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塞罕坝华北落叶松纯林和混交林土壤肥力质量评价

常旭 邱新彩 刘欣 彭道黎 程顺

常旭, 邱新彩, 刘欣, 彭道黎, 程顺. 塞罕坝华北落叶松纯林和混交林土壤肥力质量评价[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2021, 43(8): 50-59. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210189
引用本文: 常旭, 邱新彩, 刘欣, 彭道黎, 程顺. 塞罕坝华北落叶松纯林和混交林土壤肥力质量评价[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2021, 43(8): 50-59. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210189
Chang Xu, Qiu Xincai, Liu Xin, Peng Daoli, Cheng Shun. Soil fertility quality evaluation of pure and mixed Larix principis-rupprechtii forests in Saihanba, Hebei Province of northern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2021, 43(8): 50-59. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210189
Citation: Chang Xu, Qiu Xincai, Liu Xin, Peng Daoli, Cheng Shun. Soil fertility quality evaluation of pure and mixed Larix principis-rupprechtii forests in Saihanba, Hebei Province of northern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2021, 43(8): 50-59. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210189

塞罕坝华北落叶松纯林和混交林土壤肥力质量评价

doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210189
基金项目: “十三五”国家重点研发计划(2016YFD0600205)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    常旭。主要研究方向:森林资源监测与评价。Email:837378159@qq.com 地址:100083 北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学林学院

    责任作者:

    彭道黎,教授。主要研究方向:森林资源监测与评价、林业遥感与信息技术、森林经营理论与技术。Email:dlpeng@bjfu.edu.cn 地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S714. 8

Soil fertility quality evaluation of pure and mixed Larix principis-rupprechtii forests in Saihanba, Hebei Province of northern China

  • 摘要:   目的  基于土壤质量指数(SQI),研究华北落叶松林不同混交方式对土壤肥力质量的影响,为其合理经营和地力恢复提供理论依据。  方法  该研究以河北省塞罕坝林场华北落叶松纯林(落叶松纯林)、华北落叶松白桦混交林(落桦混交林)和华北落叶松樟子松混交林(落樟混交林)为研究对象,采集和分析0 ~ 20 cm土层的土壤进行土壤理化性质、生物性质的调查研究,利用SQI法进行土壤肥力质量评价。建立SQI包括3个步骤:采用主成分分析法筛选最小数据集(MDS),利用非线性得分函数计算MDS指标得分,利用加权求和模型计算SQI。  结果  不同混交方式间土壤理化和生物性质存在不同程度的差异。与落叶松纯林相比,落桦混交林的土壤理化和生物性质有了明显改善;落樟混交林的土壤理化状况较差,土壤生物性质与落叶松纯林没有明显差异。在17个土壤肥力质量指标中,MDS由土壤微生物生物量氮、全磷、氨氮3个指标组成。不同混交方式间SQI差异显著,表现为落桦混交林(0.59) > 落叶松纯林(0.47) > 落樟混交林(0.39)。  结论  土壤肥力质量在不同混交方式下差异显著,塞罕坝机械林场落叶松白桦混交林有利于改善土壤肥力。利用指数法建立SQI进行土壤肥力质量评价,可为其他树种或其他地区的森林土壤质量评价提供借鉴。

     

  • 图  1  最小数据集指标(MDS)的得分值

    不同小写字母表示不同混交方式间差异显著(P < 0.05),LP. 落叶松纯林;BL. 落桦混交林;ML. 落樟混交林。下同。Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among varied mixed modes at P < 0.05 level. LP, pure Larix principis-rupprechtii forest; BL, mixed Larix principis-rupprechtii and Betula platyphylla forest; ML, mixed Larix principis-rupprechtii and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica forest. The same below.

    Figure  1.  Scores of minimum data set indicators

    图  2  华北落叶松纯林和混交林中土壤质量指数(SQI)变化

    Figure  2.  Changes of soil quality index in pure and mixed Larix principis-rupprechtii forest

    表  1  样地基本特征

    Table  1.   Basic information for the sample plots

    混交方式
    Mixing mode
    坡度
    Slope
    degree/(°)
    坡向
    Slope aspect
    海拔
    Elevation/m
    株数密度/(株·hm−2)
    Plant density/
    (tree·ha−1)
    郁闭度
    Canopy
    density
    平均胸径
    Average
    DBH/cm
    平均树高
    Average tree
    height/m
    落叶松纯林
    Pure Larix principis-rupprechtii forest
    9 西北,西,西南
    Northwest, west, southwest
    1 598 1 195 0.77 20.28 15.88
    落桦混交林
    Mixed Larix principis-rupprechtii and
    Betula platyphylla forest
    12 西北,西
    Northwest, west
    1 588 1 289 0.73 18.20 14.90
    落樟混交林
    Mixed Larix principis-rupprechtii and
    Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica forest
    11 西北,西南
    Northwest, southwest
    1 589 1 328 0.83 19.08 15.32
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  落叶松纯林和混交林中土壤理化性质变化

    Table  2.   Changes of soil physicochemical properties in pure and mixed Larix principis-rupprechtii forests

    指标
    Indicator
    落叶松纯林
    Pure Larix principis-
    rupprechtii forest
    落桦混交林
    Mixed Larix principis-rupprechtii
    and Betula platyphylla stand
    落樟混交林
    Mixed Larix principis-rupprechtii and
    Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica forest
    质量含水率 Mass moisture content/% 16.06 ± 0.91ab 17.96 ± 0.93a 14.45 ± 0.56b
    pH 6.34 ± 0.05ab 6.24 ± 0.03b 6.39 ± 0.04a
    有机碳 Organic C/(g·kg−1) 29.17 ± 1.27b 34.35 ± 1.84a 24.71 ± 1.35c
    全氮 Total N/(g·kg−1) 1.97 ± 0.12b 2.77 ± 0.26a 1.56 ± 0.12b
    全磷 Total P/(g·kg−1) 0.31 ± 0.01b 0.38 ± 0.01a 0.26 ± 0.01c
    氨氮 Ammonia N/(mg·kg−1) 10.26 ± 1.09a 12.44 ± 1.11a 9.51 ± 0.90a
    硝氮 Nitrate N/(mg·kg−1) 2.20 ± 0.25b 2.90 ± 0.27a 1.75 ± 0.17b
    有效磷 Available P/(mg·kg−1) 2.91 ± 0.11ab 3.37 ± 0.21a 2.81 ± 0.20b
    注:不同小写字母表示不同混交方式间差异显著(P < 0.05),数值为平均值 ± 标准误。下同。Notes: different lowercase letters mean significant differences among varied mixed modes at P<0.05 level. Values are mean ± standard error. The same below.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  落叶松纯林和混交林中土壤生物性质变化

    Table  3.   Changes of soil biological properties in pure and mixed Larix principis-rupprechtii forests

    指标
    Indicator
    落叶松纯林
    Pure Larix principis-
    rupprechtii stand
    落桦混交林
    Mixed Larix principis-rupprechtii
    and Betula platyphylla forest
    落樟混交林
    Mixed Larix principis-rupprechtii and
    Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica forest
    PLFA总量 Total PLFAs/(nmol·g−1) 36.38 ± 1.38b 51.66 ± 3.34a 32.52 ± 1.67b
    细菌 Bacteria/(nmol·g−1) 20.32 ± 0.78b 30.00 ± 2.05a 18.00 ± 0.98b
    真菌 Fungi/(nmol·g−1) 3.64 ± 0.11b 4.92 ± 0.30a 3.41 ± 0.16b
    放线菌 Actinomycete/(nmol·g−1) 3.79 ± 0.19b 5.67 ± 0.49a 3.31 ± 0.18b
    微生物生物量碳 Microbial biomass C/(mg·kg−1) 334.55 ± 12.77ab 372.28 ± 16.46a 316.13 ± 9.98b
    微生物生物量氮 Microbial biomass N/(mg·kg−1) 42.63 ± 2.24b 52.92 ± 3.18a 38.31 ± 2.16b
    蔗糖酶 Invertase/(mg·g−1.h−1) 49.01 ± 2.20ab 56.66 ± 3.66a 44.62 ± 3.87b
    脲酶 Urease/(mg·g−1.h−1) 0.23 ± 0.01b 0.36 ± 0.03a 0.21 ± 0.01b
    酸性磷酸酶 Acid phosphatase/(nmol·g−1.h−1) 774.82 ± 76.25b 1 064.93 ± 105.86a 721.65 ± 56.77b
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  主成分因子旋转载荷矩阵、特征值与方差贡献率

    Table  4.   Rotated factor loading matrix, eigenvalue and variance explained of principal component analysis

    指标 Indicator主成分 Principal component
    123
    质量含水率 Mass moisture content 0.794 0.368 −0.011
    pH −0.087 −0.234 −0.946
    有机碳 Organic C 0.785 0.446 0.337
    全氮 Total N 0.800 0.493 0.275
    全磷 Total P 0.067 0.895 0.171
    氨氮 Ammonia N 0.813 −0.021 0.463
    硝氮 Nitrate N 0.888 0.292 −0.094
    有效磷 Available P 0.813 0.285 0.246
    PLFA总量 Total PLFAs 0.739 0.588 0.244
    细菌 Bacteria 0.726 0.601 0.253
    真菌 Fungi 0.617 0.682 0.135
    放线菌 Actinomycete 0.736 0.561 0.194
    微生物生物量碳 Microbial biomass C 0.909 0.349 −0.057
    微生物生物量氮 Microbial biomass N 0.875 0.433 0.08
    蔗糖酶 Invertase 0.927 0.158 0.118
    脲酶 Urease 0.545 0.749 0.075
    酸性磷酸酶 Acid phosphatase 0.875 0.301 0.265
    特征值 Eigenvalue 9.524 4.075 1.676
    方差贡献率 Variance contribution rate/% 56.025 23.973 9.860
    累积方差贡献率 Cumulative variance contribution rate/% 56.025 79.998 89.858
    注:粗体的因子载荷表示高因子载荷,粗体并加下划线的因子载荷对应入选最小数据集的指标。Notes: boldface factor loadings are considered highly weighted. Boldface and underlined loading values correspond to the indicators included in the MDS.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  高因子载荷指标间的相关性

    Table  5.   Correlation coefficients for highly weighed variables

    土壤指标
    Soil indicator
    硝氮
    Nitrate N
    微生物生物量碳
    Microbial biomass C
    微生物生物量氮
    Microbial biomass N
    蔗糖酶
    Invertase
    酸性磷酸酶
    Acid phosphatase
    硝氮 Nitrate N 1.000 0.909 0.912 0.886 0.820
    微生物生物量碳 Microbial biomass C 0.909 1.000 0.947 0.894 0.900
    微生物生物量氮 Microbial biomass N 0.912 0.947 1.000 0.880 0.930
    蔗糖酶 Invertase 0.886 0.894 0.880 1.000 0.854
    酸性磷酸酶 Acid phosphatase 0.820 0.900 0.930 0.854 1.000
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-05-17
  • 修回日期:  2021-06-21
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-07-22
  • 刊出日期:  2021-08-31

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