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黑龙江丰林国家级自然保护区生态系统服务价值评估与分析

赵欣 张杰 钟林东

赵欣, 张杰, 钟林东. 黑龙江丰林国家级自然保护区生态系统服务价值评估与分析[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2021, 43(7): 100-110. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210041
引用本文: 赵欣, 张杰, 钟林东. 黑龙江丰林国家级自然保护区生态系统服务价值评估与分析[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2021, 43(7): 100-110. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210041
Zhao Xin, Zhang Jie, Zhong Lindong. Evaluation and analysis on ecosystem service value of Fenglin National Nature Reserve in Heilongjiang Province of northeastern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2021, 43(7): 100-110. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210041
Citation: Zhao Xin, Zhang Jie, Zhong Lindong. Evaluation and analysis on ecosystem service value of Fenglin National Nature Reserve in Heilongjiang Province of northeastern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2021, 43(7): 100-110. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210041

黑龙江丰林国家级自然保护区生态系统服务价值评估与分析

doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210041
基金项目: 黑龙江省高校基本科研业务费项目(HDRC201605)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    赵欣,博士生,副教授。主要研究方向:自然保护区与生态旅游。Email:zhaoxin6@hlju.edu.cn 地址:150040 黑龙江省哈尔滨市东北林业大学野生动物与自然保护地学院

    责任作者:

    张杰,教授,博士生导师。主要研究方向:自然保护区与生态旅游。Email:zhangjie_1966@163.com 地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S759.93

Evaluation and analysis on ecosystem service value of Fenglin National Nature Reserve in Heilongjiang Province of northeastern China

  • 摘要:   目的  丰林国家级自然保护区以北温带原始阔叶红松林生态系统和珍稀野生动植物为保护对象,是我国北方红松林中最具代表性的国家级自然保护区,也是我国首个通过森林认证的自然保护区。对丰林国家级自然保护区生态系统服务价值的估算,有助于提高对自然保护区功能及其重要性的认识,能够为生态功能区划布局,保护区的规划、建设,以及生态保护的货币化补偿政策提供价值评定依据。  方法  根据丰林国家级自然保护区2013年森林资源调查数据,综合运用市场价值法、旅行费用法、影子工程法等定量分析方法,从生态服务、生物多样性保护和社区发展3个维度对丰林国家级自然保护区的生态系统服务价值进行全面重新估算。  结果  丰林国家级自然保护区生态系统服务价值为149 366.42 × 104元/a,平均每公顷价值8.22 × 104元/a,高于已有对丰林国家级自然保护区的价值研究和全国森林的平均水平。按具体项目划分,生物多样性保护(36.80%) > 涵养水源(21.34%) > 保育土壤(19.88%) > 固碳释氧(15.02%) > 净化大气(5.61%) > 累积营养物质(0.80%) > 服务社会(0.39%) > 社区发展(0.14%)。  结论  生物多样性保护价值应是自然保护区生态系统服务的核心价值,生物多样性的保护与延续为生态系统服务提供了可持续的源动力。丰林国家级自然保护区在黑龙江省生物多样性保护、水源涵养及保育土壤等生态功能中占有重要的位置。

     

  • 表  1  丰林自然保护区生态系统服务价值评估价格数据表

    Table  1.   Social public data of value evaluation of Fenglin Nature Reserve

    指标 Index单位 Unit数值 Value来源及依据 Source and basis
    负离子
    Negative air ion
    元/(1018·个)
    CNY/(1018·ions)
    7.42 参照《森林生态系统服务功能评估规范:LY/T 1721—2008》 (简称《规范》)推荐使用价格计算方法,利用台州科利达电子有限公司生产的功率为6 W的KLD-2000 型负离子发生器(65 元),假定在高3 m,空间为30 m2房间内,负离子浓度为106 个/cm3,2019年全国居民生活用电平均价格0.51 元/千瓦时推算
    According to the price calculation method recommended in Specifications for Assessment of Forest Ecosystem Services in China: LY/T 17212008 (called Specification herein), the KLD-2000 negative air ion generator (65 CNY) with 6 W power produced by Taizhou Kelida Electronics Co., Ltd. is used. It is assumed that the negative air ion concentration is 106 ions/cm3 in a room with 3 m height and 30 m2 space. In 2019, the average price of electricity for residents in China will be 0.51 CNY/(kW·h)
    吸收二氧化硫
    Absorbing SO2
    元/kg CNY/kg 1.20 参照《规范》
    According to the Specification
    吸收氟化物
    Absorbing fluoride
    元/kg CNY/kg 0.69
    吸收氮氧化物
    Absorbing NOx
    元/kg CNY/kg 0.63
    滞尘
    Absorbing dust
    元/kg CNY/kg 0.15
    磷酸二铵
    DAP
    元/t CNY/t 2 834.6 磷酸二铵、及氯化钾根据中国农业生产资料流通协会发布的2019年平均价格,有机质以2019农业农村部印发《2019年农业绿色发展工作要点》,施用有机肥的补贴政策,按吨补贴大概300 ~ 400 元不等,取其平均价格
    According to the average price of DAP and KCl in 2019 issued by China Agricultural Means of Production Circulation Association, the subsidy policy of applying organic fertilizer for organic matter is about 300−400 CNY/t, taking the average price
    氯化钾
    KCl
    元/t CNY/t 2 408.4
    有机质
    Organic matter
    元/t CNY/t 350
    固碳
    Carbon fixation
    元/t CNY/t 1 035 使用碳税制,瑞典的碳税率大约为150 美元/t,2019年人民币平均汇率为1 美元兑
    6.898 5元人民币
    Using the carbon tax system, Sweden’s carbon tax rate is about US $150/t, and the average exchange rate of RMB in 2019 is RMB 6.898 5 to the US dollar
    制氧
    Oxygen production
    元/t CNY/t 1 000 释放氧气的价值以工业制氧的单价价格计算,但工业气体市场价格波动较大,2018年,液氧全国均价1002.8元/t,本文依据《规范》以1 000元作为氧气价格标准
    In 2018, the national average price of liquid oxygen is 1002.8 CNY/t. This paper takes
    1 000 CNY according to the Specification
    固土
    Soil consolidation
    元/m3 CNY/m3 24.3 参照《规范》,按丰林自然保护区所在地区工程日工资57.97元计算,挖取单位面积土方费用
    Referring to the Specification, the cost of digging earthwork is calculated according to the daily wage of 57.97 CNY in the area where Fenglin Nature Reserve is located
    调节水量
    Regulating water volume
    元/t CNY/t 7.41 参照《规范》,采用就近相似原则,根据国家发改委网站发布2015年开工建设的黑龙江省穆棱市奋斗水库的平均库容造价
    Referring to the Specification and the website of National Development and Reform Commission, the cost is calculated according to the average storage capacity and cost of Struggle Reservoir in Muling City, Heilongjiang Province in 2015
    净化水质 Purifying water 元/t CNY/t 2.75 根据《2013年中国物价年鉴》,全国36个大中城市居民生活用水终端平均水价
    According to China Price Yearbook 2013, taking the average terminal water price in 36 large and medium-sized cities in China
    活力木价格
    Vitality wood price
    元/m3 CNY/m3 805 单位价格参考黑龙江省商务厅网站公布2014年上半年木材平均销售单价
    According to the website of Heilongjiang Provincial Department of Commerce, referring to the average price of wood sales in the first half of 2014
    生物多样性保育
    Biodiversity conservation
    元/(hm2·a)
    CNY/(ha·year)
    根据Shannon-Wiener指数
    According to Shannon-Wiener index (I)
    I < 1,为3 000 元/(hm2·a);1 ≤ I < 2,为5 000 元/(hm2·a);2 ≤ I < 3,为10 000元/
    (hm2·a);3 ≤ I < 4,为20 000 元/(hm2·a);4 ≤ I < 5,为30 000 元/(hm2·a);5 ≤ I < 6,
    为40 000 元/(hm2·a);I ≥ 6,为50 000 元/(hm2·a)
    I < 1, 3 000 CNY/(ha·year);1 ≤ I < 2, 5 000 CNY/(ha·year); 2 ≤ I < 3, 1 000 CNY/(ha·year); 3≤ I < 4, 20 000 CNY/(ha·year);4 ≤ I < 5, 30 000 CNY/(ha·year);
    5 ≤ I < 6, 40 000 CNY/(ha·year);I ≥ 6, 50 000 CNY/(ha·year)
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  丰林自然保护区生态系统服务功能评估指标及计算公式

    Table  2.   Evaluation indicator and formula for assessing ecosystem service function in Fenglin Nature Reserve

    功能
    Function
    具体指标
    Specific
    indicator
    计算方法 Calculation method
    价值量 Value公式说明 Formula description
    服务社会
    Social services
    美学游憩
    Aesthetic recreation
    ${V_{\rm{t}}} = PC$ ${V_{\rm{t}}}$为游憩价值(元/a);P为游客数量(人次/a);C为平均旅行费用(元/a),包括交通、住宿以及门票费用等
    ${V_{\rm{t}}}$ is the recreation value (CNY/year); P is the number of tourists (person time/year); C is the average travel expenses (CNY/year), including transportation, accommodation and admission fees
    科研教育
    Research education
    $ {V}_{\text{科研}} = J+{S}_{}$ $ {V}_{\text{科研}}$为科研价值(元/a);J为科研文章转化金额(元/a);S为科研成果转化金额(元/a)
    $ {V}_{\text{科研}}$ is the value of scientific research (CNY/year); J is the value of scientific research articles (CNY/year); S is the value of scientific research achievements (CNY/year)
    医疗康养(负离子)
    Health care
    (negative air ion)
    $\begin{array}{c}{V}_{\text{负离子} }= \\ \dfrac{5.256 \times 1{0}^{15} \times ({Q}_{\text{负离子} }-600)AHK_{\text{负离子} }}{L}\end{array}$ $ {V}_{\text{负离子}}$为林分年提供负离子价值(元/a);A为林分面积(hm2)(以下公式中表述均同);H为林分高度(m);$ {K}_{\text{负离子}}$为负离子生产费用(元/个);$ {Q}_{\text{负离子}}$为林分负离子浓度(个/cm3);L为负离子寿命(min)
    $ {V}_{\text{负离子}}$ is the negative air ion value (CNY/year); A is the stand area (ha); H is the height (m); $ {K}_{\text{负离子}}$ is the cost of negative air ion production (CNY/ion); $ {Q}_{\text{负离子}}$ is the concentration of negative air ion (ions/cm3); L is the negative air ion lifetime (min)
    净化大气
    Atmosphere purification
    吸收污染物
    Absorbing pollutants
    吸收二氧化硫
    Absorbing SO2
    $ {V}_{\text{二氧化硫}} = {K}_{\text{二氧化硫}}{Q}_{\text{二氧化硫}}A$ $ {V}_{\text{二氧化硫}}$为林分年吸收二氧化硫价值(元/a);$ {Q}_{\text{二氧化硫}}$为单位面积林分年吸收二氧化硫量(kg/(hm2·a));$ {K}_{\text{二氧化硫}}$为二氧化硫治理费用(元/kg)
    $ {V}_{\text{二氧化硫}}$ is the value of absorbing SO2 (CNY/year); $ {Q}_{\text{二氧化硫}}$ is the quantity of absorbing SO2 (kg/(ha·year)); $ {K}_{\text{二氧化硫}}$ is the cost of controlling SO2 (CNY/kg)
    吸收氟化物
    Absorbing fluoride
    $ {V}_{\text{氟化物}} = {K}_{\text{氟化物}}{Q}_{\text{氟化物}}A$ $ {V}_{\text{氟化物}}$为林分年吸收氟化物价值(元/a);$ {Q}_{\text{氟化物}}$为单位面积林分年吸收氟化物量(kg/(hm2·a));$ {K}_{\text{氟化物}}$为氟化物治理费用(元/kg)
    $ {V}_{\text{氟化物}}$ is the value of absorbing fluoride (CNY/year); $ {Q}_{\text{氟化物}}$ is the quantity of absorbing fluoride (kg/(ha·year)); $ {K}_{\text{氟化物}}$ is the cost of controlling fluoride (CNY/kg)
    吸收氮氧化物
    Absorbing NOx
    $ {V}_{\text{氮氧化物}} = {K}_{\text{氮氧化物}}{Q}_{\text{氮氧化物}}A$ $ {V}_{\text{氮氧化物}}$为年吸收氮氧化物价值(元/a);$ {Q}_{\text{氮氧化物}}$为单位面积林分年吸收氮氧化物量(kg/(hm2·a));$ {K}_{\text{氮氧化物}}$为氮氧化物治理费用(元/kg)
    $ {V}_{\text{氮氧化物}}$ is the value of absorbing NOx (CNY/year); $ {Q}_{\text{氮氧化物}}$ is the quantity of absorbing NOx (kg/(ha·year)); $ {K}_{\text{氮氧化物}}$ is the cost of controlling NOx (CNY/kg)
    滞尘
    Absorbing dust
    $ {V}_{\text{滞尘}} = {K}_{\text{滞尘}}{Q}_{\text{滞尘}}A$ $ {V}_{\text{滞尘}}$为林分年滞尘价值(元/a);$ {Q}_{\text{滞尘}}$为单位面积林分年滞尘量(kg/(hm2·a));$ {K}_{\text{滞尘}}$为降尘清理费用(元/kg)
    $ {V}_{\text{滞尘}}$ is the value of absorbing dust (CNY/year); $ {Q}_{\text{滞尘}}$ is the quantity of absorbing dust (kg/(ha·year)); $ {K}_{\text{滞尘}}$ is the cost of controlling dust (CNY/kg)
    累积营养物质
    Nutrient accumulation
    固氮
    Nitrogen fixation
    $ {V}_{N{\text{营养}}} = A{N}_{\text{营养}}{B}_{\text{年}}{C}_{1}/{R}_{1}$ $ {V}_{N{\text{营养}}}$为林分年固氮价值(元/a);$ {V}_{P{\text{营养}}}$为林分年固磷价值(元/a);$ {V}_{K{\text{营养}}}$为林分年固钾价值,(元/a);$ {N}_{\text{营养}}$为林木含氮量(%);$ {P}_{\text{营养}}$为林木含磷量(%);$ {K}_{\text{营养}}$为林木含钾量(%);$ {B}_{\text{年}}$为林分净生产力(t/(hm2·a))(以下公式中表述均同);${R_1}$为磷酸二铵化肥含氮量(14%);${R_2}$为磷酸二铵化肥含磷量(15.01%);${R_3}$为氯化钾化肥含钾量(50%);${C_1}$为磷酸二铵化肥价格(元/t);${C_2}$为氯化钾化肥价格(元/t)
    $ {V}_{N{\text{营养}}}$,$ {V}_{P{\text{营养}}}$ and $ {V}_{K{\text{营养}}}$ are the values of fixed N, P and K (CNY/year); $ {N}_{\text{营养}}$,$ {P}_{\text{营养}}$ and $ {K}_{\text{营养}}$ are the contents of N, P and K in trees (%);$ {B}_{\text{年}}$ is net productivity (t/(ha·year)); ${R_1}$ and ${R_2}$ are the N and P contents of diammonium phosphate fertilizer (14%, 15.01%); ${R_3}$ is the K content of potassium chloride fertilizer (50%); ${C_1}$ is the price of diammonium phosphate fertilizer (CNY/t); ${C_2}$ is the price of potassium chloride fertilizer (CNY/t)
    固磷
    Phosphorus fixation
    $ {V}_{P{\text{营养}}}=A{P}_{\text{营养}}{B}_{\text{年}}{C}_{1}/{R}_{2}$
    固钾
    Potassium fixation
    $ {V}_{K{\text{营养}}}=A{K}_{\text{营养}}{B}_{\text{年}}{C}_{2}/{R}_{3}$
    保育土壤
    Soil conservation
    固土
    Soil consolidation
    $ {V}_{\text{固土}} = A({X}_{2}-{X}_{1}){C}_{\text{土}}/\rho $ $ {V}_{\text{固土}}$为林分年固土价值(元/a);${X_1}$为有林地土壤侵蚀模数(t/(hm2·a));${X_2}$为无林地土壤侵蚀模数(t/(hm2·a));$ {C}_{\text{土}}$为挖取和运输单位体积土方所需费用(元/m3);$\rho $为林地土壤密度(t/m3)
    $ {V}_{\text{固土}}$ is the soil consolidation value (CNY/year); ${X_1}$ is the soil erosion modulus of forested land(t/(ha·year)); ${X_2}$ is the modulus of soil erosion without forest land (t/(ha·year)); $ {C}_{\text{土}}$ is the cost of excavation and transportation (CNY/m3); $\rho $ is soil bulk density (t/m3)
    保肥
    Fertility holding
    $ {V}_{{\rm{N}}}=AC_{\rm{N}}({X}_{2}-{X}_{1}){C}_{1}/{R}_{1}$
    ${V_{\rm{P}}} = AC_{\rm{P}}({X_2} - {X_1}){C_1}/{R_2}$
    ${V_{\rm{K}}} = AC_{\rm{K}}({X_2} - {X_1}){C_2}/{R_3}$
    ${V_{\rm{M}}}=AM({X_2} - {X_1}){C_3}$
    VN为土壤年固氮价值(元/a);VP为土壤年固磷价值(元/a);VK为土壤年固钾价值(元/a);VM为土壤年有机质保肥价值(元/a);CN为林分土壤含氮量(%);CP为林分土壤含磷量(%);CK为林分土壤含钾量(%);M为林分土壤有机质含量(%)
    VN, VP and VK are the values of N, P and K in soil (CNY/year); VM is the organic fertilizer value in soil (CNY/year); CN, CP, CK, and M are the proportion of elements N, P, K and organic matter (%)
    固碳释氧
    Carbon fixation and oxygen release
    固碳
    Carbon fixation
    $ {V}_{\text{碳}}=(1.63{R}_{\text{碳}}{B}_{\text{年}}+{F}_{\text{土碳}})A{C}_{\text{碳}}$ $ {V}_{\text{碳}}$为林分年固碳价值(元/a);$ {R}_{\text{碳}}$为CO2中碳的含量(27.29%);$ {F}_{\text{土碳}}$为单位面积林分土壤年固碳量(t/(hm2·a));$ {C}_{\text{碳}}$为固碳价格(元/t)
    $ {V}_{\text{碳}}$ is the value of carbon fixation(CNY/year); $ {R}_{\text{碳}}$ is the content of carbon in CO2 (27.29%);$ {F}_{\text{土碳}}$ is the soil carbon sequestration (t/(ha·year));$ {C}_{\text{碳}}$ is the price for carbon sequestration (CNY/t)
    释氧
    Oxygen release
    $ {V}_{\text{氧}}=1.19A{B}_{\text{年}}{C}_{\text{氧}}$ $ {V}_{\text{氧}}$为林分年释氧价值(元/a);$ {C}_{\text{氧}}$为氧气价格(元/t)
    $ {V}_{\text{氧}}$ is the value of oxygen (CNY/year); $ {C}_{\text{氧}}$ is the price of oxygen (CNY/t)
    涵养水源
    Water conservation
    调节水量
    Regulating water volume
    $ {V}_{\text{调}} = 10A(P-E-R){C}_{\text{库}}$ $ {V}_{\text{调}}$为林分年调节水量价值(元/a);$ {V}_{\text{净}}$为林分年净化水质价值(元/a);$P$为降水量(mm/a);$E$为林分蒸散量(mm/a);$R$为地表径流量(mm/a);$ {C}_{\text{库}}$为水库建设单位库容投资(元/m3);$ {K}_{\text{净}}$为水的净化费用(元/t)
    $ {V}_{\text{调}}$ is the value of water regulation (CNY/year); $ {V}_{\text{净}}$ is the value of water purification (CNY/year); $P$ is precipitation (mm/year); $E$ is evapotranspiration (mm/year); $R$ is the surface runoff (mm/year); $ {C}_{\text{库}}$ is the capacity investment of reservoir construction (CNY/m3); $ {K}_{\text{净}}$ is the cost of water purification (CNY/t)
    净化水质
    Purifying water
    $ {V}_{\text{净}} = 10A(P-E-R){K}_{\text{净}}$
    生物多样性
    保护
    Biodiversity conservation
    森林保育
    Forest conservation
    $ {V}_{\text{森}} = T{C}_{\text{木}}$ $ {V}_{\text{森}}$为林木年保育价值(元/a);$T$为林分活力木总蓄积量年增加值(m3/a);$ {C}_{\text{木}}$为活力木价格(元/m3);$ {V}_{\text{生}}$为生物多样性年保育价值(元/a);$S$为修正的Shannon-Wiener指数I对应的单位面积价值(元/(hm2·a)),根据$I$确定;${E_m}$为物种m的濒危指数分值;${B_n}$为物种n的特有种指数分值;${O_i}$为古树i的年龄指数分值;${C_j}$为物种j的集中代表度指数分值
    $ {V}_{\text{森}}$ is the forest conservation value (CNY/year); $T$ is the increment of total volume of active trees (m3/year); $ {C}_{\text{木}}$ is the price of energy wood (CNY/m3); $ {V}_{\text{生}}$ is the conservation value of biodiversity (CNY/year); $S$ is the unit area value (CNY/(ha·year)); ${E_m}$ is the endangered index of species; ${B_n}$ is the index of endemic species of species; ${O_i}$ is the age index of ancient tree; ${C_j}$ is the index of concentrated representation of species
    生物多样性保育
    Biodiversity conservation
    $ {V}_{\text{生}} = AS$
    $\begin{array}{c}\left( {I=0.1\displaystyle\sum\limits_{m = 1}^x {{E_m}} + 0.1\displaystyle\sum\limits_{n = 1}^y {{B_n}} + } \right.\\\left. {0.1\displaystyle\sum\limits_{i = 1}^{\textit{z}} {{O_i}} + 0.1\displaystyle\sum\limits_{j = 1}^r {{C_j}} } \right)\end{array}$
    社区发展
    Community development
    经济产出
    Economic output
    社会产出
    Social output
    $ {V}_{\text{经}}$
    $ {V}_{\text{社}}$
    $ {V}_{\text{经}}$为保护区社区经济价值(元/a),主要表现为保护区周边的社区总收入;$ {V}_{\text{社}}$为社会价值(元/a),主要为保护区直接和相关就业产生的劳动力收入
    $ {V}_{\text{经}}$ and $ {V}_{\text{社}}$ are the economic and social values of community (CNY/year)
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  丰林自然保护区林分年积累营养物质量

    Table  3.   Annual nutrient accumulation of forest in Fenglin Nature Reserve

    林分类型
    Forest type
    林分面积/hm2
    Stand area/ha
    年净生产力/
    (t·hm−2·a−1)
    Annual net
    productivity/
    (t·ha−1·year−1)
    营养元素平均含量
    Average content of nutrient/%
    林分年积累营养物质量/(t·hm−2·a−1)
    Quality of annual accumulated nutrients
    in stand/(t·ha−1·year−1)
    NPKNPK
    针叶林
    Coniferous forest
    13 719 7.05 0.33 0.036 0.231 319.17 34.82 223.42
    阔叶林
    Broadleaved forest
    943 7.76 0.531 0.042 0.201 38.86 3.07 14.71
    针阔叶混交林
    Coniferous and broadleaved forest
    2 891 9.52 0.431 0.039 0.216 118.62 10.73 59.45
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  修正的Shannon-Wiener指数

    Table  4.   Revised Shannon-Wiener index

    指数体系
    Index system
    指数 Index
    1234
    濒危指数
    Endangered index
    近危
    Near threatened
    易危
    Vulnerable
    濒危
    Endangered
    极危
    Most dangerous
    特有种指数
    Endemic species index
    有限分布
    Finite distribution
    极有限分布
    Extremely finite
    distribution
    特殊环境分布
    Special environment
    distribution
    极特殊环境分布
    Extremely special
    environment distribution
    树龄指数
    Tree age index
    100 ~ 299年
    100 − 299 years
    300 ~ 499年
    300 − 499 years
    500年以上
    Over 500 years
    集中代表度指数
    Concentrative representation index
    10% ~ 19% 20% ~ 29% 30% ~ 49% 50%以上
    Over 50%
    注:濒危指数根据《中国生物多样性红色名录−高等植物卷》《中国生物多样性红色名录−脊椎动物卷》。特有种指数分别对应植物和动物,特有种指数4为植物区或动物地理区特有;特有种指数3为植物亚区特有或中国特有动物;特有种指数2为中国特有植物或中国主要分布动物;特有种指数1为非中国特有。树龄指数根据中华人民共和国林业行业标准《古树名木普查技术规范:LY/T 2738—2016》。集中代表度指数主要是指评估区内被评估物种总量占所在行政区域或整个分布区的比重。Notes: the endangered index is based on the Red List of Chinas Biodiversity: Volume of Higher Plants and Red List of Chinas Biodiversity: Volume of Vertebrates. The endemic species index corresponds to plants and animals, respectively. Species index 4 is endemic to flora or zoogeography; species index 3 is endemic to the plant sub-region or China endemic animals; species index 2 is endemic to China or mainly distributed animals in China; species index 1 is not endemic to China. The tree age index is based on the Forestry Industry Standard of the Peoples Republic of China Technical Regulation for Surveying of Old and Notable Trees: LY/T 27382016 . The concentrated representation index mainly refers to the proportion of total number of species assessed in the administrative area or the whole distribution area.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  丰林自然保护区生态系统服务价值组成

    Table  5.   Composition of ecosystem service value in Fenglin Nature Reserve

    一级指标 First level index二级指标 Second level index三级指标 Third level index价值 Value/104 CNY合计 Total占比 Proportion/%
    生态服务
    Ecological services
    服务社会
    Social services
    美学游憩
    Aesthetic recreation
    320.00 586.30 0.39
    科研教育
    Research education
    9.60
    医疗康养
    Health care
    256.70
    累积营养物质
    Nutrient accumulation
    1 200.25 1 200.25 0.80
    净化大气
    Atmosphere purification
    吸污
    Absorbing pollutants
    423.46 8 383.09 5.61
    滞尘
    Absorbing dust
    7 959.63
    保育土壤
    Soil conservation
    固土
    Soil consolidation
    4 265.38 29 696.18 19.88
    保肥
    Fertility holding
    25 430.80
    固碳释氧
    Carbon fixation and oxygen release
    固碳
    Carbon fixation
    6 783.61 22 439.13 15.02
    释氧
    Oxygen release
    15 655.52
    涵养水源
    Water conservation
    调节水量
    Regulating water volume
    23 249.61 31 878.01 21.34
    净化水质
    Purifying water
    8 628.40
    保护生物多样性
    Biodiversity conservation
    森林保育
    Forest conservation
    471.56 54 967.76 36.80
    生物多样性保育
    Biodiversity conservation
    54 496.20
    社区发展
    Community development
    经济产出
    Economic output
    174.50 215.70 0.14
    社会产出
    Social output
    41.20
    下载: 导出CSV
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