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不同处理方式对华北落叶松抚育剩余物分解的影响

王相震 刘彦清 周运红 王利东 司瑞雪 陆景星 贾忠奎

王相震, 刘彦清, 周运红, 王利东, 司瑞雪, 陆景星, 贾忠奎. 不同处理方式对华北落叶松抚育剩余物分解的影响[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2021, 43(5): 15-23. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20200345
引用本文: 王相震, 刘彦清, 周运红, 王利东, 司瑞雪, 陆景星, 贾忠奎. 不同处理方式对华北落叶松抚育剩余物分解的影响[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2021, 43(5): 15-23. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20200345
Wang Xiangzhen, Liu Yanqing, Zhou Yunhong, Wang Lidong, Si Ruixue, Lu Jingxing, Jia Zhongkui. Effects of different treatments on decomposition of Larix principis-rupprechtii tending residue[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2021, 43(5): 15-23. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20200345
Citation: Wang Xiangzhen, Liu Yanqing, Zhou Yunhong, Wang Lidong, Si Ruixue, Lu Jingxing, Jia Zhongkui. Effects of different treatments on decomposition of Larix principis-rupprechtii tending residue[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2021, 43(5): 15-23. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20200345

不同处理方式对华北落叶松抚育剩余物分解的影响

doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20200345
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(31870387)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    王相震。主要研究方向:生态林、用材林培育理论及技术。Email:836384416@qq.com 地址:100083 北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学

    责任作者:

    贾忠奎,教授。主要研究方向:用材林培育、生态林与城市森林培育、林木种苗培育等理论与技术。Email:jiazk@163.com 地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S718.43;S791.189

Effects of different treatments on decomposition of Larix principis-rupprechtii tending residue

  • 摘要:   目的  为提高华北落叶松抚育剩余物的利用率,探索不同处理方式对抚育剩余物分解速率的影响,加快抚育剩余物分解速率,恢复华北落叶松人工林地力,使其保持长期较高的生产力。  方法  以华北落叶松人工林抚育剩余物为研究对象,采用粉碎、尿素、EM菌和木醋液4种处理方法,进行4因素5水平的正交试验设计。通过对剩余物进行25种处理,研究不同处理方式随时间变化对华北落叶松抚育剩余物分解的影响。  结果  分解率最高的9号处理(0.3 ~ 0.5 cm的颗粒直径,9 kg/m3的尿素溶液,稀释倍数为1 000的EM菌,稀释倍数为0的木醋液)是分解率最低的22号处理(大于1.0 cm的颗粒直径,3 kg/m3的尿素溶液,稀释倍数为0的EM菌,稀释倍数为1 000的木醋液)的2.04倍。4个因素对剩余物分解最有利的水平分别是:0.3 ~ 0.5 cm的颗粒直径,3 ~ 9 kg/m3的尿素溶液,稀释倍数为500的EM菌,稀释倍数为600 ~ 800倍的木醋液。从最优9号处理组合中可以看出,各个因素的水平不一定都在最有利的水平之内,推测其中可能存在综合效应的影响,但还需进行试验证明。  结论  通过研究使用不同处理方式处理抚育剩余物,得出颗粒直径对剩余物分解率的影响最大,而4个因素共同作用对分解率的影响普遍大于单一的尿素溶液、EM菌和木醋液的处理。为加速人工林抚育剩余物分解,以保持林分较高的生产力提出参考建议。

     

  • 图  1  颗粒直径对剩余物分解速率的影响

    字母表示在各次取样测定结果中,不同处理的差异显著性,同次取样不同字母表示差异显著(P < 0.05)。下同。Letters indicate difference significance of different particle diameter treatments in the results of each sampling and determination, while different letters in the same sampling indicate significant differences (P < 0.05). The same below.

    Figure  1.  Effects of particle diameter on the decomposition rate of residue

    图  2  尿素质量和溶液体积比对剩余物分解速率的影响

    Figure  2.  Effects of urea solution on the decomposition rate of residue

    图  3  EM菌稀释倍数对剩余物分解速率的影响

    Figure  3.  Effects of dilution time of EM bacteria on the decomposition rate of residue

    图  4  木醋液稀释倍数对剩余物分解速率的影响

    Figure  4.  Effects of dilution time of wood vinegar on decomposition rate of residue

    表  1  正交试验设计L25(54)因素水平

    Table  1.   Factor level of orthogonal experimental design L25 (54)

    水平编号
    Level No.
    A/cm
    B/(kg·m−3)C

    D
    10.1 ~ 0.3000
    20.3 ~ 0.53250400
    30.5 ~ 0.76500600
    40.7 ~ 1.09750800
    5 > 1.0121 0001 000
    注:A指的是颗粒直径,表示将抚育剩余物用粉碎机进行粉碎,并在80 ℃的烘箱内烘干后,按一定梯度过筛,称20.0 g与标签一同装于凋落物袋;B是指尿素质量和溶液体积比,表示将装好抚育剩余物的凋落物袋浸泡在不同尿素质量和溶液体积比配制的尿素溶液中,直到溶液被剩余物全部吸收;C是指EM菌稀释倍数,表示将凋落物袋浸泡在按照不同颗粒直径的等质量剩余物与EM菌液的不同体积比配制的EM菌溶液(用热水将100 g红糖溶解,冷却后加入EM菌)中,直到溶液被剩余物全部吸收;D是指木醋液稀释倍数,表示将凋落物袋浸泡在稀释不同倍数的木醋液中,直到溶液被剩余物全部吸收。下同。Notes: A refers to particle diameter, which means that the tending residues are crushed by a pulverizer, dried in an oven at 80 ℃, sieved according to a certain gradient, weighed 20.0 g and packed in the litter bag together with the label; B refers to the ratio of urea mass to solution volume, which means that the litter bags filled with tending residues are soaked in urea solutions prepared with different urea mass and solution volume ratios until the solution is completely absorbed by the residues; C refers to dilution time of EM bacteria, which means to soak litter bags in EM bacteria solution (dissolve 100 g brown sugar with hot water and add EM bacteria after cooling) prepared according to different volume ratios of equal mass residues and EM bacteria solution with different particle diameters until the solution is completely absorbed by the residues; D refers to dilution time of wood vinegar, which means soaking litter bags in wood vinegar diluted at different times until the solution is completely absorbed by the residue. The same below.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  正交试验设计L25(54)交叉组合

    Table  2.   Cross combinations of orthogonal experimental design L25 (54)

    试验编号
    Test No.
    处理方法 Treatment method
    ABCD
    1 1 1 1 1
    2 1 2 2 2
    3 1 3 3 3
    4 1 4 4 4
    5 1 5 5 5
    6 2 1 2 3
    7 2 2 3 4
    8 2 3 4 5
    9 2 4 5 1
    10 2 5 1 2
    11 3 1 3 5
    12 3 2 4 1
    13 3 3 5 2
    14 3 4 1 3
    15 3 5 2 4
    16 4 1 4 2
    17 4 2 5 3
    18 4 3 1 4
    19 4 4 2 5
    20 4 5 3 1
    21 5 1 5 4
    22 5 2 1 5
    23 5 3 2 1
    24 5 4 3 2
    25 5 5 4 3
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  每测定的主体间效应的检验

    Table  3.   Test of the inter subjective effect of each determination

    因变量
    Dependent variable

    Source
    Ⅲ型平方和
    Type Ⅲ sum of squares
    F
    F value
    差异显著性
    Difference significance (Sig.)
    第1次分解率
    First decomposition rate
    (R2 = 0.921
    R2adj = 0.884)
    A 763.526 133.930 0
    B 16.443 2.884 0.032
    C 5.806 1.018 0.407
    D 19.401 3.403 0.015
    A × B × C × D 31.001 2.719 0.014
    第2次分解率
    Second decomposition rate
    (R2 = 0.859
    R2adj = 0.791)
    A 672.232 65.417 0
    B 30.212 2.940 0.029
    C 36.225 3.525 0.013
    D 22.390 2.179 0.085
    A × B × C × D 20.364 0.991 0.455
    第3次分解率
    Third decomposition rate
    (R2 = 0.879
    R2adj = 0.821)
    A 672.232 65.417 0
    B 30.212 2.940 0.029
    C 36.225 3.525 0.013
    D 22.390 2.179 0.085
    A × B × C × D 20.364 0.991 0.455
    第4次分解率
    Fourth decomposition rate
    (R2 = 0.906
    R2adj= 0.861)
    A 906.884 104.417 0
    B 32.024 3.687 0.010
    C 39.431 4.540 0.003
    D 11.895 1.370 0.258
    A × B × C × D 57.541 3.313 0.004
    第5次分解率
    Fifth decomposition rate
    (R2 = 0.907
    R2adj = 0.862)
    A 950.738 109.606 0
    B 18.965 2.186 0.084
    C 15.526 1.790 0.146
    D 27.466 3.166 0.021
    A × B × C × D 45.357 2.614 0.018
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  不同处理组合下的剩余物分解速率

    Table  4.   Decomposition rates of residue under different treatments

    试验编号
    Test No.
    剩余物质量 Residue mass/g剩余物分解率
    Decomposition rate of residue/%
    名次
    Ranking
    2015年5月 May 20152015年12月 December 2015
    9 20 (15.58 ± 0.46) h (22.12 ± 2.28) a 1
    10 20 (15.64 ± 0.19) h (21.82 ± 0.93) a 2
    7 20 (15.68 ± 0.13) h (21.62 ± 0.67) a 3
    6 20 (15.71 ± 0.16) h (21.45 ± 0.82) a 4
    8 20 (15.75 ± 0.21) h (21.27 ± 1.06) a 5
    3 20 (16.03 ± 0.33) h (19.83 ± 1.64) a 6
    13 20 (16.53 ± 0.20) g (17.37 ± 0.98) b 7
    4 20 (16.55 ± 0.14) g (17.25 ± 0.71) b 8
    14 20 (16.71 ± 0.20) fg (16.43 ± 0.98) bc 9
    2 20 (16.74 ± 0.38) fg (16.32 ± 1.91) bc 10
    12 20 (16.87 ± 0.20) efg (15.65 ± 1.00) bcd 11
    1 20 (16.96 ± 0.51) defg (15.20 ± 2.57) bcde 12
    15 20 (17.02 ± 0.10) defg (14.92 ± 0.51) bcdef 13
    20 20 (17.05 ± 0.12) cdefg (14.73 ± 0.60) bcdef 14
    11 20 (17.11 ± 0.41) bcdef (14.43 ± 2.04) cdefg 15
    5 20 (17.33 ± 0.19) abcde (13.35 ± 0.94) defgh 16
    17 20 (17.45 ± 0.43) abcd (12.73 ± 2.13) efgh 17
    19 20 (17.51 ± 0.40) abcd (12.45 ± 2.01) efgh 18
    21 20 (17.59 ± 0.25) abc (12.05 ± 1.24) fgh 19
    18 20 (17.62 ± 0.30) ab (11.92 ± 1.52) gh 20
    16 20 (17.63 ± 0.56) ab (11.85 ± 2.81) gh 21
    24 20 (17.65 ± 0.10) ab (11.73 ± 0.50) gh 22
    23 20 (17.75 ± 0.17) a (11.23 ± 0.85) h 23
    25 20 (17.80 ± 0.17) a (10.98 ± 0.83) h 24
    22 20 (17.83 ± 0.28) a (10.85 ± 1.39) h 25
    注:数值为(均值 ± 标准差);同列不同字母代表差异性显著(P < 0.05)。Notes: values are mean ± SD; differences of varied letters in the same column are significant (P < 0.05).
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2020-11-11
  • 修回日期:  2020-11-27
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-05-13
  • 刊出日期:  2021-05-27

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