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不同提取方法对红松籽油提取效果及功能性质的影响

潘晓丽 王凤娟 张娜 郭庆启

潘晓丽, 王凤娟, 张娜, 郭庆启. 不同提取方法对红松籽油提取效果及功能性质的影响[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2021, 43(1): 127-135. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20200109
引用本文: 潘晓丽, 王凤娟, 张娜, 郭庆启. 不同提取方法对红松籽油提取效果及功能性质的影响[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2021, 43(1): 127-135. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20200109
Pan Xiaoli, Wang Fengjuan, Zhang Na, Guo Qingqi. Effects of different extraction methods on extraction effect and functional properties of Korean pine seed oil[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2021, 43(1): 127-135. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20200109
Citation: Pan Xiaoli, Wang Fengjuan, Zhang Na, Guo Qingqi. Effects of different extraction methods on extraction effect and functional properties of Korean pine seed oil[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2021, 43(1): 127-135. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20200109

不同提取方法对红松籽油提取效果及功能性质的影响

doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20200109
基金项目: 中央高校基本科研业务费专项(2572018BA09),中央财政支持地方高校发展专项
详细信息
    作者简介:

    潘晓丽。主要研究方向:森林食品加工与利用。Email:24564877018@qq.com 地址:150040 黑龙江省哈尔滨市东北林业大学林学院

    责任作者:

    郭庆启,博士,副教授。主要研究方向:天然产物化学。Email:qingqiguo@vip.163.com 地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: TS224.4,S791.247

Effects of different extraction methods on extraction effect and functional properties of Korean pine seed oil

  • 摘要:   目的  立足于溶剂法,通过对比超声波、微波、光波单独处理较短时间的红松籽油的得率,以及处理后单独浸提红松籽油得率的增加情况,明确在红松籽油提取过程中处于主导作用的方法,同时确认4种提取方法对红松籽油的理化指标、脂肪酸和抗氧化能力的影响。  方法  按照GB/T 5009.229—2016《食品中酸价的测定》、GB/T 5532—2008《动植物油脂 碘值的测定》和GB/T 5009.227—2016《食品中过氧化值的测定》分别测定4种方法提取的红松籽油的酸值、碘值和过氧化物值,采用气相色谱–质谱联用法测定红松籽油中脂肪酸的种类和质量分数,采用分光光度法测定红松籽油对DPPH·和ABTS+·的清除能力。  结果  正己烷作为最佳提取溶剂,当提取温度25 ℃,液料比18 mL/g,浸提时间5 h红松籽油得率为65.52%。超声波法(300 W,10 min)、微波法(380 W,100 s)、光波法(400 W,11 min)单独处理时的红松籽油得率分别为67.63%、62.26%、58.25%。上述3种方法处理后再单独使用正己烷浸提,使总提取时间达到5 h后的红松籽油得率分别增加了2.18%、4.50%、6.10%。4种方法提取的红松籽油符合GB/T 2716—2018《食品安全国家标准 植物油》中酸值(≤ 4 mg/g)、过氧化值(≤ 0.25 g/100 g)的限量标准。溶剂法制备出的红松籽油的酸值和过氧化值均最低(P < 0.05)。脂肪酸质量分数由高到低分别是亚油酸(44.54% ~ 46.32%)、油酸(28.29 % ~ 28.83%)和皮诺敛酸(13.15% ~ 14.51%)。溶剂法、超声波法、微波法、光波法所提取的红松籽油清除DPPH·和ABTS+·的IC50值分别是9.41、8.80、9.43、9.61 g/L和5.10、5.51、6.10、5.43 g/L。  结论  对超声波法、微波法和光波法单独作用及浸提后得率进行比较,发现超声波法、微波法和光波法在提取过程中起主导作用。与溶剂法、微波法和光波法相比,超声波法提取的红松籽油得率高,不饱和脂肪酸质量分数高,抗氧化能力强,能够达到较好的提取效果,此方法应用于红松籽制油工业中具有一定优势。

     

  • 图  1  不同方法提取红松籽油对DPPH· 的清除效果

    Figure  1.  Effects of extraction methods on DPPH· scavengingactivity of Korean pine seed oil

    图  2  不同方法提取红松籽油对ABTS+· 的清除效果

    Figure  2.  Effects of extraction methods on ABTS+· scavengingactivity of Korean pine seed oil

    表  1  不同溶剂浸提的红松籽油得率

    Table  1.   Effects of different solvents on yield of Korean pine seed oil

    提取溶剂 Extraction solvent乙酸乙酯 Ethyl acetate石油醚 Petroleum ether正己烷 n-hexane无水乙醇 Anhydrous ethanol
    油脂得率 Oil yield/%50.65b52.75c56.68d15.46a
    注:小写字母不同表示差异显著(P < 0.05)。下同。Notes: different lowercase letters indicate significant differences (P < 0.05). The same below.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  液料比对红松籽油得率的影响

    Table  2.   Effects of liquid to solid ratio on yield of Korean pine seed oil

    液料比 Liquid to solid ratio/(mL·g−1)61014182226
    油脂得率 Oil yield/%55.31a57.14b58.83c60.50d60.67d60.71d
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  提取时间对红松籽油得率的影响

    Table  3.   Effects of extraction time on yield of Korean pine seed oil

    提取时间 Extraction time/h1357911
    油脂得率 Oil yield/%47.57a60.51b65.52c65.68c65.78c65.85c
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  提取功率对红松籽油得率的影响

    Table  4.   Effects of extraction power on yield of Korean pine seed oil

    超声波法 Ultrasonic method微波法 Microwave method光波法 Light wave method
    功率 Power/W得率 Yield/%功率 Power/W得率 Yield/%功率 Power/W得率 Yield/%
    20063.45d34045.44a25044.04a
    25065.68e36049.21b30049.76b
    30067.63f38054.35e35051.60c
    35062.35c40051.93d40058.25e
    40060.45b42050.41c45056.74d
    45056.07a44049.53b50055.28c
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  提取时间对红松籽油得率的影响

    Table  5.   Effects of extraction time on yield of Korean pine seed oil

    超声波法 Ultrasonic method微波法 Microwave method光波法 Light wave method
    时间 Time/min得率 Yield/%时间 Time/s得率 Yield/%时间 Time/min得率 Yield/%
    565.78e6054.35a345.65a
    1067.63f7054.84a547.20b
    1564.31d8055.95b752.09c
    2062.99c9057.62c952.94e
    2561.61b10062.26d1158.25d
    3057.73a11061.16d1351.49c
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  4种方法提取红松籽油得率

    Table  6.   Yield of Korean pine seed oil extracted by four methods %

    溶剂法 Solvent method超声波法 Ultrasonic method微波法 Microwave method光波法 Light wave method
    65.52c67.63d62.26b58.25a
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  3种方法处理后浸提红松籽油得率与单独作用提取比例

    Table  7.   Yield of Korean pine seed oil extracted by three methods and extracting percentage of separate action %

    超声波法 Ultrasonic method微波法 Microwave method光波法 Light wave method
    处理后浸提得率
    Yield for soaking
    after treatment
    单独作用提取比例
    Extraction percentage by separate action
    处理后浸提得率
    Yield for soaking
    after treatment
    单独作用提取比例
    Extraction percentage by separate action
    处理后浸提得率
    Yield for soaking
    after treatment
    单独作用提取比例
    Extraction percentage by separate action
    2.18A96.88a4.50B93.26b6.10C90.52c
    注:大写字母不同表示处理后浸提得率差异显著(P < 0.05),小写字母不同表示单独作用提取比例差异显著(P < 0.05)。Notes: different capital letters indicate that there are significant differences in yield for soaking after treatment (P < 0.05),and different lowercase letters indicate that there are significant differences in extraction percentage by separate action (P < 0.05).
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  不同提取方法制备红松籽油的理化性质

    Table  8.   Physical and chemical properties of Korean pine seed oil prepared by different extraction methods

    提取方法 Extraction method酸值 Acid value/(mg·g−1)碘值 Iodine value/(g·100 g−1)过氧化值 Peroxide value/(g·100 g−1)
    溶剂法 Solvent method0.89a145.65a0.18a
    超声波法 Ultrasonic method0.93a150.44d0.21b
    微波法 Microwave method0.95b147.77b0.22b
    光波法 Light wave method0.97c148.06c0.24c
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  9  4种提取方法对红松籽油脂肪酸组成和质量分数的影响

    Table  9.   Effects of extration methods on composition and mass fraction of fatty acids in Korean pine seed oil

    脂肪酸种类 Type of fatty acid质量分数 Mass fraction/%
    溶剂法
    Solvent method
    超声波法
    Ultrasonic method
    微波法
    Microwave method
    光波法
    Light wave method
    棕榈酸 Palmitic acid (C16:0) 4.90d 3.68b 3.56a 3.91c
    硬脂酸 Stearic acid (C18:0) 3.61d 2.41a 2.55c 2.49b
    油酸 Oleic acid (C18:1) 28.30a 28.83c 28.29a 28.55b
    亚油酸 Linoleic acid (9c,12c-C18:2) 46.32d 44.87c 44.54a 44.78b
    皮诺敛酸 Pinolenic acid (5c,9c,12c-C18:3) 13.15a 14.51d 13.83b 14.17c
    花生酸 Arachidic acid (C20:0) 0.74c 0.69b 0.54a 0.68b
    花生一烯酸 Cis-11-eicosenoic acid (C20:1) 1.05a 1.02a 1.21b 1.18b
    不饱和脂肪酸 Unsaturated fatty acid 88.82 89.23 87.87 88.68
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-04-16
  • 修回日期:  2020-07-07
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-01-11
  • 刊出日期:  2021-02-05

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