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果园高位自动调平作业平台设计及仿真

于泳超 康峰 郑永军 吕昊暾 王亚雄

于泳超, 康峰, 郑永军, 吕昊暾, 王亚雄. 果园高位自动调平作业平台设计及仿真[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2021, 43(2): 150-159. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20200398
引用本文: 于泳超, 康峰, 郑永军, 吕昊暾, 王亚雄. 果园高位自动调平作业平台设计及仿真[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2021, 43(2): 150-159. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20200398
Yu Yongchao, Kang Feng, Zheng Yongjun, Lü Haotun, Wang Yaxiong. Design and simulation of the automatic-leveling high-position platform in orchards[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2021, 43(2): 150-159. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20200398
Citation: Yu Yongchao, Kang Feng, Zheng Yongjun, Lü Haotun, Wang Yaxiong. Design and simulation of the automatic-leveling high-position platform in orchards[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2021, 43(2): 150-159. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20200398

果园高位自动调平作业平台设计及仿真

doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20200398
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划课题(2018YFD0700601)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    于泳超。主要研究方向:果园高位作业调平平台。Email:yongchao_17@163.com 地址:100083北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学工学院

    责任作者:

    康峰,教授,博士生导师。主要研究方向:经济林果园装备自动化研究。Email:kangfeng98@bjfu.edu.cn 地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S225.93

Design and simulation of the automatic-leveling high-position platform in orchards

  • 摘要:   目的  我国果园机械化程度低,尤其缺少丘陵山地果园的机械,目前果园疏花疏果、套袋、采摘等繁重工作主要依靠人工架梯完成。设计一款适用于丘陵山区苹果园的高位自动调平平台,可以提高果园采收机械的采收效率、安全性和稳定性。  方法  根据果园地形特点和果树高度确定平台设计要求和调平方式,确定俯仰、侧倾不同部分尺寸关系,液压缸所需推力、平台角度和液压缸位移量的关系;建立平台控制系统数学模型,使用增量式PID控制器,以不同干扰信号在Simulink中仿真控制调平性能;在Adams中设计极限倾翻坡度实验,平台在不同姿态、不同升降高度和不同载质量情况下仿真验证其安全性。  结果  建立各部分的数学关系,确定各部分基本尺寸,从而建立了平台三维模型。在控制系统仿真中,俯仰、侧倾控制系统在阶跃干扰信号下能使工作台很快回到水平位置,调平时间分别为1.6、2.1 s,超调量均为0;俯仰、侧倾控制系统在正弦干扰信号下能使工作台始终保持在0°附近,波动范围分别在0.15°、0.19°内。平台极限倾翻坡度仿真实验表明平台的倾翻稳定性随着举升高度和载质量的增加而降低,相比无调平时,有调平时的最小极限倾翻坡度增加了24.77%,平台安全性明显提高。  结论  设计的果园高位自动调平平台能够在不同干扰下始终保持水平,具有较好的抗倾翻能力,安全可靠,能够满足丘陵山地果园的使用需求。

     

  • 图  1  果园作业平台结构示意图

    1. 护栏 Guardrail,2. 工作台 Work platform,3. 俯仰调平机构 Pitch leveling mechanism,4. 机架 Frame,5. 侧倾调平机构 Roll leveling mechanism,6. 履带底盘Tracked chassis,7. 操作台 Control panel,8. 剪叉机构Scissor mechanism,9. 动力集成 Integrated power.

    Figure  1.  Diagram of the structure of orchard operating platform

    图  2  升降及俯仰调平机构原理

    OO1分别为升降、俯仰调平机构坐标系原点;DE为工作台,PQ为升降液压缸,MN为俯仰液压缸;ODEH为剪叉臂,其中OBBDEBBH长度相等(mm);AC两点为升降液压缸上下两端与剪叉臂的连接点,且APEH垂直,CQ与OB垂直;OE分别为剪叉臂与机架、工作台的铰接点;DH两点为铰接滑轮,滑轮与机架、工作台的滑轨相切,B点是两剪叉臂铰接点;h为工作台升起高度(mm);G为工作台和被载物体的总重(N);α为剪叉臂与水平面夹角(°);βMO1O1B的夹角(°);φ为俯仰臂O1DO1点转动的角度(°);θ为工作台与水平面夹角,即平台俯仰角(°);F1为升降液压缸推力(N);F2为俯仰液压缸推力(N)。O is the origin of lifting coordinate system, and O1 is the origin of pitch leveling mechanism coordinate system. DE is the platform, PQ is lifting hydraulic cylinder, MN is pitch hydraulic cylinder; OD and EH are scissor arms, and the lengths of OB, BD, EB and BH are equal (mm). A is the connection point between the upper end of lifting hydraulic cylinder and scissor arm, C is connection point between the lower end of lifting hydraulic cylinder and scissor arm, and AP is perpendicular to EH, and CQ is perpendicular to OB. O is hinge point between scissor arm and frame, E is the hinge point of scissor arm and platform; D and H are hinged pulleys, the pulley is tangent to slide rail of the rack and platform, B is hinge point of two scissor arms. h is lifting height of platform (mm). G is total mass of platform and the loaded object (N). α is the angle between scissor arm and horizontal plane (°). β is the angle between MO1 and O1B (°). φ is the angle that tilt arm O1D rotates around O1 point (°). θ is platform pitch angle between platform and horizontal plane (°). F1 is the thrust of lifting hydraulic cylinder (N). F2 is thrust of pitch hydraulic cylinder (N).

    Figure  2.  Principles of lifting and pitch leveling mechanism

    图  3  侧倾调平机构原理

    I1J1IJ为侧倾液压缸;α1为侧倾液压缸I1J1与水平面的夹角(°);β1为侧倾液压缸IJ与水平面的夹角(°);θ1为平台与水平面的夹角,即平台侧倾角(°);O2为原点,II1O3为底盘上的固定点;O3J1J为机架;O3R1与侧倾液压缸I1J1垂直,O3R与侧倾液压缸IJ垂直;e为机架上方总重G1X2轴平行方向上与O2的距离,(mm);F3F4为侧倾液压缸的推力(N)。I1J1 and IJ are the roll hydraulic cylinders, α1 is angle between roll hydraulic cylinder I1J1 and the horizontal plane (°). β1 is angle between roll hydraulic cylinder IJ and horizontal plane (°). θ1 is the angle between platform and horizontal plane, i.e. the platform roll angle (°). O2 is the origin, I,I1 and O3 are the fixed points on chassis, O3J1J is frame. O3R1 is perpendicular to the roll cylinder I1J1, O3R is perpendicular to roll cylinder IJ. e is the distance between total mass G1 and O2 in the direction parallel to X2 axis. F3 and F4 are thrust of roll hydraulic cylinder (N).

    Figure  3.  Principle of roll leveling mechanism

    图  4  控制系统框图

    Figure  4.  Block diagram of control system

    图  5  俯仰系统不同干扰下工作台角度变化

    Figure  5.  Changes of platform angle under different interferences of pitch system

    图  6  侧倾系统不同干扰下工作台角度变化

    Figure  6.  Platform angle changes under different disturbances of roll system

    图  7  不同姿态下的倾翻仿真图

    实验台倾角δ记为极限倾翻角度。Tilt angle δ of experimental platform is recorded as limit tilt angle.

    Figure  7.  Tilting simulation diagram under different postures

    图  8  不同姿态下倾翻仿真结果

    Figure  8.  Tilting simulation results under different postures

    表  1  果园作业平台设计参数

    Table  1.   Design parameters of orchard operating platform

    参数 Parameter数值 Value
    整机尺寸 Overall size 1 900 mm × 1 400 mm × 2 000 mm
    整机质量 Overall mass/kg 1 200
    最大载质量 Maximum load/kg 300
    升降高度 Lifting height/mm 0 ~ 1 150
    转弯半径 Turning radius/m 3
    行驶速度 Drving speed/(km·h−1) 0 ~ 5
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  升降及俯仰调平机构尺寸

    Table  2.   Dimensions of lifting and pitch leveling structures

    参数 Parameter数值 Value
    $ {l}_{AB} $/mm 220
    $ {l}_{BC} $/mm 702
    $ {l}_{AP} $/mm 70
    $ {l}_{CQ} $/mm 97
    $ {l}_{EH} $/mm 1 722
    $ {l}_{{O}_{1}N} $/mm 411
    $ {l}_{{O}_{1}M} $/mm 163
    $ {l}_{{O}_{1}D} $/mm 561
    β/(°) 88
    注:$ {l}_{AB} $$ {l}_{BC} $$ {l}_{AP} $$ {l}_{CQ} $分别为升降机构ABBCAPCQ的长度;lEH为剪叉臂EH的长度;$ {l}_{{O}_{1}N} $$ {l}_{{O}_{1}M} $$ {l}_{{O}_{1}D} $分别为俯仰调平机构部分O1NO1MO1D的长度;βMO1O1B的夹角。Notes:$ {l}_{AB} $, $ {l}_{BC} $, $ {l}_{AP} $ and $ {l}_{CQ} $ are length of lifting mechanism AB, BC, AP and CQ, respectively. lEH is the length of scissor arm EH. $ {l}_{{O}_{1}N} $, $ {l}_{{O}_{1}M} $ and $ {l}_{{O}_{1}D} $ are length of pitch leveling mechanism O1N, O1M and O1D, respectively. β is angle between MO1 and O1B.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  侧倾调平结构尺寸

    Table  3.   Dimensions of roll leveling structures

    参数 Parameter数值 Value
    α1/(°) 28 ~ 70.5
    $ {l}_{{IO}_{3}} $/mm 264
    $ {l}_{IJ} $/mm 320 ~ 390
    $ {l}_{{I}_{1}I} $/mm 373
    注:α1为侧倾液压缸I1J1与水平面的夹角;$ {l}_{{IO}_{3}} $为侧倾调平机构部分IO3的长度;$ {l}_{IJ} $$ {l}_{{I}_{1}I} $分别为IJI1I的长度。Notes: α1 is the angle between roll hydraulic cylinder I1J1 and horizontal plane. $ {l}_{{IO}_{3}} $ is length of tilting leveling mechanism IO3. $ {l}_{IJ} $ and $ { l}_{{I}_{1}I} $ are the lengths of IJ and I1I, respectively.
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2020-12-13
  • 修回日期:  2020-12-29
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-01-27
  • 刊出日期:  2021-02-24

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