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基于人机工程学的电动高枝杆锯研究

张迎 康峰 王亚雄 李文彬 仝思源 吕明青

张迎, 康峰, 王亚雄, 李文彬, 仝思源, 吕明青. 基于人机工程学的电动高枝杆锯研究[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2021, 43(5): 147-154. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210059
引用本文: 张迎, 康峰, 王亚雄, 李文彬, 仝思源, 吕明青. 基于人机工程学的电动高枝杆锯研究[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2021, 43(5): 147-154. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210059
Zhang Ying, Kang Feng, Wang Yaxiong, Li Wenbin, Tong Siyuan, Lü Mingqing. Research of electric pole saw based on ergonomics[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2021, 43(5): 147-154. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210059
Citation: Zhang Ying, Kang Feng, Wang Yaxiong, Li Wenbin, Tong Siyuan, Lü Mingqing. Research of electric pole saw based on ergonomics[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2021, 43(5): 147-154. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210059

基于人机工程学的电动高枝杆锯研究

doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210059
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划课题(2018YFD0700601)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    张迎。主要研究方向:高枝杆锯人机工程学研究。Email:13020021421@163.com 地址:100083 北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学工学院

    责任作者:

    李文彬,教授,博士生导师。主要研究方向:林业装备与信息化、人机工程研究。Email:leewb@bjfu.edu.cn 地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S776.2;S221

Research of electric pole saw based on ergonomics

  • 摘要:   目的  在林木剪枝作业环节中,高枝杆锯作为一种高效便捷的工具降低了林业工人爬树剪枝的风险。本研究对市场上典型的电动高枝杆锯进行人机工程学评价,针对其缺陷提出了一种增加可移动手柄的改进方案,通过对比实验来证明改进方案的有效性,为同类型工具提供改进思路。  方法  可移动手柄通过改变握持点到重心的距离,调节工具本身重量对手臂及全身的疲劳负荷。实验选取17名男性操作者,收集操作原有电动高枝杆锯过程中被试人员的心率,肱二头肌和掌长肌的表面肌电信号,握持距离和主观评价结果等数据来选择改进方案。同等实验条件下,对比改进后的实验数据,确定改进效果。  结果  改进前被试人员的心率增加比均大于18%,表明人体全身疲劳负荷过大。肱二头肌和掌长肌归一化的表面肌电信号分别高于20%和30%,呈现出局部肌肉高度疲劳特征。通过配对样本t检验的方法,计算得出改进前后的心率增加比,肱二头肌和掌长肌的归一化表面肌电信号,主观评价和握持距离均有显著差异(P < 0.05)。  结论  综合评价结果表明改进之后的电动高枝杆锯可以允许操作人员利用可移动手柄自由调节双手间的握持距离,从而降低手臂及全身的疲劳负荷,最终使得操作舒适性得到明显提升。改进成本控制在百元以下,提高了普遍推广的可行性。

     

  • 图  1  改进前电动高枝杆锯和操作姿势

    Figure  1.  Electric pole saw before improvement and operation posture

    图  2  被试人员操作疲劳评估结果

    En为实验中所得的表面肌电信号与其最大自主收缩值的比例。En is the ratio of surface electromyography signal obtained in the experiment to its maximal voluntary contraction.

    Figure  2.  Operational fatigue evaluation results of subjects

    图  3  舒适度主观评价

    Figure  3.  Subjective ratings of comfort

    图  4  改进前后电动高枝杆锯对比

    Figure  4.  Difference between before and after improvement of electric pole saw

    图  5  改进前后客观数据对比

    Figure  5.  Difference of objectives before and after improvement

    图  6  改进前后客观数据平均值对比

    Figure  6.  Comparison of average of objective databefore and after improvement

    表  1  实验电动高枝杆锯参数表

    Table  1.   Electric pole saw parameter table

    名称
    Name
    供电方式
    Power
    supply mode
    电机位置
    Motor
    position
    电机功率
    Motor
    power/w
    链条速度
    Chain
    speed/(m·s−1)
    电机转速
    Motor speed/
    (rad·min−1)
    最大切割直径
    Maximum cut
    diameter/cm
    电动锯质量
    Pole saw
    mass/kg
    电池重量
    Battery
    mass/kg
    杆长范围
    Pole length
    range/cm
    斯蒂尔
    STIHL
    直流
    Direct current
    锯头位置
    Position of saw head
    1 50013.37 800304.51.7270 ~ 390
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  生理数据配对样本t检验

    Table  2.   Paired sample t test of physiological data

    测试指标
    Test indicator
    配对差值 Paired differencet
    t value
    dfP
    平均值
    Mean
    SDMSD差值的95%置信区间
    95% confidence interval of difference
    下限 Lower limit上限 Upper limit
    心率增加比
    Increase ratio of heart rate
    0.108 0.120 0.029 0.046 0.170 3.707 16 0.002
    肱二头肌En
    En of biceps brachii muscle
    0.207 0.309 0.075 0.048 0.366 2.759 16 0.014
    掌长肌En
    En of palmaris longus muscle
    0.247 0.139 0.034 0.176 0.318 7.347 16 < 0.001
    握持距离
    Grip distance
    14.147 6.566 1.593 10.771 17.523 8.883 16 < 0.001
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  主观评价数据配对样本t检验

    Table  3.   Paired sample t test of subjective evaluation data

    身体部位
    Body part
    配对差值 Paired differencet
    t value
    dfP
    平均值
    Mean
    SD
    MSD
    差值的95%置信区间
    95% confidence interval of difference
    下限 Lower limit上限 Upper limit
    左臂 Left arm −1.471 1.007 0.244 −1.989 −0.953 −6.019 16 < 0.001
    右臂 Right arm −1.235 1.200 0.291 −1.853 −0.618 −4.243 16 0.001
    腰部 Waist −1.000 1.000 0.243 −1.514 −0.486 −4.123 16 0.001
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-02-19
  • 修回日期:  2021-03-03
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-05-12
  • 刊出日期:  2021-05-27

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