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塞罕坝北曼甸林场森林生态功能等级评价

尹海龙 张志伟 宋伟 张泽文 武莉琴 邓婷 刘强

尹海龙, 张志伟, 宋伟, 张泽文, 武莉琴, 邓婷, 刘强. 塞罕坝北曼甸林场森林生态功能等级评价[J]. 北京林业大学学报. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210373
引用本文: 尹海龙, 张志伟, 宋伟, 张泽文, 武莉琴, 邓婷, 刘强. 塞罕坝北曼甸林场森林生态功能等级评价[J]. 北京林业大学学报. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210373
Yin Hailong, Zhang Zhiwei, Song Wei, Zhang Zewen, Wu Liqin, Deng Ting, Liu Qiang. Grade evaluation of forest ecological function for Beimandian Forest Farm of Saihanba[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210373
Citation: Yin Hailong, Zhang Zhiwei, Song Wei, Zhang Zewen, Wu Liqin, Deng Ting, Liu Qiang. Grade evaluation of forest ecological function for Beimandian Forest Farm of Saihanba[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210373

塞罕坝北曼甸林场森林生态功能等级评价

doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210373
基金项目: 河北省自然科学基金项目(C2020204051),河北农业大学引进人才科研专项(YJ201942)。
详细信息
    作者简介:

    尹海龙,工程师。主要研究方向:森林经营Email:454552698@qq.com 地址:068450 河北省承德市围场县塞罕坝机械林场北曼甸分场

    责任作者:

    刘强,博士,副教授。主要研究方向:森林可持续经营、树木生理。Email:qiangliu2015@126.com 地址:071001 河北省保定市莲池区乐凯南大街2596号河北农业大学西校区

  • 中图分类号: S757.2

Grade evaluation of forest ecological function for Beimandian Forest Farm of Saihanba

  • 摘要:   目的  塞罕坝机械林场是全球最大的人工林场,2017年被联合国授予“地球卫士奖”,如何科学评价造林对塞罕坝森林生态功能恢复的贡献显得尤为重要,本研究旨在从不同角度分析塞罕坝森林生态功能现状,为未来森林经营提供理论依据。  方法  基于全国森林资源规划设计调查技术规程(GB/T 26424—2010),采用森林蓄积量、森林自然度、森林群落结构、物种结构、植被总覆盖度、郁闭度、平均树高和枯枝落叶厚度8个评价因子对塞罕坝北曼甸林场各类森林进行生态功能等级评价。  结果  北曼甸林场有林地的森林生态功能指数平均为0.488,其中生态功能等级达到较好水平的林分占总林分的3.8 %;生态功能等级达到中等水平的占总林分的52.7 %;生态功能等级为较差的林分占42.4%;生态功能等级为差的林分占1.1 %。不同森林起源的生态功能指数表现为:天然林(0.545) > 人工林(0.474)。不同森林类型的生态功能指数排序为:针阔混交林(0.710) > 阔叶混交林(0.617) > 天然白桦次生林(0.535) > 针叶混交林(0.487) > 落叶松人工林(0.478) > 云杉人工林(0.443) > 樟子松人工林(0.429)。不同龄组的森林生态功能指数排序为:过熟林(0.588) > 中龄林(0.512) > 近熟林(0.509) > 成熟林(0.504) > 幼龄林(0.434)。  结论  经过近60年的造林工程,北曼甸林场各类森林生态功能相较于沙荒地有了显著提升,但人工林生态功能仍具有较大的提升空间,结合近自然经营理念需要对人工林进行必要的近自然改造。

     

  • 图  1  塞罕坝北曼甸林场森林生态功能等级分布图

    Figure  1.  Distribution of forest ecological function level of Saihanba-beimandian Forest Fram

    图  2  塞罕坝北曼甸林场森林生态功能等级评价结果

    Figure  2.  Evaluation results of forest ecological function level of Saihanba-beimandian Forest Fram

    图  3  不同起源森林生态功能等级评价结果

    Figure  3.  Evaluation results of forest ecological function level from different origin

    图  4  不同森林类型生态功能等级评价结果

    Ⅰ代表阔叶混交林,Ⅱ代表华北落叶松人工林,Ⅲ代表云杉人工林,Ⅳ代表樟子松人工林,Ⅴ代表天然白桦次生林,Ⅵ代表针阔混交林,Ⅶ代表针叶混交林。Ⅰ is mixed forest of broadleaf species,Ⅱ is Larix principis-rupprechtii plantation,Ⅲ is Picea asperata plantation,Ⅳ is Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation,Ⅴ is secondary forest of natural platyphylla,Ⅵ is mixed forest of broadleaf and needleleaf species,Ⅶ is mixed forest of needleleaf species.

    Figure  4.  Evaluation results of forest ecological function level from different forest types

    图  5  不同龄组森林生态功能等级评价结果

    Figure  5.  Evaluation results of forest ecological function level from different age groups

    表  1  塞罕坝北曼甸林场有林地资源信息统计

    Table  1.   Statistics of forest land resources of Saihanba-beimandian Forest Farm

    功能分区
    Functional partition
    森林类型
    Forest types
    小班个数
    Number of
    subcompartment
    面积/hm2
    Area/ha
    占比
    Proportion/%
    蓄积量
    Volume/m3
    占比
    Proportion/%
    保护区
    Reserves
    小计Subtotal 646 2 400.9 18.64 517 008 24.00
    落叶松人工林
    Larix principis-rupprechtii plantation
    429 1 583.8 12.30 403 917 18.75
    云杉人工林
    Picea asperata plantation
    18 61.7 0.48 7 606 0.35
    樟子松人工林
    Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation
    110 236.0 1.83 21 410 0.99
    天然白桦次生林
    Secondary forest of natural Betula platyphylla
    89 519.5 4.03 84 075 3.90
    多功能区
    Multi-function
    小计 Subtotal 2 099 10 480.5 81.36 1 637 050 76.00
    阔叶混交林
    Mixed forest of broadleaf species
    27 146.3 1.14 14 542 0.68
    落叶松人工林
    Larix principis-rupprechtii plantation
    1 307 6 475.7 50.27 1 178 033 54.69
    云杉人工林
    Picea asperata plantation
    175 572.0 4.44 27 706 1.29
    樟子松人工林
    Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation
    121 550.3 4.27 14 498 0.67
    天然白桦次生林
    Secondary forest of natural Betula platyphylla
    385 1 979.2 15.36 280 311 13.01
    针阔混交林
    Mixed forest of needleleaf and broadleaf species
    59 584.9 4.54 99 041 4.60
    针叶混交林
    Mixed forest of needleleaf species
    25 172.2 1.34 22 919 1.06
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  森林生态功能评价因子及类型划分标准

    Table  2.   Evaluation factors of forest ecological function and classification criteria of forest

    评价因子 Evaluation factors类型划分标准 Classification criteria权重 Weight
    森林单位面积蓄积量/(m3·hm−2) Forest volume per area/(m3·ha−1) ≥ 150 50 ~ 149 < 50 0.20
    森林自然度 Forest naturalness 1,2 3,4 5 0.15
    森林群落结构 Forest community structure 1 2 3 0.15
    树种结构 Tree species structure 6,7 3,4,5 1,2 0.15
    植被总覆盖度 Total vegetation coverage/% ≥ 70 50 ~ 69 < 50 0.10
    郁闭度 Canopy density/% ≥ 70 40 ~ 69 20 ~ 39 0.10
    平均树高 Mean tree height/m ≥ 15.0 5.0 ~ 14.9 < 5.0 0.10
    枯枝落叶厚度等级 Litter thickness grade 1 2 3 0.05
    注:引自文献[22-23]。表3 ~ 8同此。Notes: cited from references [22-23]. The same as table 38.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  群落结构类型划分标准与代码

    Table  3.   Classification criteria and codes of community structure types

    群落结构类型
    Forest community structure
    划分标准
    Criteria
    代码
    Code
    完整结构
    Complete structure
    具有乔木层、下木层、地被植物(含草本、苔藓、地衣)3个层次的林分
    Stands with tree layer, lower tree layer and ground cover (including herb, moss and lichen)
    1
    较完整结构
    Relatively complete structure
    具有乔木层和其他1个植被层的林分
    Stands with tree layer and other vegetation layer
    2
    简单结构
    Simple structure
    只有乔木1个植被层的林分
    Stands with only tree layer
    3
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  自然度划分标准与代码

    Table  4.   Classification criteria and codes of natural degree

    自然度
    Forest naturalness
    划分标准 Criteria代码 Code
    原始或受人为影响很小而处于基本原始状态的森林类型
    Basically primitive state with little human influence
    1
    有明显人为干扰的天然森林类型或处于演替后期的次生森林类型,以地带性顶极适应值较高的树种为主,顶极树种明显可见
    The natural forest type with obvious human disturbance or the secondary forest type in the late succession stage is mainly the tree species with high zonal climax adaptation value, and the climax tree species are obviously visible
    2
    人为干扰很大的次生森林类型,处于次生演替的后期阶段,除先锋树种外,也可见顶极树种出现
    The secondary forest type with great human disturbance is in the late stage of secondary succession. In addition to pioneer trees, climax trees can also be seen
    3
    人为干扰很大,演替逆行,处于极为残次的次生林阶段
    The artificial disturbance is very large, the succession is retrograde, and the secondary forest is in the stage of extremely defective
    4
    人为干扰强度极大且持续,地带性森林类型几乎破坏殆尽,处于难以恢复的逆行演替后期,包括各种人工森林类型
    The intensity of human disturbance is great and persistent, and the zonal forest types are almost destroyed, which is in the late stage of retrograde succession that is difficult to recover, including all kinds of artificial forest types
    5
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  树种结构划分标准与代码

    Table  5.   Classification criteria and codes of forest structure

    树种结构类型 Species structure划分标准 Criteria代码 Code
    类型1 Type 1 针叶纯林(单个针叶树种蓄积量 ≥ 90%)
    Pure coniferous forest (coniferous tree stock ≥ 90%)
    1
    类型2 Type 2 阔叶纯林(单个阔叶树种蓄积量 ≥ 90%)
    Pure broadleaf forest (broad-leaf tree stock ≥ 90%)
    2
    类型3 Type 3 针叶相对纯林(单个针叶树种蓄积量占65% ~ 90%)
    Coniferous relative pure forest (coniferous tree stock: 65% ~ 90%)
    3
    类型4 Type 4 阔叶相对纯林(单个阔叶树种蓄积量占65% ~ 90%)
    Broadleaf relative pure forest (broad-leaf tree stock: 65% ~ 90%)
    4
    类型5 Type 5 针叶混交林(针叶树种总蓄积量 ≥ 65%)
    Coniferous mixed forest (coniferous tree stock ≥ 65%)
    5
    类型6 Type 6 针阔混交林(针叶树种或阔叶树种总蓄积量占35% ~ 65%)
    Coniferous and broad-leaf mixed forest (coniferous tree stock:35% ~ 65%)
    6
    类型7 Type 7 阔叶混交林(阔叶树种总蓄积量 ≥ 65%)
    Broad-leaf mixed forest (broad-leaf tree stock ≥ 65%)
    7
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  枯枝落叶厚度划分标准与代码

    Table  6.   Classification criteria and codes of litter thickness

    等级
    Grade
    枯枝落叶厚度划分标准
    Classification criteria of litter thickness
    代码
    Code
    厚 Thick ≥ 10 cm 1
    中 Middle 5 ~ 9 cm 2
    薄 Thin < 5 cm 3
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  森林生态功能等级评定标准与代码

    Table  7.   Classification criteria and codes of forest ecological function level

    功能等级
    Functional level
    综合得分值
    Comprehensive score
    代码
    Code
    好 Excellent ≤ 1.0 1
    较好 Good 1.0 ~ 1.5 2
    中 Medium 1.5 ~ 2.0 3
    较差 Bad 2.0 ~ 2.5 4
    差 Worse ≥ 2.5 5
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  森林生态功能等级评定标准

    Table  8.   Evaluation standard of forest ecological function grade

    功能等级
    Functional level
    森林生态功能指数
    Forest ecological functional index
    好 Excellent ≥ 1.0
    较好 Good 0.67 ~ 1.0
    中 Medium 0.50 ~ 0.67
    较差 Bad 0.40 ~ 0.50
    差 Worse ≤ 0.40
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  9  不同起源森林生态功能等级分布情况

    Table  9.   Information of forest ecological function level from different origin

    起源
    Forest origin
    功能分区
    Functional partition
    森林生态功能等级
    Forest ecological
    function level
    面积/hm2
    Area/ha
    占比
    Proportion/%
    生态功能指数
    Forest ecological
    functional index
    人工林
    Plantation
    保护区
    Reserves
    中等 Medium 1 134.61 8.81 0.52
    较差 Bad 745.35 5.79 0.44
    差 Worse 1.48 0.01 0.38
    多功能区
    Multi-function
    较好 Good 369.06 2.87 0.74
    中等 Medium 3 181.20 24.70 0.52
    较差 Bad 4 506.34 34.98 0.44
    差 Worse 139.45 1.08 0.39
    天然林
    Natural forest
    保护区
    Reserves
    较好Good 10.84 0.08 0.67
    中等 Medium 436.34 3.39 0.54
    较差 Bad 72.31 0.56 0.46
    多功能区
    Multi-function
    较好Good 104.21 0.81 0.73
    中等 Medium 2 039.45 15.83 0.55
    较差 Bad 140.76 1.09 0.47
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-09-22
  • 录用日期:  2022-06-14
  • 修回日期:  2022-03-15
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-06-16

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