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北京市花岗岩与白云岩山体植物群落研究

亓玉婷 崔婧沄 张丹丹 郝培尧 董丽

亓玉婷, 崔婧沄, 张丹丹, 郝培尧, 董丽. 北京市花岗岩与白云岩山体植物群落研究[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2021, 43(3): 117-130. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20190472
引用本文: 亓玉婷, 崔婧沄, 张丹丹, 郝培尧, 董丽. 北京市花岗岩与白云岩山体植物群落研究[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2021, 43(3): 117-130. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20190472
Qi Yuting, Cui Jingyun, Zhang Dandan, Hao Peiyao, Dong Li. Species diversity of plant community in granite and dolomite mountains of Beijing[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2021, 43(3): 117-130. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20190472
Citation: Qi Yuting, Cui Jingyun, Zhang Dandan, Hao Peiyao, Dong Li. Species diversity of plant community in granite and dolomite mountains of Beijing[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2021, 43(3): 117-130. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20190472

北京市花岗岩与白云岩山体植物群落研究

doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20190472
基金项目: 中央高校基本科研业务费专项(2019ZY44),北京市科技计划项目(D171100007217003),北京市共建项目(2016GJ-03)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    亓玉婷。主要研究方向:健康景观、园林植物景观规划设计。Email:qiyuting@bjfu.edu.cn 地址:100083北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学园林学院

    责任作者:

    郝培尧,博士,副教授。主要研究方向:园林植物景观规划设计。Email:haopeiyao@bjfu.edu.cn 地址:同上

Species diversity of plant community in granite and dolomite mountains of Beijing

  • 摘要:   目的  以北京市花岗岩与白云岩山体为研究地,探究不同基岩条件下植物群落的差异性,为北京市花岗岩与白云岩山体植被修复提供科学依据。  方法  实验分别选择花岗岩与白云岩山体各3座,通过样方调查,从物种构成、生物多样性、海拔梯度特征、相似性系数等方面对两种不同基岩的山体植物群落特征进行分析。  结果  (1)花岗岩山体植被共计188种,隶属61科148属;白云岩山体植被共计95种,隶属38科80属;均以禾本科、蝶形花科、菊科为优势科,是两种基岩山体重要的植物修复种植资源来源。(2)采用对不同生活型分别进行测度的方法,得出北京市两种基岩山体植被之间乔木层、灌木层、草本层的优势种,可作为山体修复的重要材料。(3)对比花岗岩山体内部植物群落特征,发现彼此之间不具有一致性;对比白云岩山体内部植物群落特征,发现具有较高一致性。对比花岗岩、白云岩山体植物群落特征发现具有较高一致性。  结论  不同花岗岩与白云岩山体的植物群落物种在优势科属上具有一致性,是花岗岩与白云岩山体生态修复的重要植物资源。通过比较各山体间的相似性,表明进行花岗岩山体植物修复时不能一概而论,应注意区分不同立地条件;而针对白云岩山体,则可以采用类似的方法和植物种类进行修复。

     

  • 图  1  选点区位图

    Figure  1.  Map of selected sites

    图  2  北京市花岗岩山体样方分布

    Figure  2.  Quadrat distribution of granite mountain in Beijing

    图  3  北京市白云岩山体样方分布

    Figure  3.  Quadrat distribution of dolomite mountain in Beijing

    图  4  花岗岩山体样地风貌

    Figure  4.  Landscape of sample plots in granite mountain

    图  5  白云岩山体样地风貌

    Figure  5.  Landscape of sample plots in dolomite mountain

    图  6  不同海拔梯度北京花岗岩山体综合多样性指数

    Figure  6.  Diversity indexes of Beijing granite mountain in different altitudes

    图  7  不同海拔梯度下北京白云岩山体综合多样性

    Figure  7.  Diversity indexes of Beijing dolomite mountains in different altitudes

    图  8  山地植被自然分布规律中的DP格局类型

    DP. 单调递减格局 Monotonic decreasing pattern;UP. 单峰格局 Unimodal pattern;SP. 水平格局 Smooth pattern;TP. 双峰格局 Two peak pattern. 引自参考文献[39] Cited from reference [39]

    Figure  8.  DP pattern types in the natural distribution of mountain vegetation

    图  9  北京花岗岩及白云岩山体植物季相占比

    Figure  9.  Proportions of the flora of granite and dolomite in Beijing

    图  10  北京花岗岩及白云岩山体彩色植物种类数

    Figure  10.  Number of color plant species of granite and dolomite in Beijing

    表  1  研究地概况

    Table  1.   Overview of the research sites

    基岩类型
    Bedrock type
    研究地
    Study site
    经纬度
    Longitude and latitude
    位置
    Location
    花岗岩
    Granite
    盘山
    Panshan Mountain
    117°15′ ~ 117°18′E
    40°05′ ~ 40°06′N
    北京平谷区东北部
    Northeast part of Pinggu District of Beijing
    凤凰岭
    Fenghuangling Mountain
    116°04′22″ ~ 116°05′21″E
    40°05′32″ ~ 40°07′07″N
    北京市海淀区西北部
    Northwest part of Haidian District of Beijing
    沙厂村后山
    Mountain behind Shachang Village
    117°01′03″ ~ 117°01′32″E
    40°23′13″ ~ 40°23′37″N
    北京市密云县
    Miyun County of Beijing
    白云岩
    Dolomite
    渔阳地区山体
    Mountains of Yuyang area
    117°07′16″ ~ 117°12′21″E
    40°04′57″ ~ 40°06′08″N
    北京市平谷区
    Pinggu District of Beijing
    向阳村山体
    Mountains of Xiangyang Village
    117°17′17″ ~ 117°17′42″E
    40°08′31″ ~ 40°08′41″N
    北京市平谷区东南部
    Southeast part of Pinggu District of Beijing
    峪口北山
    Northern mountain of Yukou Town
    116°59′07″ ~ 117°00′08″E
    40°12′34″ ~ 40°13′10″N
    北京市平谷区中部
    Central Pinggu District of Beijing
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同海拔研究地的样方数量分布

    Table  2.   Quadrat distribution of the research sites at different altitudes

    研究地 Study site(100, 200](200, 300](300, 400](400, 500](500, 600](600, 700](700, 800](800, 900]总计 Total
    盘山 Panshan Mountain5311461223
    凤凰岭 Fenghuangling Mountain75217325
    沙厂村后山 Mountain behind Shachang Village6915
    渔阳地区山体 Mountains of Yuyang area2419649
    向阳村山体 Mountains of Xiangyang Village527
    峪口北山 Northern mountain of Yukou Town156
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  北京市花岗岩山体植被优势科

    Table  3.   Statistics of advantage family of granite mountains in Beijing

    科 Family菊科 Compistae蝶形花科 Fabaceae蔷薇科 Rosaceae禾本科 Gramineae唇形科 Labitatae
    种数 Number of species251615116
    比例 Proportion/%13.308.517.985.853.19
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  不同海拔梯度北京市花岗岩山体优势种及重要值(前5位)

    Table  4.   Dominant species and important values of Beijing granite mountain in different altitude gradients (top 5)

    群落层次 Community layer海拔 Altitude/m(100, 200](200, 300](300, 400](400, 500](500, 600](600, 700](700, 800](800, 900]
    乔木 Tree栓皮栎 Quercus variabilis17.8422.1810.2515.7926.1914.5028.57
    臭椿 Ailanthus altissima13.2511.47
    侧柏 Platycladus orientalis10.3320.96
    槲栎 Quercus aliena8.5917.5533.0622.5613.7015.0832.91
    油松 Pinus tabuliformis8.398.609.1511.9016.67
    灌木 Shrub荆条 Vitex negundo var. heterophylla28.7033.7526.0832.5032.9717.3417.79
    酸枣 Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa15.3814.56
    多花胡枝子 Lespedeza floribunda10.3616.814.858.758.64
    小叶鼠李 Rhamnus parvifolia6.509.2914.1511.99
    杭子梢 Campylotropis macrocarpa11.9932.5031.73
    草本 Herb阿拉伯黄背草 Themeda triandra4.436.997.194.06
    白莲蒿 Artemisia sacrorum3.394.949.596.65
    野青茅 Deyeuxia pyramidalis8.41
    披针薹草 Carex lancifolia4.4810.295.8423.8110.51
    黄花蒿 Artemisia annua8.508.914.71
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  北京市花岗岩山体综合种相似性

    Table  5.   Species similarity among granite mountains in Beijing

    研究地
    Study site
    总数
    Amount
    共有广布种
    Dispersed species
    广布种外共种
    Intersection species
    Czechanowski系数
    Czechanowski index/%
    Szymkiewicz系数
    Szymkiewicz index/%
    凤凰岭
    Fenghuangling Mountain
    131225141.1343.59
    盘山
    Panshan Mountain
    117
    凤凰岭
    Fenghuangling Mountain
    131132829.7949.12
    沙厂村后山
    Mountain behind Shachang Village
    57
    盘山
    Panshan Mountain
    117132731.0347.37
    沙厂村后山
    Mountain behind Shachang Village
    57
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  北京市白云岩山体植被优势科

    Table  6.   Statistics of advantage family of dolomite mountains in Beijing


    Family
    菊科
    Compistae
    禾本科
    Gramineae
    蝶形花科
    Fabaceae
    蔷薇科
    Rosaceae
    百合科
    Liliaceae
    大戟科
    Euphorbiaceae
    堇菜科
    Violaceae
    种数 Number of species131088444
    比例 Proportion/%13.6810.538.428.424.214.214.21
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  不同海拔梯度北京市白云岩山体优势种及重要值(前5位)

    Table  7.   Dominant species and important values of Beijing dolomite mountain at different altitudes (top 5)

    群落层次 Community layer海拔 Altitude/m(100, 150](150, 200](200, 250](250, 300](300, 350](350, 400](400, 450]
    乔木 Tree 侧柏 Platycladus orientalis 44.34 48.70 38.08 16.57 56.06 41.95
    黄栌 Cotinus coggygria 8.41 13.96 18.37
    大果榆 Ulmus macrocarpa 8.13 8.59 7.01 21.22 19.48
    油松 Pinus tabuliformis 6.87 20.20 19.85
    栓皮栎 Quercus variabilis 7.89 16.93 15.69 15.45 13.67
    小叶白蜡 Fraxinus bungeana 14.16
    灌木 Shrub 荆条 Vitex negundo var. heterophylla 36.66 38.21 34.69 26.50 18.75 20.85 18.75
    酸枣 Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa 23.27 18.88 17.10 9.94 9.82
    小叶鼠李 Rhamnus parvifolia 10.79 14.58 10.31 17.56 16.96 16.82 19.38
    孩儿拳头 Grewia biloba 10.79 15.74 11.11 9.30 8.04 10.37 13.75
    多花胡枝子 Lespedeza floribunda 7.58 8.78 10.55 16.07 11.81 18.13
    草本 Herb 阿拉伯黄背草 Themeda triandra 13.95 12.64 13.06 10.60 10.29
    野青茅 Deyeuxia pyramidalis 13.79 23.32 20.68 12.85 12.77 13.15
    白莲蒿 Artemisia sacrorum 5.13 7.93 7.73 10.64
    披针薹草 Carex lancifolia 13.06 8.12 21.28
    茜草 Rubia cordifolia 8.63 6.77 9.80
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  北京市白云岩山体综合种相似性

    Table  8.   Similarity coefficients of species among dolomite mountains in Beijing

    研究地
    Study site
    总数
    Amount
    共有广布种
    Dispersed species
    广布种外共有种
    Intersection species
    Czechanowski系数
    Czechanowski index/%
    Szymkiewicz系数
    Szymkiewicz index/%
    渔阳地区山体 Mountains of Yuyang area8310 2946.4069.05
    向阳村山体 Mountains of Xiangyang Village42
    渔阳地区山体 Mountains of Yuyang area8351630.4872.73
    峪口北山 Northern mountain of Yukou Town22
    向阳村山体 Mountains of Xiangyang Village4241546.8868.18
    峪口北山 Northern mountain of Yukou Town22
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  9  北京市花岗岩山体-白云岩山体非广布种相似性

    Table  9.   Similarity coefficients of species without dispersed species between granite and dolomite mountains in Beijing

    研究地
    Study site
    总数
    Amount
    共有广布种
    Dispersed species
    广布种外共有种
    Intersection species
    Czechanowski系数
    Czechanowski index/%
    Szymkiewicz系数
    Szymkiewicz index/%
    花岗岩山体 Granite mountain188265941.7062.11
    白云岩山体 Dolomite mountain95
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2019-12-23
  • 修回日期:  2020-06-14
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-02-08
  • 刊出日期:  2021-04-16

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