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宁夏灵武白芨滩国家级自然保护区防风固沙功能辐射效益

宋超 余琦殷 王瑞霞 崔国发

宋超, 余琦殷, 王瑞霞, 崔国发. 宁夏灵武白芨滩国家级自然保护区防风固沙功能辐射效益[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2022, 44(7): 78-89. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210034
引用本文: 宋超, 余琦殷, 王瑞霞, 崔国发. 宁夏灵武白芨滩国家级自然保护区防风固沙功能辐射效益[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2022, 44(7): 78-89. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210034
Song Chao, Yu Qiyin, Wang Ruixia, Cui Guofa. Radiation effects of windbreak and sand fixation function in Baijitan National Nature Reserve, Lingwu, Ningxia of northwestern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2022, 44(7): 78-89. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210034
Citation: Song Chao, Yu Qiyin, Wang Ruixia, Cui Guofa. Radiation effects of windbreak and sand fixation function in Baijitan National Nature Reserve, Lingwu, Ningxia of northwestern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2022, 44(7): 78-89. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210034

宁夏灵武白芨滩国家级自然保护区防风固沙功能辐射效益

doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210034
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(32171545)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    宋超,博士。主要研究方向:自然保护区学。Email:sc0616@163.com 地址:100083 北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学生态与自然保护学院

    责任作者:

    崔国发,教授,博士生导师。主要研究方向:自然保护区学。Email:fa6716@163.com 地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S775

Radiation effects of windbreak and sand fixation function in Baijitan National Nature Reserve, Lingwu, Ningxia of northwestern China

  • 摘要:   目的  以宁夏灵武白芨滩国家级自然保护区防风固沙功能辐射效益为研究目标,提出了其辐射效益计算方法,并分析了其时空流动特征。  方法  基于遥感数据和气象数据,采用风蚀流失量模型和沙尘空间传输模型,评估了2000—2019年白芨滩自然保护区防风固沙功能的辐射效益变化情况。  结果  白芨滩自然保护区下风向区域的沙尘沉降量呈逐渐下降趋势,其中,沙尘沉降量由2001年的3.22 × 108 t逐渐减少至2019年的1.99 × 107 t,2019年沙尘沉降量仅为2001年的6.18%;该自然保护区防风固沙率稳步上升,由2001年的55.65%升至2019年的74.83%,增长了19.18%。不同辐射范围的沙尘沉降量均呈逐渐减小趋势,如辐射范围等级为 ≤ 6的区域(沙尘传输距离 < 508.5 km),沙尘沉降量由2001年的2.03 × 107 t逐渐减少至2019年的4.25 × 106 t。近20年沙尘沉降减少量最大的3个行政区为陕西省、山西省和河南省,其沙尘沉降减少量分别为5.45 × 106、4.49 × 106、4.06 × 106 t。以陕西省为例,2001、2004、2007、2010、2013、2016、2019年沙尘沉降量分别占该行政区近20年沙尘沉降总量的11.38%、9.83%、5.33%、4.37%、2.96%、1.78%、1.24%;近20年沙尘沉降减少量超过106 t的行政区还包括湖北省、河北省、山东省、湖南省、安徽省、江西省,分别为3.62 × 106、2.70 × 106、2.55 × 106、2.31 × 106、1.77 × 106、1.14 × 106 t。受沙尘灾害影响较弱的行政区主要有福建省、浙江省、天津市等8个行政区。  结论  该自然保护区下风向区域的沙尘沉降量呈逐年下降趋势,且不同行政区和不同辐射范围等级区域内的沙尘沉降量均呈逐渐减小趋势,防风固沙率呈逐渐上升趋势。

     

  • 图  1  宁夏灵武白芨滩国家级自然保护区位置图

      底图审图号:GS(2019)3333号 Base drawing review No.: GS(2019)3333

    Figure  1.  Location map of Baijitan National Nature Reserve in Lingwu, Ningxia

    图  2  白芨滩自然保护区沙源范围

    Figure  2.  Sand source range of Baijitan Nature Reserve

    图  3  风向方位示意图

    N.北;NNE.东北偏北;NE.东北;ENE.东北偏东;E.东;ESE.东南偏东;SE.东南;SSE.东南偏南;S.南;SSW.西南偏南;SW.西南;WSW.西南偏西;W.西;WNW.西北偏西;NW.西北;NNW.西北偏北。 N, north; NNE, north-northeast; NE, northeast; ENE, east-northeast; E, east; ESE, east-southeast, SE, southeast; SSE, south-southeast; S, south; SSW, south-southwest; SW, southwest; WSW, west-southwest; W, west; WNW, west-northwest; NW, northwest; NNW, north-northwest.

    Figure  3.  Schematic diagram of wind direction

    图  4  白芨滩自然保护区下风向区域沙尘沉降量和自然保护区防风固沙率变化规律

    Figure  4.  Variation law of sand and dust deposition in downwind area of Baijitan Nature Reserve and windbreak-sand fixation rate of nature reserve

    图  5  下风向区不同辐射范围不同年份沙尘沉降量

    Figure  5.  Dust deposition of downwind area in different radiation areas and years

    图  6  下风向区域(a)和行政区(b)沙尘沉降量变化规律

    底图审图号:GS(2016)1554号 Base drawing review No.: GS(2016)1554

    Figure  6.  Variation law of dust deposition in downwind area (a) and different regions (b)

    表  1  白芨滩自然保护区土壤颗粒组成

    Table  1.   Composition of soil particles in Baijitan Nature Reserve

    粒级
    Grain size
    粒径
    Particle size/mm
    占比
    Ratio/%
    粗沙粒 Coarse sand 1.00 ~ 0.50 0.16
    中沙粒 Medium sand 0.50 ~ 0.25 17.98
    细沙粒 Fine sand 0.25 ~ 0.10 75.04
    极细沙粒 Very fine sand 0.10 ~ 0.05 6.16
    粉粒 Silt 0.05 ~ 0.02 0.66
    0.02 ~ 0.005
    0.005 ~ 0.002
    黏粒 Clay < 0.002
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  白芨滩自然保护区达到起沙风速的风速等级划分

    Table  2.   Classification of wind speed over sand-driving wind speed in Baijitan Nature Reserve

    风级
    Wind grade
    名称
    Name
    风速
    Wind speed/(m·s−1
    3 微风 Gentle breeze 4.9~5.4
    4 和风 Moderate breeze 5.5~7.9
    5 清风 Fresh breeze 8.0~10.7
    6 强风 Strong breeze 10.8~13.8
    7 劲风(疾风) Moderate gale 13.9~17.1
    8 大风 Fresh gale 17.2~17.4
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  沙尘辐射范围分级

    Table  3.   Classification of dust radiation range

    辐射范围等级
    Radiation range level
    传输距离
    Transmission distance/km
    辐射范围内受影响的中国陆地面积
    Affected land area within the radiation
    range of China/km2
    辐射范围受影响的起沙风风速等级
    Wind speed level of sand blowing wind
    affected by radiation range
    1 0.75 ~ 0.81 7.80 3
    2 0.81 ~ 1.25 5.71 × 101 3、4
    3 1.25 ~ 1.90 8.21 × 101 3、4、5
    4 1.90 ~ 2.95 1.20 × 102 3、4、5、6
    5 2.95 ~ 4.59 1.69 × 102 3、4、5、6、7
    6 4.59 ~ 508.05 2.43 × 105 3、4、5、6、7、8
    7 508.05 ~ 777.97 2.94 × 105 4、5、6、7、8
    8 777.97 ~ 1 184.99 6.21 × 105 5、6、7、8
    9 1 184.99 ~ 1 840.74 9.39 × 105 6、7、8
    10 1 840.74 ~ 2 871.86 2.53 × 104 7、8
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-02-01
  • 修回日期:  2021-05-20
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-07-02
  • 刊出日期:  2022-08-02

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