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沙漠红枣栽培关键技术研究

张有林 陈文红 刘统民 张润光 吕学艺 王长成 张彦昶 邹亚平

张有林, 陈文红, 刘统民, 张润光, 吕学艺, 王长成, 张彦昶, 邹亚平. 沙漠红枣栽培关键技术研究[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2020, 42(11): 72-81. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20200023
引用本文: 张有林, 陈文红, 刘统民, 张润光, 吕学艺, 王长成, 张彦昶, 邹亚平. 沙漠红枣栽培关键技术研究[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2020, 42(11): 72-81. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20200023
Zhang Youlin, Chen Wenhong, Liu Tongmin, Zhang Runguang, Lü Xueyi, Wang Changcheng, Zhang Yanchang, Zou Yaping. Study on key techniques of desert jujube cultivation[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2020, 42(11): 72-81. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20200023
Citation: Zhang Youlin, Chen Wenhong, Liu Tongmin, Zhang Runguang, Lü Xueyi, Wang Changcheng, Zhang Yanchang, Zou Yaping. Study on key techniques of desert jujube cultivation[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2020, 42(11): 72-81. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20200023

沙漠红枣栽培关键技术研究

doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20200023
基金项目: 中央财政林业科技推广示范项目(SLTG[2017]15),2018年榆林市科技计划项目
详细信息
    作者简介:

    张有林,教授,博士生导师。主要研究方向:果树学。Email:youlinzh@snnu.edu.cn 地址:710119陕西省西安市长安区西长安街620号陕西师范大学食品工程与营养科学学院

Study on key techniques of desert jujube cultivation

  • 摘要:   目的  我国沙漠广袤,阳光充足,昼夜温差大,气候干燥,沙粒漏肥漏水严重。在沙漠栽植经济林木,成活率低,生长缓慢,经济、生态效益低下。枣树耐干旱,喜光照,研究沙漠枣树栽培技术,使沙漠建设枣园成为可能,提高沙漠红枣产量及质量,以期获得更高的经济效益。  方法  本文以陕西榆林毛乌素沙漠和新疆喀什塔克拉玛干沙漠为实验基地,采用观察法和对比试验法研究了沙漠枣的物候期、适宜品种、适宜树形、施肥灌溉、配方换土、生态作用、设施栽培、水肥一体化等内容。  结果  在沙漠种植枣树的栽植穴换土,以体积比为优质土∶农家肥 = 7∶3的比例搅拌制得,每栽植穴更换配方土0.08 m3。采用行距3.0 m、株距1.0 m栽植,密度适宜,且便于机械化作业。每年施基肥农家肥1次,施肥量30 m3/hm2,追施化肥2次,每次磷酸二铵300 kg/hm2、尿素120 kg/hm2,混合开沟施入或水肥一体化施入,用尿素0.4%、磷酸二氢钾0.3%、硫酸锌0.3%、硼砂0.5%、硫酸亚铁0.3%配制成混合液喷洒叶面2次,每年分别于4月初、5月中旬、6月下旬、8月初、12月初滴灌5次。栽培品种鲜食枣以秦宝冬枣、冬枣2号、早脆王、伏蜜脆为好,制干枣以骏枣、灰枣为好,鲜食枣的经济效益高于制干枣。树冠以纺锤形、开心形、小冠疏层形等小冠形为好。沙漠红枣采用水肥一体化和塑料大棚设施栽培,比露地栽培能提高产量3.2倍,提高经济效益6.5倍。  结论  本研究依据沙漠气候特点和枣树生长发育特性,攻克了沙漠红枣栽培土肥水三大技术难关,达到了沙漠红枣高产、优质、高效和防风固沙、保护生态的作用,实现了经济生态双赢利。

     

  • 图  1  榆林沙漠红枣对风速的降低率

    行距3.0 m,株距1.0 m, 冠径1.0 m × 1.0 m,树高2.0 ~ 2.2 m。Row spacing: 3.0 m, plant spacing: 1.0 m, crown diameter: 1.0 m × 1.0 m, tree height: 2.0−2.2 m.

    Figure  1.  Effects of Yulin desert jujube on reduction rate of wind speed

    表  1  沙漠红枣栽植穴换土对枣树栽植成活率的影响

    Table  1.   Effects of soil replacement in desert jujube planting hole on survival rate of jujube planting %

    处理 Treatment栽植天数 Planting day
    306090120
    种植穴不换土 Do not change soil in planting hole55 ± 8.3b46 ± 5.4b35 ± 2.8b28 ± 1.9b
    种植穴换土 Change soil in planting hole98 ± 7.5a94 ± 6.2a91 ± 3.2a91 ± 3.2a
    注:栽植枣树为1年生骏枣品种,每栽植穴更换当地优质土壤0.08 m3,本表为0.667 hm2调查结果。表中纵列不同小写字母表示纵向比较差异显著(P < 0.05)。下同。Notes: the planted jujube tree is one-year-old ‘Junzao’ variety, and each planting hole is filled with 0.08 m3 of local high quality soil. This table shows the statistical results of 0.667 ha desert jujube. Different lowercase letters in the column indicate significant differences in longitudinal comparison (P < 0.05). The same below.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  栽植穴换土对沙漠红枣生长量、结果情况的影响

    Table  2.   Effects of replacing soil in planting hole on desert jujube growth and results

    项目 Item栽植1年 Planting for 1 year栽植2年 Planting for 2 years栽植3年 Planting for 3 years
    树高
    Tree
    height/m
    枝条总生长量
    Total growth of branch/m
    结果量/
    (t·hm−2)
    Fruit yield/
    (t·ha−1)
    树高
    Tree
    height/m
    枝条总生长量
    Total growth of branch/m
    结果量/
    (t·hm−2)
    Fruit yield/
    (t·ha−1)
    树高
    Tree
    height/m
    枝条总生长量
    Total growth of branch/m
    结果量/
    (t·hm−2)
    Fruit yield/
    (t·ha−1)
    种植穴不换土
    Do not change soil in planting hole
    0.50 ± 0.04b0.90 ± 0.12b0b0.80 ± 0.17b2.10 ± 0.32b0.35 ± 0.01b1.50 ± 0.18b4.80 ± 0.52b0.68 ± 0.09b
    种植穴换土
    Change soil in planting hole
    1.20 ± 0.06a3.10 ± 0.26a0.18 ± 0.02a2.30 ± 0.29a9.80 ± 0.66a1.56 ± 0.13a3.40 ± 0.36a15.60 ± 1.85a 3.83 ± 0.22a
    注:栽植枣树为骏枣品种,树高、枝条生长总量为随机10株树调查平均值。下同。Notes: the variety of jujube planted is Junzao. Tree height, total growth of branches are the average values of 10 random jujube trees. The same below.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  栽植穴换土量对沙漠红枣生长量、结果情况的影响

    Table  3.   Effects of replacing soil volume in planting holes on the growth and fruit yield of desert jujube

    换土量/
    (m3·穴−1)
    Amount of
    soil replaced/
    (m3·hole−1)
    栽植1年 Planting for 1 year栽植2年 Planting for 2 years栽植3年 Planting for 3 years
    树高
    Tree
    height/m
    枝条总生长量
    Total growth of branch/m
    结果量/
    (t·hm−2)
    Fruit yield/
    (t·ha−1)
    树高
    Tree
    height/m
    枝条总生长量
    Total growth of branch/m
    结果量/
    (t·hm−2)
    Fruit yield/
    (t·ha−1)
    树高
    Tree
    height/m
    枝条总生长量
    Total growth of branch/m
    结果量/
    (t·hm−2)
    Fruit yield/
    (t·ha−1)
    0 0.50 ± 0.06d 0.90 ± 0.10d0.0d0.80 ± 0.06d2.10 ± 0.14e 0.35 ± 0.04e1.50 ± 0.10e 4.80 ± 0.40f0.68 ± 0.05e
    0.020.68 ± 0.07c1.25 ± 0.09c0.0d 0.90 ± 0.07cd3.40 ± 0.40d0.66 ± 0.06d1.80 ± 0.13d 6.20 ± 0.54e1.28 ± 0.11d
    0.040.91 ± 0.01b2.34 ± 0.20b0.11 ± 0.01c 1.20 ± 0.09bc5.50 ± 0.60c0.84 ± 0.09c2.30 ± 0.26c 9.50 ± 1.00d1.59 ± 0.15c
    0.060.95 ± 0.13b2.50 ± 0.21b0.13 ± 0.01b1.50 ± 0.13b6.80 ± 0.40b1.31 ± 0.10b2.70 ± 0.21b11.90 ± 1.10c3.23 ± 0.29b
    0.081.20 ± 0.06a3.10 ± 0.26a0.18 ± 0.02a2.30 ± 0.29a9.80 ± 0.66a1.56 ± 0.13a3.40 ± 0.36a15.60 ± 1.85b3.83 ± 0.22a
    0.101.25 ± 0.09a3.35 ± 0.25a0.19 ± 0.01a2.40 ± 0.20a10.20 ± 1.00a 1.64 ± 0.13a3.50 ± 0.36a16.40 ± 1.40a4.02 ± 0.35a
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  配方换土对沙漠红枣生长量、结果情况的影响

    Table  4.   Effects of formula soil replacement on growth and fruit yield of desert jujube

    土肥配方(体积比,
    优质土∶农家肥)
    Soil and fertilizer
    formula (volume ratio,
    high quality soil∶
    farmyard manure)
    栽植1年 Planting for 1 year栽植2年 Planting for 2 years栽植3年 Planting for 3 years
    树高
    Tree
    height/m
    枝条总
    生长量
    Total growth of branch/m
    结果量/
    (t·hm−2)
    Fruit yield/
    (t·ha−1)
    树高
    Tree
    height/m
    枝条总
    生长量
    Total growth of branch/m
    结果量/
    (t·hm−2)
    Fruit yield/
    (t·ha−1)
    树高
    Tree
    height/m
    枝条总
    生长量
    Total growth of branch/m
    结果量/
    (t·hm−2)
    Fruit yield/
    (t·ha−1)
    10∶0 1.20 ± 0.06c3.10 ± 0.26d0.18 ± 0.02d2.30 ± 0.29d9.80 ± 0.66d1.56 ± 0.13c3.40 ± 0.36c15.60 ± 1.85d3.83 ± 0.22d
    9∶11.28 ± 0.10bc3.45 ± 0.29c0.98 ± 0.09c2.40 ± 0.19c11.60 ± 1.00c3.09 ± 0.29b3.50 ± 0.32c15.90 ± 1.50d4.68 ± 0.42c
    8∶21.33 ± 0.11b4.01 ± 0.34b1.08 ± 0.11b2.60 ± 0.23b12.40 ± 1.10b3.23 ± 0.30b3.80 ± 0.31b16.80 ± 1.40c 4.85 ± 0.45b
    7∶31.48 ± 0.14a4.56 ± 0.40a1.26 ± 0.11a2.80 ± 0.26a13.50 ± 1.00a4.02 ± 0.32a4.20 ± 0.34a18.80 ± 1.70b5.34 ± 0.51a
    6∶41.52 ± 0.13a4.59 ± 0.42a1.25 ± 0.12a2.90 ± 0.25a13.60 ± 1.40a4.05 ± 0.42a4.20 ± 0.38a19.10 ± 1.60a5.22 ± 0.48a
    5∶51.55 ± 0.12a4.62 ± 0.44a1.29 ± 0.12a2.90 ± 0.27a13.80 ± 1.20a3.90 ± 0.33a4.30 ± 0.40a19.50 ± 1.80a5.25 ± 0.47a
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  沙漠红枣栽植密度对产量、机械化作业情况的影响

    Table  5.   Effects of planting density of jujube trees on fruit yield and mechanization in desert jujube

    株行距(株距 × 行距)
    Plant row spacing (plant
    spacing × row spacing)
    结果量/(t·hm−2) Fruit yield/(t·ha−1)机械作业
    Mechanized work
    栽植2年
    Planting for 2 years
    栽植3年
    Planting for 3 years
    栽植4年
    Planting for 4 years
    1.0 m × 2.0 m4.20 ± 0.39a5.78 ± 0.51a5.91 ± 0.54b操作不方便 Inconvenient operation
    1.0 m× 3.0 m4.26 ± 0.30a5.63 ± 0.47a6.12 ± 0.57a操作方便 Easy to operate
    1.0 m× 4.0 m3.78 ± 0.32b4.62 ± 0.42b5.61 ± 0.49c操作方便 Easy to operate
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  基肥农家肥施入量对沙漠红枣生长量、结果情况的影响

    Table  6.   Effects of the amount of base fertilizer (farmyard manure) applied on the growth and fruit yield of desert jujube

    农家肥施入量/(m3·hm−2)
    Farmyard manure application/(m3·ha−1)
    栽植2年 Planting for 2 years栽植3年 Planting for 3 years
    树高
    Tree
    height/m
    枝条总生长量
    Total growth of branch/m
    结果量/(t·hm−2)
    Fruit yield/
    (t·ha−1)
    树高
    Tree
    height/m
    枝条总生长量
    Total growth of branch/m
    结果量/(t·hm−2)
    Fruit yield/
    (t·ha−1)
    15.0 2.10 ± 0.20c 9.30 ± 0.70d 2.79 ± 0.24d 2.80 ± 0.26d 13.60 ± 1.2d 4.29 ± 0.44c
    22.5 2.30 ± 0.19b 10.50 ± 0.63c 3.36 ± 0.30c 3.20 ± 0.29c 14.90 ± 1.2c 4.62 ± 0.45b
    30.0 2.80 ± 0.26a 13.50 ± 1.00a 4.02 ± 0.32b 4.20 ± 0.34b 18.80 ± 1.7b 5.34 ± 0.51a
    37.5 2.70± 0.23a 12.40 ± 1.30b 4.13 ± 0.36a 4.40 ± 0.41a 18.90 ± 1.8b 5.42 ± 0.48a
    45.0 2.70 ± 0.22a 13.70 ± 1.10a 4.16 ± 0.39a 4.50 ± 0.40a 19.60 ± 1.7a 5.18 ± 0.47a
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  化肥追肥次数对沙漠红枣生长量、结果情况的影响

    Table  7.   Effects of time number of additional fertilizer application on growth and fruit yield of desert jujube

    追施化肥次数
    Time number of additional
    fertilizer application
    栽植2年 Planting for 2 years栽植3年 Planting for 3 years
    树高
    Tree
    height/m
    枝条总生长量
    Total growth of
    branch/m
    结果量/(t·hm−2)
    Fruit yield/
    (t·ha−1)
    树高
    Tree
    height/m
    枝条总生长量
    Total growth of
    branch/m
    结果量/(t·hm−2)
    Fruit yield/
    (t·ha−1)
    02.10 ± 0.11c10.10 ± 1.20d3.27 ± 0.33c3.00 ± 0.28c13.50 ± 1.20c3.98 ± 0.38c
    12.30 ± 0.12b10.80 ± 1.30c3.51 ± 0.36b3.60 ± 0.30b16.50 ± 1.80b4.65 ± 0.45b
    22.80 ± 0.26a13.50 ± 1.00b4.02 ± 0.32a4.20 ± 0.34a18.80 ± 1.70a5.34 ± 0.51a
    32.80 ± 0.22a14.20 ± 1.20a4.07 ± 0.39a4.30 ± 0.31a19.10 ± 1.70a5.25 ± 0.49a
    注:栽植枣树为骏枣品种。1次追肥时间为6月1日,2次追肥时间为6月1日、8月1日,3次追肥时间为6月1日、7月1 日、8月1日。Notes: the variety of jujube planted is Junzao. The 1 time additional fertilization date is June 1st, the two time additional fertilization dates are June 1st and August 1st, the three time additional fertilization dates are June 1st, July 1st and August 1st.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  叶面喷施化肥次数对沙漠红枣生长量、结果情况的影响

    Table  8.   Effects of spraying fertilizer time number on the surface of jujube leaves on the growth and fruit yield of desert jujube

    叶面喷肥次数
    Time number of spraying
    fertilizer on the surface
    of jujube leaf
    栽植2年 Planting for 2 years栽植3年 Planting for 3 years
    树高
    Tree
    height/m
    枝条总生长量
    Total growth of
    branch/m
    结果量/(t·hm−2)
    Fruit yield/
    (t·ha−1)
    树高
    Tree
    height/m
    枝条总生长量
    Total growth of
    branch/m
    结果量/(t·hm−2)
    Fruit yield/
    (t·ha−1)
    01.90 ± 0.15c8.10 ± 0.60c2.94 ± 0.32c2.80 ± 0.24d12.50 ± 1.10c3.30 ± 0.27c
    12.10 ± 0.17b9.50 ± 0.83b3.06 ± 0.29b3.30 ± 0.30c15.50 ± 1.20b4.20 ± 0.35b
    22.80 ± 0.26a13.50 ± 1.00a4.02 ± 0.32a4.20 ± 0.34b18.80 ± 1.70a5.34 ± 0.51a
    32.90 ± 0.23a13.80 ± 1.20a4.10 ± 0.35a4.50 ± 0.37a19.00 ± 1.60a5.25 ± 0.47a
    注:栽植枣树为骏枣品种。1次喷施时间为7月15日,2次喷施时间为6月15日、7月15日,3次喷施时间为6月15日、7月15日、8月15日。Notes: the variety of jujube planted is Junzao. The 1 time additional fertilization date is July 15, the two time additional fertilization dates are June 15 and July 15. The three time additional fertilization dates are June 15, July 15 and August 15.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  9  灌溉次数对沙漠红枣生长量、结果情况的影响

    Table  9.   Effects of irrigation time on the growth and fruit yield of desert jujube

    每年灌溉次数
    Annual irrigation time
    栽植2年 Planting for 2 years栽植3年 Planting for 3 years
    树高
    Tree
    height/m
    枝条总生长量
    Total growth of
    branch/m
    结果量/(t·hm−2)
    Fruit yield/
    (t·ha−1)
    树高
    Tree
    height/m
    枝条总生长量
    Total growth of
    branch/m
    结果量/(t·hm−2)
    Fruit yield/
    (t·ha−1)
    2 1.70 ± 0.15c 8.20 ± 0.70c 1.80 ± 0.20c 2.10 ± 0.18b 13.50 ± 1.10c 2.48 ± 0.21d
    3 2.00 ± 0.17b 9.60 ± 0.80b 2.78 ± 0.24b 2.60 ± 0.21b 16.50 ± 1.40b 4.20 ± 0.38c
    5 2.80 ± 0.26a 13.50 ± 1.00a 4.02 ± 0.32a 4.20 ± 0.34a 18.80 ± 1.70a 5.34 ± 0.51a
    7 2.80 ± 0.29a 13.90 ± 1.20a 4.07 ± 0.38a 4.50 ± 0.40a 19.10 ± 1.60a 4.82 ± 0.45b
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  10  沙地红枣不同栽培品种对比试验

    Table  10.   Comparative experiment of different desert jujube cultivars

    品种 Variety结果量/
    (t·hm−2)
    Fruit yield/
    (t·ha−1)
    质量 Quality抗性(抗病虫)
    Resistance
    (resistance
    to pest)
    经济效益/
    (104 元·hm−2)
    Economic benefit/
    (104 CNY·ha−1)
    可溶性固
    形物含量
    Soluble solid content/%
    口感
    Taste
    鲜食品种
    Fresh jujube
    variety
    冬枣2号 Z. jujuba cv. Dongzao No.2 23.10 ± 1.88b 26.5 ± 2.1b 6 优 Excellent 54.30
    秦宝冬枣 Z. jujuba cv. Qinbaodongzao 24.30 ± 2.07a 27.4 ± 2.3a 7 优 Excellent 70.05
    早脆王 Z. jujuba cv. Zaocuiwang 22.95 ± 2.13b 26.3 ± 2.4b 5 良 Good 53.85
    伏蜜脆 Z. jujuba cv. Fumicui 24.60 ± 2.27a 27.2 ± 2.6a 3 良 Good 46.05
    灵武长枣 Z. jujuba cv. Lingwuchangzao 19.65 ± 1.80c 23.6 ± 2.1d 1 良 Good 21.98
    蜂蜜罐 Z. jujuba cv. Fengmiguan 12.75 ± 1.44e 25.1 ± 2.4c 2 较差 Bad 16.88
    七月鲜 Z. jujuba cv. Qiyuexian 13.80 ± 1.26d 25.6 ± 2.0c 2 差 Very bad 18.60
    干制品种
    Dry jujube
    variety
    骏枣 Z. jujuba cv. Junzao 18.45 ± 1.65a 25.5 ± 2.1c 3 良 Good 21.90
    灰枣 Z. jujuba cv. Huizao 17.25 ± 1.62b 26.4 ± 2.0a 4 优 Excellent 36.75
    金昌1号 Z. jujuba cv. Jinchang No.1 15.60 ± 1.46c 26.1 ± 2.6a 2 良 Good 31.80
    相枣 Z. jujuba cv. Xiangzao 12.75 ± 1.32d 25.4 ± 2.3b 1 较差 Bad 16.88
    注:可溶性固形物含量由果面2/3红枣测得随机10个枣果的平均值。Note: the soluble solid content is the average value of 10 random jujube fruits measured by 2/3 red surface jujube.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  11  沙地红枣不同树形结果量对比试验                t/hm2

    Table  11.   Comparative experiment on fruit yield of jujube trees with different tree shapes in desert t/ha

    品种
    Variety
    纺锤形
    Spindle shape
    开心形
    Heart-shape
    小冠疏层形
    Small crown sparse layer-shape
    扇形
    Fan-shape
    疏散分层形
    Scattered and
    layered shape
    鲜食品种
    Fresh jujube variety
    冬枣2号 Z. jujuba cv. Dongzao No.2 23.10 ± 1.88a 22.80 ± 1.77a 23.03 ± 2.04a 18.45 ± 1.53b 16.80 ± 1.47c
    秦宝冬枣Z. jujuba. cv. Qinbaodongzao 24.30 ± 2.07a 23.70 ± 1.97b 24.15 ± 2.28a 20.25 ± 1.65c 16.20 ± 1.26d
    早脆王 Z. jujuba cv. Zaocuiwang 22.95 ± 2.13a 21.90 ± 1.98b 22.65 ± 2.06a 18.90 ± 1.71c 16.65 ± 1.53d
    伏蜜脆Z. jujuba cv. Fumicui 24.60 ± 2.27a 24.75 ± 2.16a 24.60 ± 2.43a 20.55 ± 1.73b 19.65 ± 1.82c
    灵武长枣 Z. jujuba cv. Lingwuchangzao 19.65 ± 1.80a 18.90 ± 1.79b 19.35 ± 1.61a 15.30 ± 1.46c 14.70 ± 1.28d
    蜂蜜罐Z. jujuba cv. Fengmiguan 12.75 ± 1.44a 11.70 ± 0.98b 12.30 ± 1.26a 8.10 ± 0.65c 7.80 ± 0.66c
    七月鲜 Z. jujuba cv. Qiyuexian 13.80 ± 1.26a 12.75 ± 1.08c 13.20 ± 0.09b 9.30 ± 0.95d 7.95 ± 0.77e
    干制品种
    Dry jujube variety
    骏枣Z. jujuba cv. Junzao 18.45 ± 1.65a 18.00 ± 1.62ab 17.70 ± 1.67b 14.70 ± 1.52c 11.85 ± 0.98d
    灰枣Z. jujuba cv. Huizao 17.25 ± 1.62a 15.90 ± 1.47b 16.95 ± 1.65a 12.90 ± 1.08c 11.85 ± 0.96d
    金昌1号Z. jujuba cv. Jinchang No.1 15.60 ± 1.46a 14.70 ± 1.28b 14.85 ± 1.14b 12.30 ± 1.09c 12.45 ± 1.04c
    相枣Z. jujuba cv. Xiangzao 12.75 ± 1.32a 11.70 ± 1.04c 12.15 ± 1.08b 10.80 ± 0.95d 10.35 ± 0.81e
    注:表中数据为5年生枣园,数据均为鲜枣测得。表中同行不同小写字母表示横向比较差异显著(P < 0.05)。Notes: the table shows the statistics of 5-year-old jujube trees, and the data are measured from fresh jujube fruit. Different lowercase letters in the horizontal rows indicate significant differences in lateral comparison (P < 0.05).
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  12  沙漠红枣水肥一体化对枣树生长量、结果情况的影响

    Table  12.   Effects of water and fertilizer integration on growth and fruit yield of desert jujube

    追肥方式
    Additional
    fertilization
    method
    栽植1年 Planting for 1 year栽植2年 Planting for 2 years栽植3年 Planting for 3 years
    树高
    Tree
    height/m
    枝条总
    生长量
    Total growth of branch/m
    结果量/
    (t·hm−2)
    Fruit yield/
    (t·ha−1)
    树高
    Tree
    height/m
    枝条总
    生长量
    Total growth of branch/m
    结果量/
    (t·hm−2)
    Fruit yield/
    (t·ha−1)
    树高
    Tree
    height/m
    枝条总
    生长量
    Total growth of branch/m
    结果量/
    (t·hm−2)
    Fruit yield/
    (t·ha−1)
    普通追肥
    Ordinary additional
    fertilization
    1.14 ± 0.14b4.56 ± 0.40b1.26 ± 0.11b2.80 ± 0.26b13.50 ± 1.00b4.02 ± 0.32b4.20 ± 0.34a18.80 ± 1.70b5.34 ± 0.51b
    水肥一体化
    Water and fertilizer
    integration
    1.70 ± 0.15a5.58 ± 0.47a1.46 ± 0.13a3.10 ± 0.29a15.40 ± 1.40a4.26 ± 0.36a4.40 ± 0.37a19.60 ± 1.60a5.63 ± 0.48a
    注:栽植枣树为骏枣品种,露地栽培。普通追肥为6月1日、8月1日,每年2次开沟施入。水肥一体化在灌溉开花水(5月中下旬)、保果水(8月初)时施入。表中纵列不同小写字母表示纵向比较差异显著(P < 0.05)。Notes: the variety of jujube planted is Junzao, which is cultivated in open field. Ordinary additional fertilization is carried out twice a year and applied by ditching on June 1st and August 1st, respectively. Water and fertilizer integration are applied during the irrigation in mid late May and early August. Different lowercase letters in the column indicate significant differences in longitudinal comparison (P < 0.05).
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  13  沙漠红枣设施栽培效益分析

    Table  13.   Cultivation benefit analysis of desert jujube facility

    栽培模式
    Cultivation mode
    栽植2年 Planting for 2 years栽植3年 Planting for 3 years栽植4年 Planting for 4 years
    结果量/
    (t·hm−2)
    Fruit yield/
    (t·ha−1)
    裂果率
    Fruit
    cracking
    rate/%
    经济效益/
    (104 元·hm−2)
    Economic benefit/
    (104 CNY·ha−1)
    结果量/
    (t·hm−2)
    Fruit yield/
    (t·ha−1)
    裂果率
    Fruit
    cracking
    rate/%
    经济效益/
    (104 元·hm−2)
    Economic benefit/
    (104 CNY·ha−1)
    结果量/
    (t·hm−2)
    Fruit yield/
    (t·ha−1)
    裂果率
    Fruit
    cracking
    rate/%
    经济效益/
    (104 元·hm−2)
    Economic benefit/
    (104 CNY·ha−1)
    沙漠露地栽培
    Open field cultivation in the desert
    1.2615.01.894.0217.0 6.03 5.3416.2 8.01
    沙漠设施栽培
    Facility cultivation in the desert
    1.80 3.05.406.75 3.520.2517.25 3.651.75
    注:供试品种为冬枣2号,采用水肥一体化栽培。露地枣结果迟,单价按15元/kg计,设施枣提前2个月上市,单价按30元/kg计。Notes: the test variety is Dongzao No. 2. Water and fertilizer integration is applied. The jujube cultivated in open field grows fruit later and the unit price is calculated at 15 CNY/kg. The jujube cultivated in the desert facility can be listed two months in advance, and the unit price is calculated at 30 CNY/kg.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-01-14
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