地上三倍体毛白杨的水平根型根系系统;c.中国北京顺义砂土立地上欧美108杨的水平根型根系系统。a, the root-root system of poplar on the coarse soil near the Rhine River in France (cited from Ref. [46]); b, the horizontal root system of (P. tomentsoa × P. bolleana) × P. tomentosa on the silt soil in Gaotang County, Shandong Province, eastern China; c, the horizontal root system of P. × euramericana ‘Guariento’ on the sandy soil in Shunyi District, Beijing, northern China.

    Figure  1.  Typical types of poplar root system

    图  2  三倍体毛白杨侧根的构型和生长路径

    a.水平侧根;b.斜生侧根;c.垂直侧根(引自文献[53])。图中灰色虚线代表地面,棕色圆柱代表根桩,黑色曲线代表根系,数字代表根系上黑点标记位置处的深度。 a, horizontal lateral roots; b, oblique lateral roots; c, vertical lateral roots (cited from Ref. [53]). The grey dotted line represents the soil surface and the brown cylinder represents the stump. The black curve represents the roots, and the numbers indicate the depths of roots where marked by black dots.

    Figure  2.  Architecture and growth path of the lateral roots of (P. tomentsoa × P. bolleana) × P. tomentosa

    图  3  粉土立地上7年生毛白杨垂直根生长与构型特征(扎根深度2.7 m)

    Figure  3.  Growth and architecture characteristics of a vertical root in a 7-year-old Populus tomentosa plantation on silt soil (rooting depth of 2.7 m)

    图  4  不同地区不同杨树品种水平侧根分布的俯视图

    a. 栽植于新西兰北帕默斯顿附近山地上的杂交杨,株行距为8 m × 8 m(引自文献[48]);b. 栽植于印度希萨尔平地上的美洲黑杨,株行距2 m × 2 m(引自Puri[9]);c. 栽植于中国山东高唐平地上的三倍体毛白杨,株行距2 m × 4 m(引自文献[53]);d. 栽植于中国北京顺义平地上的欧美108杨,株行距4 m × 6 m + 12 m(宽窄行栽植模式)(笔者团队数据)。 a, P. trichocarpa × P. deltoides, planted on the mountainous area near Palmerston, New Zealand, with a planting spacing of 8 m × 8 m (cited from Ref. [51]); b, P. deltoides, planted on flat site in Hisar, India, with a planting spacing of 2 m × 2 m (cited from Ref. [34]); c, (P. tomentsoa × P. bolleana) × P. tomentosa, planted on flat site in Gaotang County, Shandong Province, China, with a planting spacing of 2 m × 4 m (cited from Ref. [56]); d, P. × euramericana ‘Guariento’, planted on flat site in the Shunyi District, Beijing, China, with a planting spacing of 4 m × 6 m + 12 m (wide and narrow row planting scheme) (our unpublished data).

    Figure  4.  Plan view of the horizontal lateral root distribution of different poplar species in different regions

    图  5  杨树根系分布深度与地下水位的关系

    Figure  5.  Relationship between root distributing depth of poplar and underground water table

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  • 收稿日期:  2019-10-21
  • 修回日期:  2019-11-22
  • 网络出版日期:  2019-11-27
  • 刊出日期:  2019-12-01

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