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微地形对云冷杉阔叶混交林土壤有机碳和全氮的影响

赵晗 王海燕 罗鹏 杜雪 邹佳何 符利勇 雷相东

赵晗, 王海燕, 罗鹏, 杜雪, 邹佳何, 符利勇, 雷相东. 微地形对云冷杉阔叶混交林土壤有机碳和全氮的影响[J]. 北京林业大学学报. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210237
引用本文: 赵晗, 王海燕, 罗鹏, 杜雪, 邹佳何, 符利勇, 雷相东. 微地形对云冷杉阔叶混交林土壤有机碳和全氮的影响[J]. 北京林业大学学报. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210237
Zhao Han, Wang Haiyan, Luo Peng, Du Xue, Zou Jiahe, Fu Liyong, Lei Xiangdong. Effects of micro-topography on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in mixed spruce-fir-broadleaf forest[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210237
Citation: Zhao Han, Wang Haiyan, Luo Peng, Du Xue, Zou Jiahe, Fu Liyong, Lei Xiangdong. Effects of micro-topography on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in mixed spruce-fir-broadleaf forest[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210237

微地形对云冷杉阔叶混交林土壤有机碳和全氮的影响

doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210237
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划重点专项(2017YFC0504002)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    赵晗。主要研究方向:土壤学。Email:1171187930@qq.com 地址:100083北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学林学院

    责任作者:

    王海燕,教授。主要研究方向:土壤学、植物营养学。Email:haiyanwang72@aliyun.com 地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S714.2

Effects of micro-topography on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in mixed spruce-fir-broadleaf forest

  • 摘要:   目的  土壤有机碳与全氮是土壤质量评价的重要指标,同时与全球碳氮循环和气候变化密切相关。地形,尤其微地形是驱动土壤特征空间异质性的重要因素。本文旨在探究微地形对土壤有机碳和全氮的影响,为无人机数据应用与东北天然林土壤养分管理提供依据。  方法  以云冷杉阔叶混交林为对象,通过无人机激光雷达数据提取4块1 hm2样地中400个10 m × 10 m样方的微地形因子,采用相关性分析和冗余分析研究微地形对土壤有机碳和全氮的影响。  结果  研究区20 ~ 40 cm土层土壤有机碳和全氮均与高程呈极显著正相关(r = 0.26,0.25,P < 0.01),0 ~ 20 cm土壤全氮含量与坡度呈极显著正相关(r = 0.18,P < 0.01),其余相关性皆不显著。各样地的相关性分析结果存在差异。样地Ⅰ土壤有机碳与高程呈负相关(0 ~ 20 cm:r = −0.37,P < 0.01;20 ~ 40 cm:r = −0.21,P < 0.05),样地Ⅲ与样地Ⅳ 20 ~ 40 cm土壤有机碳与高程呈负相关(r = −0.20,−0.21,P < 0.05),样地Ⅲ 0 ~ 20 cm土壤有机碳与坡向呈正相关(r = 0.26,P < 0.05);样地Ⅰ20 ~ 40 cm土层土壤全氮与高程呈负相关(r = −0.34,P < 0.01),与复合地形因子平面曲率呈负相关(r = −0.24,P < 0.05)。在冗余分析中,RDA1约束轴的解释率达到88.05%,其中高程与20 ~ 40 cm土壤有机碳向量夹角较小,呈正相关关系,且高程与坡向对土壤有机碳和全氮有较大影响。  结论  对比样地中心法和缓冲区法两种方法提取的无人机激光雷达数据,发现样方中心法选取的地形因子更多,且回归模型R2较大。微地形中的高程、坡度、坡向均对云冷杉阔叶混交林表层土壤有机碳和全氮有一定影响。以研究区4块样地整体和样地个体为尺度,分析微地形因子与土壤有机碳和全氮的相关性时发现,两者存在较大差异,表明云冷杉阔叶混交林土壤有机碳和全氮具有很强的空间异质性,且与简单地形因子的相关性强于复合地形因子。

     

  • 图  1  样地位置图

    图中数据为高程(m)。Ⅰ ~ Ⅳ为样地号 The data in the figure are elevation (m). Ⅰ−Ⅳ mean sample plot No.

    Figure  1.  Diagram of sample plot location

    图  2  样方设置图

    Figure  2.  Sample plot setting diagram

    图  3  无人机获取DEM三维图

    Figure  3.  3D diagram of DEM extracted by UAV

    图  4  土壤有机碳及全氮与地形因子的 RDA排序

    SOC1. 0 ~ 20 cm土壤有机碳;SOC2. 20 ~ 40 cm土壤有机碳;TN1. 0 ~ 20 cm土壤全氮;TN2. 20 ~ 40 cm土壤全氮。SOC1 and SOC2 denote soil organic carbon at soil depths of 0−20 cm and 20−40 cm; TN1 and TN2 denote soil total nitrogen at soil depths of 0−20 cm and 20−40 cm.

    Figure  4.  Redundancy analysis (RDA) between soil organic carbon, total nitrogen and terrain factors

    表  1  样地概况表

    Table  1.   Characteristics of experimental sample plots

    样地 Sample plot海拔
    Elevation/m
    坡度
    Slope/(°)
    坡向
    Aspect/(°)
    坡位
    Slope position
    郁闭度
    Canopy density/%
    742 3 东北
    Northeast
    下坡
    Downslope
    59
    732 5 东北
    Northeast
    下坡
    Downslope
    75
    769 5 东北
    Northeast
    上坡
    Upslope
    65
    773 3 东北
    Northeast
    上坡
    Upslope
    73
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  研究区土壤有机碳及全氮的统计数据

    Table  2.   Statistics of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in the study area

    土壤指标
    Soil index
    土壤深度
    Soil depth/cm
    平均值
    Average
    最小值
    Min. value
    最大值
    Max. value
    标准差
    Standard deviation
    变异系数
    Coefficient of variance/%
    土壤有机碳
    Soil organic carbon/(g·kg−1)
    0 ~ 20 79.66 29.50 247.90 28.27 35.49
    20 ~ 40 41.10 12.60 107.30 14.99 36.47
    土壤全氮
    Soil total nitrogen/(g·kg−1)
    0 ~ 20 4.68 1.18 14.95 1.98 42.31
    20 ~ 40 2.19 0.41 5.18 0.92 42.01
    注:n = 382。下同。Notes: n = 382. The same below.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  研究区地形因子的统计数据

    Table  3.   Statistics of terrain factors in the study area

    地形因子
    Terrain factor
    平均值
    Average
    最小值
    Min. value
    最大值
    Max. value
    标准差
    Standard deviation
    变异系数
    Coefficient of variance/%
    简单地形因子
    Primary terrain factor
    高程
    Elevation/m
    786.79 755.23 822.09 22.88 2.91
    坡度
    Slope/(°)
    8.53 6.58 11.93 1.03 12.08
    坡向
    Aspect/(°)
    302.41 282.43 332.95 7.82 2.59
    复合地形因子
    Composite terrain factor
    平面曲率
    Plane curvature/((100 m)−1)
    0.01 −0.79 1.26 0.26 32.50
    剖面曲率
    Profile curvature/((100 m)−1)
    −0.02 −1.20 0.93 0.29 23.77
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  研究区土壤有机碳及全氮与地形因子的相关性

    Table  4.   Correlation of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen with terrain factors in the study area

    土壤指标
    Soil index
    土壤深度
    Soil depth/cm
    简单地形因子
    Primary terrain factor
    复合地形因子
    Composite terrain factor
    高程
    Elevation
    坡度
    Slope
    坡向
    Aspect
    平面曲率
    Plane curvature
    剖面曲率
    Profile curvature
    土壤有机碳
    Soil organic carbon
    0 ~ 20 0.09 0.00 0.06 −0.04 0.06
    20 ~ 40 0.26** 0.02 0.00 −0.06 0.05
    土壤全氮
    Soil total nitrogen
    0 ~ 20 −0.06 0.18** 0.10 −0.01 0.07
    20 ~ 40 0.25** 0.05 0.06 −0.10 0.07
    注:**表示在0.01水平上显著相关,*表示在0.05水平上显著相关。下同。Notes: ** means significant correlation at 0.01 level, * means significant correlation at 0.05 level. The same below.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  各样地土壤有机碳与地形因子的相关性

    Table  5.   Correlations between soil organic carbon and terrain factors in each sample plot

    样地
    Sample plot
    土壤深度
    Soil depth/cm
    简单地形因子
    Primary terrain factor
    复合地形因子
    Composite terrain factor
    高程
    Elevation
    坡度
    Slope
    坡向
    Aspect
    平面曲率
    Plane curvature
    剖面曲率
    Profile curvature
    0 ~ 20 −0.37** −0.17 0.02 −0.12 0.10
    20 ~ 40 −0.21* −0.04 0.02 −0.19 0.19
    0 ~ 20 0.06 0.00 0.11 0.13 −0.01
    20 ~ 40 −0.05 0.06 0.19 0.11 −0.02
    0 ~ 20 −0.16 −0.00 0.26* 0.00 0.05
    20 ~ 40 −0.20* 0.12 0.15 0.06 0.00
    0 ~ 20 −0.11 −0.07 0.13 −0.02 0.15
    20 ~ 40 −0.21* −0.11 0.12 −0.01 0.06
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  各样地土壤全氮与地形因子的相关性

    Table  6.   Correlations between soil total nitrogen and terrain factors in each sample plot

    样地
    Sample plot
    土壤深度
    Soil depth/cm
    简单地形因子
    Primary terrain factor
    复合地形因子
    Composite terrain factor
    高程
    Elevation
    坡度
    Slope
    坡向
    Aspect
    平面曲率
    Plane curvature
    剖面曲率
    Profile curvature
    0 ~ 20 0.16 −0.04 0.11 0.00 0.03
    20 ~ 40 −0.34** −0.05 −0.06 −0.24* 0.15
    0 ~ 20 0.17 −0.03 −0.00 0.01 0.12
    20 ~ 40 −0.04 −0.02 0.17 0.01 0.09
    0 ~ 20 −0.17 0.08 0.23* −0.02 0.10
    20 ~ 40 −0.10 0.12 0.06 −0.06 0.12
    0 ~ 20 −0.15 0.16 0.11 0.01 0.15
    20 ~ 40 −0.11 0.08 0.08 0.08 −0.01
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  不同提取方法相关系数与回归模型R2

    Table  7.   Correlation coefficients between different extraction methods and determination coefficients of regression models

    方法
    Method
    20 ~ 40 cm
    土壤有机碳−高程
    20−40 cm soil organic carbon-elevation
    20 ~ 40 cm
    土壤全氮−高程
    20−40 cm soil total nitrogen-elevation
    0 ~ 20 cm
    土壤全氮−坡度
    0−20 cm soil total nitrogen-slope
    回归模型R2
    Regression model R2
    0 ~ 20 cm
    土壤有机碳
    0−20 cm soil organic carbon
    20 ~ 40 cm
    土壤有机碳
    20−40 cm soil organic carbon
    0 ~ 20 cm
    土壤全氮
    0−20 cm soil total nitrogen
    20 ~ 40 cm
    土壤全氮
    20−40 cm soil total nitrogen
    样方中心法
    Quadrat center method
    0.262** 0.245** 0.176** 0.025 0.098 0.046 0.090
    内切缓冲区
    Inscribed circle buffer
    0.261** 0.245** 0.184** 0.022 0.084 0.035 0.072
    100 m2缓冲区
    100 m2 circle buffer
    0.261** 0.245** 0.191** 0.021 0.084 0.038 0.072
    外接缓冲区
    Circumscribed circle buffer
    0.261** 0.244** 0.190** 0.023 0.092 0.038 0.076
    注:表格只选取了具有显著性的相关关系。Note: only significant correlations are selected in the table.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-06-22
  • 修回日期:  2021-08-14
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-07-27

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