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2010—2020年北京市行道树结构特征变化分析

谢晓阳 崔雅君 邱尔发 符庆成

谢晓阳, 崔雅君, 邱尔发, 符庆成. 2010—2020年北京市行道树结构特征变化分析[J]. 北京林业大学学报. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210429
引用本文: 谢晓阳, 崔雅君, 邱尔发, 符庆成. 2010—2020年北京市行道树结构特征变化分析[J]. 北京林业大学学报. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210429
Xie Xiaoyang, Cui Yajun, Qiu Erfa, Fu Qingcheng. Analysis on changes of street trees structure in Beijing from 2010 to 2020[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210429
Citation: Xie Xiaoyang, Cui Yajun, Qiu Erfa, Fu Qingcheng. Analysis on changes of street trees structure in Beijing from 2010 to 2020[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210429

2010—2020年北京市行道树结构特征变化分析

doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20210429
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划(2019YFF0303204)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    谢晓阳。主要研究方向:人居林培育。Email:992040150@qq.com 地址:100091 北京市海淀区香山路东小府1号

    责任作者:

    邱尔发,博士,研究员。主要研究方向: 从事森林生态学和森林培育学研究。Email:efqiu@163.com 地址:同上

Analysis on changes of street trees structure in Beijing from 2010 to 2020

  • 摘要:   目的  通过2010和2020年北京市行道树结构特征对比分析,探寻行道树结构特征10年变化趋势,发现目前行道树结构存在的主要问题,为后期行道树栽植和管理提供理论依据和参考。  方法  分别在2010年和2020年6—9月,对北京市六环内道路采用典型抽样方法,选择相同地段,对行道树进行每木检尺。从不同角度分析北京市城区行道树的树种组成、应用频度、重要值和冠幅结构10年变化情况。  结果  10年期间,北京市行道树增加了6科10属8种,变化的树种均为偶见种,乔灌比增大;行道树主要以乡土树种和落叶树种为主,且落叶树种占比不断增加;应用频度排名前10行道树占比总和增加,其中白蜡占比增加最多;黄刺玫应用频度10年间下降比例最大;国槐的重要值下降8.2%,但仍远大于其他树种;行道树平均冠幅降低0.1 m,1级和5级冠幅等级行道树占比均降低;平均冠幅排名前十的行道树冠幅更加集中,其中二球悬铃木在1级冠幅等级下降比例最大。  结论  北京市行道树存在树种多样性降低,树种结构相对单一,单个树种占比增大等问题,不利于城市道路林生态系统的稳定。因此,北京市行道树应该扩大树种的选择范围,将阔叶落叶乔木树种、常绿灌木和草本植物搭配种植,加强本地种的培育和应用并适当引进价值高的外来树种;同时在城市绿化时,做好树冠结构的保护,增强行道树的遮荫效果。

     

  • 图  1  北京市行道树抽样调查路段分布

    Figure  1.  Distribution of sampling sections of street trees in Beijing

    图  3  不同时期落叶树种比例

    Figure  3.  Proportion of deciduous tree species in different periods

    图  2  不同时期乡土树种比例

    Figure  2.  Proportion of native tree species in different periods

    图  4  株数比例变化前10种行道树

    RX.黄刺玫Rosa xanthina; PA.二球悬铃木Platanus acerifolia; FP + FV.洋白蜡 + 绒毛白蜡Fraxinus pennsylvanica + Fraxinus velutina; PO.侧柏Platycladus orientalis; PC.紫叶李Prunus cerasifera f. atropurpurea; GB.银杏Ginkgo biloba; MM.西府海棠Malus × micromalus; PP.碧桃Amygdalus persica var. persica f. duplex; JC.圆柏Juniperus chinensis; JR.杜松Juniperus rigida

    Figure  4.  Proportion of top ten street tree species ranking by utilization frequency change

    图  5  不同时期行道树冠幅等级分布

    Figure  5.  Distribution of tree crown diameter grades of street trees in different periods

    表  1  各道路类型路段抽样数及长度

    Table  1.   Numbers and lengths of sampled road with different types

    道路级别 Road side路段数
    Number of road sections
    调查样段总长度
    Total length of sampled street trees/km
    调查树木总株数
    Total number of investigated trees
    2010202020102020
    快速路 Expressway 43 89.6 93.8 8 747 10 867
    主干路 Main road 94 145.7 160.5 19 626 15 274
    次干路 Secondary road 176 182.9 192.2 19 819 19 248
    支路 Branch road 212 123.9 143.1 10 668 17 786
    合计 Total 525 542.1 608.7 58 860 63 175
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  冠幅分级标准

    Table  2.   Grading standards for tree crown diameter

    指标
    Indicators
    1级
    Level 1
    2级
    Level 2
    3级
    Level 3
    4级
    Level 4
    5级
    Level 5
    冠幅Crown diameter(CC ≤ 2 m2 m < C ≤ 4 m4 m < C ≤ 6 m6 m < C ≤ 8 mC > 8 m
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  2010年和2020年北京市行道树树种组成

    Table  3.   Changes in tree species composition of street trees in Beijing in 2010 and 2020

    类型
    Types
    20102020新增
    Add
    消失
    Disappear
    乔木
    Arbor

    Family
    17 24 7 0

    Genera
    23 34 14 3

    Species
    33 42 14 5
    灌木
    Shrub

    Family
    6 5 0 1

    Genera
    9 8 0 1

    Species
    9 8 0 1
    乡土树种
    Native tree species
    27(85.4%) 34(85.5%) 12(3.5%) 5(3.4%)
    外来树种
    Exotic tree species
    15(14.6%) 16(14.5%) 2(0.1%) 1(0.2%)
    落叶树种
    Deciduous tree species
    34(92.1%) 43(94.9%) 13(8.4%) 4(5.6%)
    常绿树种
    Evergreen tree species
    8(7.9%) 7(5.1%) 1(1.3%) 2(4.1%)
    注:括号内数字为不同类型树种数量占总株数的比例。Notes:The numbers in parentheses are the proportions of different types of tree species to the total number of plants.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  2010年和2020年株数前10行道树树种比例

    Table  4.   Proportion of top ten street tree species ranking by utilization frequency in 2010 and 2020

    序号
    Code
    20102020
    树种
    Species
    比例
    Ratio/%
    树种
    Species
    比例
    Ratio/%
    1 国槐 Sophora japonica 43.2 国槐 Sophora japonica 44.2
    2 毛白杨 Populus tomentosa 7.1 洋白蜡 + 绒毛白蜡
    Fraxinus pennsylvanica + Fraxinus velutina
    9.7
    3 洋白蜡 + 绒毛白蜡
    Fraxinus pennsylvanica + Fraxinus velutina
    6.9 毛白杨 Populus tomentosa 8.0
    4 银杏 Ginkgo biloba 5.3 银杏 Ginkgo biloba 6.8
    5 紫叶李 Prunus cerasifera f. atropurpurea 4.6 二球悬铃木 Platanus acerifolia 5.7
    6 黄刺玫 Rosa xanthina 4.0 紫叶李 Prunus cerasifera f. atropurpurea 3.0
    7 栾树 Koelreuteria paniculata 3.7 栾树 Koelreuteria paniculata 2.7
    8 臭椿 Ailanthus altissima 3.3 西府海棠 Malus × micromalus 2.5
    9 圆柏 Juniperus chinensis 3.0 臭椿 Ailanthus altissima 2.5
    10 侧柏 Platycladus orientalis 2.5 圆柏 Juniperus chinensis 1.7
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  北京市主要行道树重要值

    Table  5.   Important values of street trees in Beijing

    序号
    Code
    20102020
    树种名称 Species重要值
    Important values/%
    树种名称 Species重要值
    Important values/%
    1 国槐 Sophora japonica 49.7 国槐 Sophora japonica 41.5
    2 毛白杨 Populus tomentosa 10.7 毛白杨 Populus tomentosa 10.9
    3 洋白蜡 + 绒毛白蜡
    Fraxinus pennsylvanica + Fraxinus velutina
    6.4 洋白蜡 + 绒毛白蜡
    Fraxinus pennsylvanica + Fraxinus velutina
    8.6
    4 银杏 Ginkgo biloba 4.6 银杏 Ginkgo biloba 6.2
    5 臭椿 Ailanthus altissima 3.2 二球悬铃木 Platanus acerifolia 5.3
    6 栾树 Koelreuteria paniculata 3.1 紫叶李 Prunus cerasifera f. atropurpurea 3.0
    7 紫叶李 Prunus cerasifera f. atropurpurea 2.7 栾树 Koelreuteria paniculata 2.8
    8 圆柏 Juniperus chinensis 2.2 臭椿 Ailanthus altissima 2.6
    9 二球悬铃木 Platanus acerifolia 2.0 西府海棠 Malus × micromalus 2.2
    10 侧柏 Platycladus orientalis 1.7 旱柳 Salix matsudana 2.1
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  不同区域行道树冠幅等级分布

    Table  6.   Distribution of crown diameter grades of street trees in different districts

    时期
    Periods
    区域
    Districts
    冠幅等级分布
    Distribution of crown diameter grades/%
    平均值 ± 标准差
    Mean ± standard deviation
    1级
    Level 1
    2级
    Level 2
    3级
    Level 3
    4级
    Level 4
    5级
    Level 5
    2010 2环内
    Within 2nd Ring
    15.8 14.5 29.0 23.3 17.4 5.7 ± 3.0
    2 ~ 3环
    2nd-3rd Ring
    7.2 15.7 33.9 29.3 13.9 6.0 ± 2.4
    3 ~ 4环
    3rd-4th Ring
    24.0 16.1 27.3 21.1 11.5 5.0 ± 2.9
    4- ~ 5环
    4th-5th Ring
    36.9 37.8 17.5 6.1 1.7 3.4 ± 1.8
    5 ~ 6环
    5th-th Ring
    46.0 28.6 16.5 5.8 3.1 3.2 ± 2.4
    2020 2环内
    Within 2nd Ring
    6.3 28.3 36.6 22.3 6.5 4.9 ± 2.0
    2 ~ 3环
    2nd-3rd Ring
    7.7 27.0 39.8 20.1 5.4 4.8 ± 1.9
    3 ~ 4环
    3rd-4th Ring
    9.6 29.4 38.1 18.9 4.0 4.6 ± 1.9
    4 ~ 5环
    4th-5th Ring
    10.8 34.5 35.0 16.4 3.3 4.4 ± 1.8
    5 ~ 6环
    5th-th Ring
    12.6 29.7 30.8 23.4 3.5 4.5 ± 2.1
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  不同道路类型行道树冠幅等级分布

    Table  7.   Distribution of crown diameter grades of street trees in different road types

    时期
    Periods
    道路类型
    Road types
    冠幅等级分布
    Distribution of crown diameter grades/% 
    平均值 ± 标准差
    Mean ± standard deviation
    1级
    Level 1
    2级
    Level 2
    3级
    Level 3
    4级
    Level 4
    5级
    Level 5
    2010 快速路
    Expressway
    43.3 20.1 20.2 12.7 3.7 3.6 ± 2.7
    主干路
    Main Road
    17.5 21.2 27.5 20.3 13.5 5.2 ± 2.8
    次干路
    Secondary Road
    27.6 22.1 22.4 18.3 9.6 4.7 ± 2.8
    支路
    Branch Road
    14.4 25.6 31.9 17.6 10.5 5.2 ± 2.7
    2020 快速路
    Expressway
    10.9 28.3 35.2 23.5 2.1 4.6 ± 1.9
    主干路
    Main Road
    8.3 26.8 31.5 24.2 9.2 5.0 ± 2.1
    次干路
    Secondary Road
    9.5 31.0 38.2 17.4 3.9 4.5 ± 1.9
    支路
    Branch Road
    8.4 29.9 38.6 19.6 3.5 4.6 ± 1.8
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  2010年和2020年冠幅排名前10的行道树种比例分布

    Table  8.   Proportion distribution of top ten street tree species ranking by crown diameter in 2010 and 2020

    时期
    Period
    树种
    Tree species
    冠幅等级分布
    Distribution of crown diameter grades/%
    平均值 ± 标准差
    Mean ± standard deviation
    1级
    Level 1
    2级
    Level 2
    3级
    Level 3
    4级
    Level 4
    5级
    Level 5
    2010 泡桐 Paulownia fortunei 1.00 5.50 12.00 14.50 67.00 8.61 ± 2.22
    垂柳 Salix babylonica 5.81 8.39 21.29 39.35 25.16 7.80 ± 2.13
    毛白杨 Populus tomentosa 4.93 17.71 23.95 40.52 12.89 7.01 ± 2.46
    旱柳 Salix matsudana 12.76 23.28 14.73 30.02 19.21 6.18 ± 2.25
    国槐 Sophora japonica 7.42 18.91 35.43 23.51 14.73 5.96 ± 2.78
    杜仲 Eucommia ulmoides 1.87 10.07 68.63 19.43 0.00 5.90 ± 2.49
    馒头柳 Salix matsudana var.
    matsudana f. umbraculifera
    1.52 28.79 34.85 28.78 6.06 5.75 ± 1.09
    栾树 Koelreuteria paniculata 8.60 19.19 44.89 24.30 3.02 5.52 ± 1.71
    二球悬铃木 Platanus acerifolia 23.93 18.67 24.98 14.98 17.44 5.44 ± 2.06
    臭椿 Ailanthus altissima 4.89 39.81 30.35 13.32 11.63 5.28 ± 1.82
    2020 泡桐 Paulownia fortunei 0.00 2.51 22.61 48.25 26.63 6.99 ± 1.57
    香椿 Toona sinensis 2.34 3.91 25.78 64.06 3.91 6.25 ± 1.34
    绦柳 Salix matsudana cv. Pendula 1.81 14.29 46.10 26.47 11.33 5.73 ± 1.87
    毛白杨 Populus tomentosa 1.43 16.77 39.33 32.33 10.14 5.68 ± 1.74
    加拿大杨 Populus × canadensis 1.09 24.75 36.63 32.28 5.25 5.33 ± 1.67
    二球悬铃木 Platanus acerifoli 4.34 21.05 35.17 33.81 5.63 5.31 ± 1.86
    旱柳 Salix matsudana 3.02 15.52 45.25 36.21 0.00 5.27 ± 1.53
    榆树 Ulmus pumila 4.90 25.17 42.66 17.48 9.79 5.11 ± 2.05
    国槐 Sophora japonica 4.33 23.60 41.74 24.34 5.99 5.10 ± 1.81
    栾树 Koelreuteria paniculata 4.42 21.96 43.06 27.77 2.79 5.05 ± 1.67
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-10-27
  • 录用日期:  2022-03-24
  • 修回日期:  2022-03-01
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-03-28

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