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应用遥感技术评价森林健康的路径和方法

骆有庆 刘宇杰 黄华国 俞琳锋 任利利

骆有庆, 刘宇杰, 黄华国, 俞琳锋, 任利利. 应用遥感技术评价森林健康的路径和方法[J]. 北京林业大学学报. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210107
引用本文: 骆有庆, 刘宇杰, 黄华国, 俞琳锋, 任利利. 应用遥感技术评价森林健康的路径和方法[J]. 北京林业大学学报. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210107
Luo Youqing, Liu Yujie, Huang Huaguo, Yu Linfeng, Ren Lili. Pathway and method of forest health assessment using remote sensing technology[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210107
Citation: Luo Youqing, Liu Yujie, Huang Huaguo, Yu Linfeng, Ren Lili. Pathway and method of forest health assessment using remote sensing technology[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210107

应用遥感技术评价森林健康的路径和方法

doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210107
基金项目: 北京市科技计划(Z201100008020001),国家林业和草原局重大应急科技项目(ZD202001)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    骆有庆,教授。主要研究方向:林木钻蛀性害虫生态调控。Email:youqingluo@126.com 地址:100083 北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学

  • 中图分类号: S763.305;S771.8

Pathway and method of forest health assessment using remote sensing technology

  • 摘要: 近年来,随着气候变化和人类活动的加剧,全球森林面积持续减少、质量下降,生态环境事件频发,森林健康的问题受到前所未有的关注,已经成为生态文明战略的重要组成部分。我国森林资源持续增长,但同时也面临一些问题,如:造林结构单一、林分质量不高、生态稳定性弱等,如何系统准确评价其森林健康状况仍然是当前难点。相对于传统地面调查方法,遥感技术具有实时获取、重复监测以及多时空尺度等优势,并且随着高分遥感和人工智能等技术的飞速发展,大幅提高了解决森林健康评价难题的能力。为系统评估新型遥感技术应用于评价森林健康的潜力,本文在文献分析基础上,指出了现有路径和方法,具体包括:(1)通过文献计量学方法分析并明确了森林健康评价的4大核心内容(活力、组织结构、抵抗力和恢复力)和4大关键问题(树种分类、林木活力、林业有害生物、干旱胁迫)。(2)从不同尺度(单木−林分−生态系统−景观)、不同平台(近地面遥感−航空遥感−卫星遥感)和不同传感器(包括RGB相机、多/高光谱相机、激光雷达、热红外相机、微波雷达和叶绿素荧光扫描仪)3个角度,系统梳理现有遥感技术的优缺点。(3)围绕4个关键问题,阐述近年来应用遥感技术评价森林健康的路径和方法。进一步,本文指出了包括多数据源融合分析、森林健康监测网络与近地面遥感、森林健康大数据应用在内的挑战与机遇,以期为我国森林资源智慧管理提供参考。

     

  • 图  1  森林健康评价指标体系一级结构、准则层的词云图和词频分析

    Figure  1.  Word cloud and frequency analysis of primary structure and criterion layer of forest health assessment indicator system

    图  2  多尺度、多平台遥感技术评价森林健康概念图

    Figure  2.  Concept map of multi-scale, multi-platform remote sensing assessment of forest health

    表  1  不同传感器在森林健康评价中的技术优势和主要评价内容

    Table  1.   Advantages and application of different sensors in forest health assessment

    传感器
    Sensor
    技术优势
    Technical advantage
    主要不足
    Main shortcomings
    特征参量
    Feature parameter
    评价内容
    Assessment content
    RGB高分相机
    RGB high-resolution camera
    低成本、高空间分辨率
    Low cost, high spatial resolution
    成像质量受光照条件影响大、光谱信息有限
    Image quality is influenced by illumination conditions, limited spectral information
    RGB图像、纹理
    RGB image, texture
    普适性好,一般作为遥感底图或摄影测量数据
    Widely used as RS base map or photogrammetric data
    多光谱成像仪
    Multispectral sensor
    几个波段的反射率
    Reflectance of several bands
    异物同谱、同物异谱问题使数据解译困难
    Difficult data interpretation due to synonyms spectrum
    多光谱图像、多通道反射率
    Multispectral image, multi-channel reflectance
    树种分类、主要生化组分、物候、胁迫
    Tree species classification, main biochemical components, phenology, stress
    高光谱成像仪
    Hyperspectral sensor
    上百个窄波段的反射率
    Reflectance of hundreds of narrow bands
    观测条件严格、数据量大、分析难度大
    Strict observation condition and difficult data analysis
    图谱立方体
    Hyperspectral cube
    树种分类、多种生化组分、光合作用、物候、早期胁迫
    Tree species classification, photosynthesis, various biochemical components, phenology, early stress
    热红外相机
    Thermal camera
    全天候、穿透性、精细温差
    All weather, penetrating, fine temperature difference
    温度变化易受周围环境影响
    Temperature variation is easily affected by the surrounding environment
    方向亮度温度、热红外图像
    Directional brightness temperature, thermal infrared image
    森林火灾、森林干旱、光合作用、早期胁迫
    Forest fire, drought, photosynthesis, early stress
    激光雷达
    LiDAR
    穿透性、精细的地形和森林三维信息
    Penetrating, fine terrain and 3D forest information
    缺少光谱、纹理信息
    Lack of spectral and texture information
    点云廓线、波形
    Point cloud profile, waveform
    地形、位置、生物量、蓄积量、冠层结构、叶面积指数
    Topography, location, biomass, volume, canopy structure, LAI
    微波雷达
    Microwave radar
    全天候,一定穿透性,可达地下
    All weather, limited penetrating, reaching underground
    斑点噪声大、受地形影响
    严重
    Speckle noise and seriously affected by terrain
    后向散射、干涉系数、极化雷达图像
    Backscattering, interference coefficient, polarimetric radar image
    地形、生物量、蓄积量、水分、土壤
    Topography, biomass, volume, moisture, soil
    叶绿素荧光扫描仪
    Chlorophyll fluorescence scanner
    获取日光诱导的叶绿素信息
    Capturing chlorophyll information induced by sunlight
    受大气影响大、时空连续性有限
    Affected by atmosphere, limited space-time continuity
    荧光参数、光化学效率
    Fluorescence parameters, photochemical efficiency
    初级生产力、碳循环、物候、早期胁迫
    Primary productivity, carbon cycle, phenology, early stress
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-03-19
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