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华北地区冬季景观树种选择研究

张致义 邱尔发 谢晓阳 辛琳 王新宇 奚露 孙振凯 边琦

张致义, 邱尔发, 谢晓阳, 辛琳, 王新宇, 奚露, 孙振凯, 边琦. 华北地区冬季景观树种选择研究[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2021, 43(7): 111-119. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20200221
引用本文: 张致义, 邱尔发, 谢晓阳, 辛琳, 王新宇, 奚露, 孙振凯, 边琦. 华北地区冬季景观树种选择研究[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2021, 43(7): 111-119. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20200221
Zhang Zhiyi, Qiu Erfa, Xie Xiaoyang, Xin Lin, Wang Xinyu, Xi Lu, Sun Zhenkai, Bian Qi. Selection of winter landscape tree species in North China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2021, 43(7): 111-119. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20200221
Citation: Zhang Zhiyi, Qiu Erfa, Xie Xiaoyang, Xin Lin, Wang Xinyu, Xi Lu, Sun Zhenkai, Bian Qi. Selection of winter landscape tree species in North China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2021, 43(7): 111-119. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20200221

华北地区冬季景观树种选择研究

doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20200221
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划“科技冬奥”课题(2019YFF0303204)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    张致义。主要研究方向:冬奥廊道沿线平原地带道路冬季景观质量提升。Email:2258202268@qq.com 地址:100091 北京市海淀区青龙桥街道东小府1号中国林业科学研究院林业研究所

    责任作者:

    邱尔发,博士,研究员。主要研究方向:人居林培育。Email:efqiu@163.com 地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S731.2

Selection of winter landscape tree species in North China

  • 摘要:   目的  建立树种冬季景观质量评价模型,筛选以提升冬季景观质量为主的优良绿化树种,为华北地区冬季景观树种选择提供科学依据。  方法  依据树木观赏器官(姿态、茎杆、果、叶、芽)的生物学特性,以《华北树木志》为主,结合《园林树木1600种》及相关文献,初选华北地区312种乔木、455种灌木树种,并进行分类整理;收集影响树种冬季景观质量的指标,采用主成分分析法建立树种冬季景观质量综合评价模型,并进行综合评价。  结果  筛选出的优良乔木树种,位于第Ⅰ等级的常绿乔木3科7属12种,落叶乔木20科26属43种,其中新疆杨的观赏价值最高,相对综合指数为0.450 3%;第Ⅱ等级的常绿乔木4科10属15种,落叶乔木26科36属94种。优良灌木树种,第Ⅰ等级的常绿灌木8科10属23种,落叶灌木15科23属58种,其中红瑞木的观赏价值最高,相对综合指数为0.362 5%;第Ⅱ等级的常绿灌木5科6属8种,落叶灌木24科49属110种。  结论  筛选出的第Ⅰ等级、第Ⅱ等级的乔木、灌木树种可分别作为冬季景观质量提升的优、良绿化树种,华北各城市可根据立地条件选择适宜树种,提升冬季植物景观。

     

  • 表  1  冬季观赏树种选择评价标准

    Table  1.   Evaluation criteria for selection of ornamental species in winter

    准则层
    Criterion layer
    指标层
    Indirator layer
    评价对象
    Evaluation object
    指标描述界定
    Definition of descriptor
    姿态 Posture 自然树高
    Natural tree
    height(H)/m
    乔木
    Tree
    5分:H > 30;4分:30 ≥ H > 20;3分:20 ≥ H > 10;2分:10 ≥ H > 6;1分:6 ≥ H > 4
    5 points, H > 30; 4 points, 30 ≥ H > 20; 3 points, 20 ≥ H > 10; 2 points, 10 ≥ H > 6; 1 point,
    6 ≥ H > 4
    树形
    Tree posture
    乔木、灌木
    Tree and shrub
    5分:枝条整齐,主侧枝分布均匀,树形优美;4分:枝条疏密得当,树形较优美;3分:枝条较稀疏,树形一般;2分:枝条稀疏,但较整齐,树形枝形观赏性较差;1分:几乎无特定树形,枝条分布散乱,观赏性低
    5 points, the branches are neat, the main and lateral branches are evenly distributed, and the tree shape is beautiful; 4 points, the branches are properly sparse and dense,the tree shape is less beautiful; 3 points, the branches are sparse, and the tree shape is general; 2 points, the branches are sparse but neat, the ornamental value of tree shape is poor; 1 point, it is almost no specific tree shape, the branches are scattered and scattered, and the ornamental value is low
    树皮质感
    Bark texture
    乔木
    Tree
    5分:美观奇特,或表面平滑、无剥落;4分:美观较奇特,或表面较光滑、呈浅纵裂剥落;3分:美观,表面有少许裂痕或斑迹,呈纵裂剥落;2分:较美观,表面有较多裂痕或斑迹,呈深纵裂剥落;1分:树皮粗糙,有刺,观赏价值低
    5 points, beautiful and peculiar, or the surface is smooth, without peeling; 4 points, beautiful and peculiar, or the surface is smooth, showing shallow longitudinal cracks and peeling; 3 points, beautiful, with a little crack or spot on the surface, showing longitudinal cracks and peeling; 2 points, more beautiful, with more cracks or spots on the surface, showing deep longitudinal cracks and peeling; 1 points, rough bark, thorns, low ornamental value
    茎杆 Stem 茎杆颜色
    Stem color
    乔木、灌木
    Tree and shrub
    5分:1年生枝与多年生枝或树皮颜色醒目,如红、黄色,观赏价值高;4分:1年生枝颜色较醒目,但多年枝颜色较暗;或树皮颜色较醒目,观赏价值较高;3分:1年生枝与多年生枝或树皮颜色为紫褐色、红褐色等;2分:1年生枝与多年生枝或树皮颜色为灰褐色,色泽较暗,有一定观赏价值;1分:1年生枝与多年生枝或树皮颜色暗淡,观赏价值一般
    5 points, the color of 1-year-old branch and perennial branch or bark is eye-catching, such as red and yellow, with high ornamental value; 4 points, the color of 1-year-old branch is less eye-catching, but the color of multi-year-old branch is dark; or the color of bark is eye-catching, with less ornamental value; 3 points, the color of 1-year-old branch and perennial branch or bark is purplish brown or reddish brown, etc; 2 points, the color of 1-year-old branch and perennial branch or bark is grayish brown and dark, which has certain ornamental value; 1 point, the color of 1-year-old branch and perennial branch or bark is dim, and the ornamental value is general
    叶 Leaf 叶色
    Leaf color
    乔木、灌木
    Tree and shrub
    5分:常绿,叶色翠绿,且冬季叶色醒目;4分:常绿,但冬季叶色较暗;3分:落叶,常年异色或叶色季相变化明显,且颜色艳丽有光泽,几具彩色叶;2分:落叶,叶色有季相变化,但色彩较暗;1分:落叶,叶色黯淡,表面粗糙,几乎无观赏价值
    5 points, evergreen, the leaf color is emerald green, and the winter leaf color is eye-catching; 4 points, evergreen, but the leaf color is relatively dark in winter; 3 points, deciduous, perennial color or seasonal change of leaf color is obvious, and the color is bright and glossy; 2 points, fallen leaves, the leaf color has seasonal changes, but the color is relatively dark; 1 point, fallen leaves, the leaf color is dark, the surface is rough, almost no ornamental value
    果 Fruit 果色及观
    果时间
    Fruit color and
    observation time
    乔木、灌木
    Tree and shrub
    5分:冬季挂果,挂果时间长,果色鲜艳醒目,显著度高,观赏价值高;4分:冬季挂果,但挂果时间较长或果色较醒目,冬季观赏性较高;3分:冬季已落果,挂果时间较短,果色鲜艳醒目,显著度高;2分:冬季已落果,挂果时间短或果色较鲜艳醒目,显著度较高;1分:果色一般,几乎无观赏性
    5 points, long time of fruit setting in winter, bright and eye-catching fruit color, high significance and high ornamental value; 4 points, fruit hanging in winter, but the fruit hanging time is longer or the fruit color is more eye-catching, and the ornamental value is higher in winter; 3 points, the fruit has fallen in winter, the fruit time is short, the fruit color is bright and eye-catching, and the significance is high; 2 points, the fruit has fallen in winter, the fruit hanging time is short, or the fruit color is bright and eye-catching, showing 1 point, the fruit color is average, almost no ornamental
    芽 Bud 显著度
    Prominence
    乔木、灌木
    Tree and shrub
    5分:冬芽大,饱满,色彩醒目;3分:冬芽有一定饱满度,色彩较醒目;1分:冬芽小,色彩暗淡,不显著或几乎无
    5 points, the winter buds are large, full and eye-catching in color; 3 points, the winter buds have a certain degree of fullness and the color is more eye-catching; 1 point, the winter buds are small, the color is dim, not significant or almost no
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  乔木、灌木树种特征值及方差贡献率

    Table  2.   Characteristic values and variance contribution rate of tree and shurb species

    主成分
    Principal component
    乔木 Tree灌木 Shrub
    特征值
    Eigenvalue
    方差贡献率
    Variance
    contribution rate/%
    累积方差贡献率
    Accumulative variance
    contribution rate/%
    特征值
    Eigenvalue
    方差贡献率
    Variance
    contribution rate/%
    累积方差贡献率
    Accumulative variance
    contribution rate/%
    11.9527.9127.911.9639.2139.21
    21.2818.3546.260.9819.6258.83
    31.0615.0961.340.8416.8275.65
    40.9313.2574.590.7414.8690.51
    50.699.8484.43
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  乔木、灌木树种主成分载荷矩阵

    Table  3.   Load matrix of principal components of tree and shrub species

    指标 Index乔木主成分 Tree principal component灌木主成分 Shurb principal component
    123451234
    H 0.61 −0.53 0.31 0.16 −0.05
    树形 Tree posture 0.75 −0.06 −0.07 0.29 0.25 0.80 −0.10 −0.06 −0.33
    树皮质感 Bark texture 0.12 0.57 0.46 0.59 0.11
    茎杆颜色 Stem color 0.37 0.30 0.45 −0.66 0.37 0.41 0.66 0.62 0.09
    叶色 Leaf color 0.65 0.28 0.10 −0.18 −0.67 0.68 0.33 −0.47 −0.26
    果色及观果时间 Fruit color and observation time 0.26 0.66 −0.58 0.00 0.07 0.64 −0.11 −0.20 0.74
    芽 Bud 0.62 −0.27 −0.44 −0.04 0.18 0.55 −0.64 0.44 −0.12
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  冬季乔木、灌木景观树种选择模型

    Table  4.   Selection model of landscape tree and shrub species in winter

    准则层 Criterion layer指标层 Index layer乔木权重 Tree weight灌木权重 Shrub weight
    姿态 Posture H 0.101 9
    树形 Tree posture 0.235 2 0.083 2
    茎杆 Stem 树皮质感 Bark texture 0.373 6
    茎杆颜色 Stem color 0.165 3 0.488 5
    叶 Leaf 叶色 Leaf color 0.035 8 0.075 1
    果 Fruit 果色及观果时间 Fruit color and observation time 0.081 3 0.289 5
    芽 Bud 显著度 Prominence 0.006 9 0.063 7
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  乔、灌木综合排序分级表

    Table  5.   Comprehensive ranking table of tree and shrub

    植被类型
    Vegetation type
    等级 Level
    Ⅰ级 Level ⅠⅡ级 Level ⅡⅢ级 Level ⅢⅣ级 Level Ⅳ
    乔木 Tree X ≥ 0.374 9% 0.374 9% > X ≥ 0.320 5% 0.320 5% > X ≥ 0.266 1% X < 0.266 1%
    灌木 Shrub X ≥ 0.279 8% 0.279 8% > X ≥ 0.219 8% 0.219 8% > X ≥ 0.159 8% X < 0.159 8%
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  乔木树种科属种分析

    Table  6.   Analysis of tree species, genera and species

    乔木类型
    Tree type
    等级 Level
    Ⅰ级 LevelⅠⅡ级 Level ⅡⅢ级 Level ⅢⅣ级 Level Ⅳ
    常绿 Evergreen 3 科 7 属 12 种
    3 family 7 genus 12 species
    4 科 10 属 15 种
    4 family 10 genus 15 species
    1 科 2 属 3 种
    1 family 2 genus 3 species
    0
    落叶 Deciduous 20 科 26 属 43 种
    20 family 26 genus 43 species
    26 科 36 属 94 种
    26 family 36 genus 94 species
    26 科 41 属 87 种
    26 family 41 genus 87 species
    19 科 30 属 58 种
    19 family 30 genus 58 species
    合计 All 22 科 33 属 55 种
    22 family 33 genus 55 species
    28 科 45 属 109 种
    28 family 45 genus 109 species
    26 科 43 属 90 种
    26 family 43 genus 90 species
    19 科 30 属 58 种
    19 family 30 genus 58 species
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  华北地区部分冬季乔木景观树种

    Table  7.   Some winter landscape tree species in North China

    乔木
    Arbor
    相对观姿指数
    Relative
    posture
    observation
    index/%
    相对观干指数
    Relative
    stem
    observation
    index/%
    相对观叶指数
    Relative
    leaf
    observation
    index/%
    相关观果指数
    Relative
    fruit
    observation
    index/%
    相对观芽指数
    Relative
    bud
    observation
    index/%
    相对综合指数
    Relative
    composite
    index/%
    等级排序
    Ranking
    新疆杨 Salix alba var. pyramidalis 0.484 1 0.448 0 0.361 4 0.304 9 0.448 0 0.450 3
    雪松 Cedrus deodara 0.484 1 0.381 8 0.481 9 0.609 8 0.448 0 0.432 9
    二球悬铃木 Platanus acerifolia 0.484 1 0.418 7 0.241 0 0.304 9 0.448 0 0.430 3
    杂种鹅掌楸 Liriodendron chinense × tulipifera 0.484 1 0.381 8 0.361 4 0.609 8 0.448 0 0.429 3
    白皮松 Pinus bungeana 0.387 3 0.477 2 0.481 9 0.152 4 0.448 0 0.428 7
    金枝槐 Sophora japonica ‘chrysoclada’ 0.387 3 0.448 0 0.361 4 0.457 3 0.448 0 0.424 9
    白桦 Betula platyphylla 0.387 3 0.477 2 0.361 4 0.152 4 0.268 8 0.423 7
    西府海棠 Malus × micromalus 0.396 3 0.418 7 0.361 4 0.609 8 0.268 8 0.418 2
    山桃 Amygdalus davidiana 0.261 2 0.477 2 0.361 4 0.457 3 0.089 6 0.394 8
    青扦 Picea wilsonii 0.484 1 0.352 5 0.481 9 0.152 4 0.448 0 0.392 1
    北美乔松 Pinus strobus 0.416 6 0.381 8 0.602 4 0.152 4 0.448 0 0.388 7
    白杜 Euonymus maackii 0.261 2 0.448 0 0.361 4 0.609 8 0.089 6 0.386 5
    白扦 Picea meyeri 0.454 8 0.352 5 0.602 4 0.152 4 0.448 0 0.385 5
    馒头柳 Salix matsudana f. umbraculifera 0.425 6 0.381 8 0.361 4 0.152 4 0.268 8 0.383 3
    紫叶李 Prunus cerasifera f. atropurpurea 0.358 0 0.381 8 0.361 4 0.457 3 0.448 0 0.377 5
    广玉兰 Magnolia grandiflora 0.416 6 0.323 2 0.602 4 0.457 3 0.448 0 0.372 0
    国槐 Styphnolobium japonicum 0.387 3 0.352 5 0.361 4 0.457 3 0.448 0 0.371 2
    侧柏 Platycladus orientalis 0.290 5 0.381 8 0.481 9 0.609 8 0.448 0 0.365 7
    七叶树 Aesculus chinensis 0.358 0 0.352 5 0.361 4 0.304 9 0.448 0 0.352 9
    Diospyros kaki 0.358 0 0.323 2 0.361 4 0.609 8 0.448 0 0.352 6
    龙爪槐 Styphnolobium japonicum f. pendula 0.454 8 0.286 3 0.241 0 0.457 3 0.268 8 0.352 4
    毛白杨 Populus tomentosa 0.319 7 0.381 8 0.361 4 0.152 4 0.448 0 0.348 0
    樟子松 Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica 0.319 7 0.352 5 0.481 9 0.304 9 0.448 0 0.343 2
    圆柏 Juniperus chinensis 0.358 0 0.315 6 0.481 9 0.457 3 0.268 8 0.342 4
    华山松 Pinus armandii 0.484 1 0.249 5 0.602 4 0.152 4 0.448 0 0.337 7
    注:新疆杨:产我国新疆、内蒙古等地,西安、北京等地有引种栽培,生长良好;西府海棠:产华北、陕西、甘肃、云南、辽宁等地,海拔100 ~ 2 400 m,喜光,耐寒,抗干旱,较耐盐碱和水湿;樟子松:产黑龙江大兴安岭,海拔400 ~ 900 m山地及海拉尔以西、以南一带砂丘地区,喜光性强、深根性,能适应土壤水分较少的山脊及向阳山坡,较干旱的砂地及石砾、砂土地区;北美乔松:原产北美,耐寒,我国熊岳、旅顺、北京、南京等地有引种栽培。Notes: Salix alba var. pyramidalis, produced in Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia and other places of China, introduced and cultivated in Xi’an, Beijing and other places, and grown well; Malus × micromalus, produced in North China, Shaanxi, Gansu, Yunnan, Liaoning and other places. 100−2400 m above sea level, it is light-loving, resistant to cold and drought, and is more resistant to salt and alkali and moisture; Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, produced in Daxing’anling, Heilongjiang, 400−900 m above sea level in mountains and sand dunes in the west and south of Hailar. It has strong light-loving and deep roots, and can adapt to ridges and sunny hillsides with less soil moisture, and drier sandy land and gravel and sandy land areas; Pinus strobus: native to North America. It is hardy, and introduced and cultivated in Xiongyue, Lüshun, Beijing, Nanjing and other places in China.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  灌木树种科属种分析

    Table  8.   Analysis of shrub species, genera and species

    灌木类型
    Shrub type
    等级 Level
    Ⅰ级 LevelⅠⅡ级 Level ⅡⅢ级 Level ⅢⅣ级 Level Ⅳ
    常绿 Evergreen 8科10属23种
    8 family 10 genus 23 species
    5科6属8种
    5 family 6 genus 8 species
    4科4属5种
    4 family 4 genus 5 species
    1科1属1种
    1 family 1 genus 1 species
    落叶 Deciduous 15科23属58种
    15 family 23 genus 58 species
    24科49属110种
    24 family 49 genus 110 species
    32科70属172种
    32 family 70 genus 172 species
    20科36属70种
    20 family 36 genus 70 species
    合计 All 20科30属81种
    20 family 30 genus 81 species
    28科55属118种
    28 family 55 genus 118 species
    36科76属177种
    36 family 76 genus 177 species
    21科42属70种
    21 family 42 genus 70 species
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  9  华北地区部分冬季灌木景观树种

    Table  9.   Some winter shrub landscape tree species in North China

    灌木
    Shrub
    相对观姿指数
    Relative
    posture
    observation
    index/%
    相对观干指数
    Relative
    stem
    observation
    index/%
    相对观叶指数
    Relative
    leaf
    observation
    index/%
    相关观果指数
    Relative
    fruit
    observation
    index/%
    相对观芽指数
    Relative
    bud
    observation
    index/%
    相对综合指数
    Relative
    composite
    index/%
    等级排序
    Ranking
    红瑞木 Cornus alba 0.233 1 0.386 1 0.287 4 0.338 6 0.553 7 0.362 5
    沙棘 Hippophae rhamnoides 0.233 1 0.308 9 0.287 4 0.564 3 0.332 2 0.359 3
    华北忍冬 Lonicera tatarinowii 0.310 8 0.308 9 0.095 8 0.564 3 0.332 2 0.353 4
    金边黄杨
    Euonymus japonicus var. aurea-marginatus
    0.310 8 0.308 9 0.478 9 0.451 5 0.110 7 0.343 1
    粉柏 Sabina squamata ‘Meyeri’ 0.310 8 0.308 9 0.478 9 0.451 5 0.110 7 0.343 1
    冬青卫矛 Euonymus japonicus 0.310 8 0.308 9 0.383 1 0.451 5 0.110 7 0.336 4
    紫叶日本小蘗
    Berberis thunbergii var. atropurpurea
    0.233 1 0.308 9 0.287 4 0.451 5 0.332 2 0.333 7
    迎春花 Jasminum nudiflorum 0.310 8 0.386 1 0.191 6 0.225 7 0.332 2 0.326 4
    水栒子 Cotoneaster multiflorus 0.310 8 0.231 7 0.191 6 0.564 3 0.110 7 0.305 6
    棣棠 Kerria japonica 0.310 8 0.386 1 0.191 6 0.112 9 0.332 2 0.300 9
    铺地柏 Juniperus procumbens 0.310 8 0.308 9 0.383 1 0.225 7 0.110 7 0.285 3
    茶条枫 Acer ginnala 0.233 1 0.308 9 0.287 4 0.225 7 0.332 2 0.282 6
    金银忍冬 Lonicera maackii 0.233 1 0.154 4 0.191 6 0.564 3 0.332 2 0.266 4
    榆叶梅 Amygdalus triloba 0.310 8 0.231 7 0.191 6 0.338 6 0.332 2 0.265 7
    紫薇 Lagerstroemia indica 0.310 8 0.308 9 0.287 4 0.112 9 0.332 2 0.264 3
    红皮柳 Salix sinopurpurea 0.233 1 0.308 9 0.287 4 0.112 9 0.332 2 0.257 0
    毛叶水栒子 Cotoneaster submultiflorus 0.233 1 0.154 4 0.191 6 0.564 3 0.110 7 0.255 1
    小叶黄杨 Buxus microphylla 0.310 8 0.154 4 0.383 1 0.451 5 0.110 7 0.250 1
    石榴 Punica granatum 0.310 8 0.154 4 0.287 4 0.338 6 0.553 7 0.240 4
    毛黄栌 Cotinus coggygria var. pubescens 0.388 5 0.231 7 0.287 4 0.112 9 0.332 2 0.228 5
    山杏 Armeniaca sibirica 0.310 8 0.231 7 0.287 4 0.225 7 0.553 7 0.258 0
    接骨木 Sambucus williamsii 0.233 1 0.154 4 0.287 4 0.338 6 0.332 2 0.221 8
    注:粉柏:系栽培植物,天津、北京、山东、河南等省市栽培作庭园树或盆栽;茶条枫:产内蒙古、河北、山西、河南等地。弱阳性,耐寒,生于海拔800 m以下的丛林中;红皮柳:产甘肃、陕西、山西、河北、河南等省。生于海拔1000 ~ 1600 m的山地灌木丛,或沿河生长;毛叶水栒子:产内蒙古、山西、甘肃等地。生于岩石缝间或灌木丛,海拔900 ~ 2 000 m。Notes: Sabina squamata ‘Meyeri’, a cultivated plant, cultivated as garden trees or potted plants in Tianjin, Beijing, Shandong, Henan and other provinces and cities; Acer ginnala, produced in Inner Mongolia, Hebei, Shanxi, Henan and other places. Weakly positive, cold-tolerant, born in the jungle below 800 m above sea level; Salix sinopurpurea, produced in Gansu, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Hebei, Henan and other provinces. Born in mountain shrubs at an altitude of 1000−1600 m, or grows along rivers; Cotoneaster submultiflorus, produced in Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Gansu and other places. Born in between rocks or bushes, 900−2 000 m above sea level.
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-07-19
  • 修回日期:  2020-09-01
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-06-26
  • 刊出日期:  2021-07-25

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