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土壤有机碳的稳定和形成:机制和模型

周正虎 刘琳 侯磊

周正虎, 刘琳, 侯磊. 土壤有机碳的稳定和形成:机制和模型[J]. 北京林业大学学报. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20220183
引用本文: 周正虎, 刘琳, 侯磊. 土壤有机碳的稳定和形成:机制和模型[J]. 北京林业大学学报. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20220183
Zhou Zhenghu, Liu Lin, Hou Lei. Soil organic carbon stabilization and formation: mechanisms and models[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20220183
Citation: Zhou Zhenghu, Liu Lin, Hou Lei. Soil organic carbon stabilization and formation: mechanisms and models[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University. doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20220183

土壤有机碳的稳定和形成:机制和模型

doi: 10.12171/j.1000-1522.20220183
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(31901293),黑龙江省大学生创新创业训练计划项目(S202010225048)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    周正虎,教授。主要研究方向:土壤微生物与全球变化。Email:zhouzhenghuzzh@163.com 地址:150040 黑龙江省哈尔滨市香坊区和兴路26号东北林业大学

    责任作者:

    侯磊,副教授。主要研究方向:土壤生态学。Email:465133704@qq.com 地址:860000 西藏自治区林芝市巴宜区育才西路100号西藏农牧学院

Soil organic carbon stabilization and formation: mechanisms and models

  • 摘要: 土壤有机碳对自然气候解决方案的贡献可以达到25%,提高土壤碳储量是实现“碳中和”的重要途径。合理的土壤有机碳管理和精准的模型预测依赖于对土壤碳循环过程的清晰认识。然而,土壤有机碳的长期保存机制、来源和环境调控作用还不清楚。本文系统评述了土壤有机碳稳定(生化难分解性、矿物保护和团聚体保护)和形成(腐质化、微生物效率−基质稳定框架和微生物碳泵理论)的前沿理论和机制,在此基础上分析了目前土壤碳循环模型的发展(Century模型、微生物模型和微生物−矿物模型),并提出了未来试验和模型研究中亟需解决的关键科学问题。

     

  • 图  1  土壤有机碳的矿物保护和团聚体保护

    a. 矿物保护机制;b,c. 干旱和湿润条件下土壤团聚体间的隔离情况,参考Wilpiszeski等[40]绘制;d. 团聚体孔隙对有机碳的闭蓄保护作用(图片来源于Schlüter等[46]);e. 新鲜凋落物−矿物界面(电镜扫描照片来源于Witzgall等[45])。a, mechanisms of mineral protection; b and c, the isolation of soil aggregates under dry and wet conditions, referring to Wilpiszeski et al.[40]; d, occlusion of soil organic carbon by aggregation (image from Schlüter et al.[46]); e, scanning electron microscopy image of the interface of plant litter and soil minerals (image from Witzgall et al.[45]).

    Figure  1.  Mineral and aggregate protections of soil organic carbon

    图  2  土壤有机碳的形成和稳定机制

    cPOC. 粗颗粒有机碳;fPOC. 细颗粒有机碳;DOC. 溶解性有机碳;MBC. 微生物生物量碳;MAOC. 矿物结合有机碳。下同。cPOC, coarse particulate organic carbon; fPOC, fine particulate organic carbon; DOC, dissolved organic carbon; MBC, microbial biomass carbon; MAOC, mineral-associated organic carbon. The same below.

    Figure  2.  Mechanisms of soil organic carbon formation and stabilization

    图  3  代表性土壤碳循环模型

    a. 经典Century模型[69];b. 微生物模型[54];c. COMISSION模型[77]。a, conventional century-type model[69]; b, microbial model[54]; c, COMISSION model[77].

    Figure  3.  Representative soil carbon cycle models

    图  4  未来研究展望

    Figure  4.  Future research prospects

    表  1  颗粒有机碳和矿物结合有机碳功能特性

    Table  1.   Functional traits of particulate organic carbon and mineral-associated organic carbon

    项目
    Item
    颗粒有机碳
    Particulate organic carbon
    矿物结合有机碳
    Mineral-associated organic carbon
    主要来源
    Dominant sources
    植物残体和真菌菌丝
    Plant residues and fungal hyphae
    植物和微生物残体
    Plant and microbial residues
    分子量 Molecular weight/ Da > 600 ~ 1 000
    < 600 ~ 1 000
    密度 Density 低 Low 高 High
    碳库上限 Upper limit of C pool 无 No 有 Yes
    主要稳定机制
    Dominant stabilization mechanisms
    生化难分解性和团聚体保护
    Biochemical recalcitrance and aggregate protection
    矿物保护和团聚体保护
    Mineral and aggregate protection
    温度敏感性 Temperature sensitivity 高 High 低 Low
    周转时间 Turnover time < 十年 ~ 数十年 < ten years – decades 数十年 ~ 数百年 decades – centuries
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-05-11
  • 录用日期:  2022-07-13
  • 修回日期:  2022-06-11
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-07-14

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