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以生境保护优先的北京市第二道绿化隔离地区郊野公园选址方法

王瑞琦 仇渊勋 李雄

王瑞琦, 仇渊勋, 李雄. 以生境保护优先的北京市第二道绿化隔离地区郊野公园选址方法[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2021, 43(2): 127-137. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20200135
引用本文: 王瑞琦, 仇渊勋, 李雄. 以生境保护优先的北京市第二道绿化隔离地区郊野公园选址方法[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2021, 43(2): 127-137. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20200135
Wang Ruiqi, Qiu Yuanxun, Li Xiong. Site selection methods of country park with priority of habitat protection in the second green isolated area of Beijing[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2021, 43(2): 127-137. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20200135
Citation: Wang Ruiqi, Qiu Yuanxun, Li Xiong. Site selection methods of country park with priority of habitat protection in the second green isolated area of Beijing[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2021, 43(2): 127-137. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20200135

以生境保护优先的北京市第二道绿化隔离地区郊野公园选址方法

doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20200135
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(31670704)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    王瑞琦,博士生。主要研究方向:风景园林规划设计与理论。Email:745479946@qq.com 地址:100083 北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学园林学院

    责任作者:

    李雄,教授,博士生导师。主要研究方向:风景园林规划设计与理论。Email:lixiong@bjfu.end.cn 地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S731.1

Site selection methods of country park with priority of habitat protection in the second green isolated area of Beijing

  • 摘要:   目的  在中国快速城镇化背景下,北京市边缘地区的生态环境不断恶化,绿化隔离带成为控制北京市建成区无序扩张、改善城市生态环境的手段,在绿化隔离带范围内建设郊野公园是落实规划的有效途径。郊野公园的核心目标是在生态保育的同时提供少量的游憩活动,因此对于绿化隔离带范围内生境质量高的区域进行保护应作为郊野公园选址的基础原则。  方法  本文在总结国内外学者相关研究的基础上,以北京市第二道绿化隔离地区为例,构建生境保护优先的郊野公园选址框架,利用InVEST评价模型对研究区域的生境质量进行评价,根据生境质量指数将生境划分为低生境、一般生境、中生境、高生境、极重要生境5个等级。以模型评价结果中极重要生境地区作为郊野公园选址的基础原则选取生境保护优先的备选区范围,叠加周边公园资源、已建和拟建郊野公园、土地利用规划、基本农田保护规划、城市道路网可达性和土地利用现状6个外部建设条件和内部开发条件的指标因子选出适宜建设的区域,再根据植被覆盖类型的空间数据划定所选区域内的生境斑块群类型,最终完成研究区域内生境保护优先型郊野公园的选址和分类。  结果  不同类型的生境空间分布呈现一定差异性,根据不同生境划定混交林、灌丛、阔叶林或针叶林、农田、农田与纯林以及滨水6种类型的郊野公园,在通州区碱厂村、昌平区史家桥村、房山区梨村等村镇划定共41处以生境保护优先的郊野公园用地范围。  结论  以生境保护优先的郊野公园选址方法具有明显的空间定量化优势,其评价结果可以为北京市第二道绿化隔离地区的郊野公园选址提供科学依据。

     

  • 图  1  北京市第二道绿化隔离带范围

    Figure  1.  Scope of the second green isolated area of Beijing

    图  2  研究框架

    Figure  2.  Research framework

    图  3  生境质量评价结果分布

    Figure  3.  Distribution of habitat quality assessment results

    图  4  已建和拟建郊野公园的分布图

    Figure  4.  Distribution of existing and to be built country parks

    图  5  以生境保护优先的郊野公园选址结果

    Figure  5.  Site selection results of country park with priority of habitat protection

    表  1  威胁源的影响范围及权重

    Table  1.   Influencing scope and weight of threating source

    威胁因子
    Threating factor
    最大影响距离
    Maximum influencing distance/km
    权重
    Weight
    衰退线性相关性
    Regression linear correlation
    耕地 Farmland 0.50 0.50 0.00
    道路 Road 1.50 0.50 1.00
    铁路 Railway 0.50 0.50 1.00
    居民点 Residential area 1.00 0.70 0.00
    工业用地 Industrial land 1.00 1.00 0.00
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  生境对威胁源的敏感度

    Table  2.   Sensitivity of habitat type to threating source

    地类
    Land type
    自然属性
    Natural property
    耕地
    Farmland
    道路
    Road
    铁路
    Railway
    居民点
    Residential area
    工业用地
    Industrial land
    阔叶林 Broadleaved forest 1.00 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.55 0.70
    针叶林 Coniferous forest 1.00 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.55 0.70
    混交林 Mixed forest 1.00 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.55 0.70
    水域 Water area 1.00 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.75 0.90
    采伐迹地 Clear-cutting forestland 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
    辅助生产林地 Auxiliary production forestland 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
    苗圃地 Nursery garden 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
    疏林地 Open woodland 0.00 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.35 0.50
    未成林造林地 Forestland with immature forest 0.00 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.35 0.50
    其他灌木林地 Other shrub land 0.90 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.55 0.70
    注:自然属性指对应地类固有的敏感度。Note: natural property refers to the inherent sensitivity of corresponding land class.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  生境保护优先的郊野公园选址评价指标

    Table  3.   Evaluation index of country park site selection with priority of habitat protection

    指标类别
    Indicator category
    指标因子
    Index factor
    选取依据
    Selection basis
    数据来源/计算方法
    Data source or calculation method
    生境质量
    Habitat quality
    生境质量指数
    Habitat quality index
    生境退化程度评价现状栖息地质量
    Assessment of habitat degradation degree and current habitat quality
    InVEST模型评估的生境质量空间矢量数据
    Spatial vector data of habitat quality assessed by invest model
    外部建设条件
    External construction condition
    周边公园资源
    Surrounding park resource
    避免与周边已经或拟建的其他公园距离较近
    Avoid being close to other parks having been or will be built around
    政府部门信息绘制的空间分布矢量数据
    Spatial distribution vector data drawn by government information
    城市道路网可达性
    Accessibility of urban road network
    依据道路网密度评价郊野公园可开发条件
    Evaluation of exploitable conditions of country parks based on road network density
    ArcGIS分析城市过境交通线路公交站1 km和
    2 km覆盖范围的空间矢量数据
    ArcGIS analysis of spatial vector data of 1 km and 2 km coverage of urban transit bus stops
    已建和拟建郊野公园
    Built and planned country park
    避免选址于城市已建和规划拟建的郊野公园
    Avoid site selection in the country parks built or planned in the city
    政府部门信息绘制的空间分布矢量数据
    Spatial distribution vector data drawn by government information
    基本农田保护规划
    Protection planning of basic farmland
    依据城市基本农田保护规划分析郊野公园可建设区域
    According to the protection planning of urban basic farmland, the construction area of country park is analyzed
    基本农田规划的空间矢量数据
    Spatial vector data of basic farmland planning
    内部开发条件
    Internal development condition
    现状用地情况
    Current land use condition
    依据城市现状分析郊野公园可建设区域
    Analysis of construction area of country park based on the current situation of city
    Google Earth解译的现状用地空间矢量数据
    Current land use spatial vector data interpreted by Google Earth
    用地规划
    Land use plan
    依据上位规划用地类型(水体、农田、林地、建设用地)分析郊野公园可建设区域
    According to the upper planning land type (water, farmland, woodland, construction land), the construction area of country park is analyzed
    城市用地规划的空间矢量数据
    Spatial vector data of urban land use planning
    植被覆盖类型
    Vegetation cover type
    主导群落类型
    Dominant community type
    依据群落类型(混交林、阔叶林、针叶林、灌丛、农田)提供的植物物种丰富度
    Plant species richness based on community type (mixed forest, broadleaved forest, coniferous forest, shrub, farmland)
    遥感数据解译的植被类型空间矢量数据
    Spatial vector data of vegetation type interpreted from remote sensing data
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  北京市二道绿隔地区各等级生境质量比例

    Table  4.   Percentage of each habitat level in the second green isolated area of Beijing

    生境等级
    Habitat level
    面积
    Area/km2
    占比
    Proportion/%
    低生境 Low level habitat 1 029 38.1
    一般生境 General level habitat 454 16.8
    中生境 Medium level habitat 110 4.1
    高生境 High level habitat 987 36.6
    极重要生境 Extremely important habitat 116 4.3
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  生境斑块群的分类及规划建议

    Table  5.   Classification and planning suggestions of habitat patch groups

    生境类型
    Habitat type
    生境斑块面积/hm2
    Habitat patch area/ha
    规划建议
    Planning proposal
    超大型山地混交林生境
    Habitat of super large mountain mixed forest
    150 ~ 300 核心保护、适度游憩
    Core protection, moderate recreation
    大型农田生境
    Large scale farmland habitat
    50 ~ 150 破碎整合、统筹利用
    Fragmentation, integration and overall utilization
    中型河流生境
    Medium river habitat
    20 ~ 50 连接廊道、沿岸拓宽
    Connecting corridor and coastal widening
    小型针叶林或阔叶林生境
    Small-scale coniferous or broadleaved forest habitat
    10 ~ 20 内部控制、边缘开发
    Internal control, edge development
    微型灌丛生境
    Micro shrub habitat
    0 ~ 10 增补乔木、提升结构
    Adding arbor and upgrading structure
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2020-04-29
  • 修回日期:  2020-09-28
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-01-18
  • 刊出日期:  2021-02-24

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