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黄土丘陵区林草恢复进程中土壤入渗特征研究

陈文媛 张少妮 华瑞 徐学选

陈文媛, 张少妮, 华瑞, 徐学选. 黄土丘陵区林草恢复进程中土壤入渗特征研究[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2017, 39(1): 62-69. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160156
引用本文: 陈文媛, 张少妮, 华瑞, 徐学选. 黄土丘陵区林草恢复进程中土壤入渗特征研究[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2017, 39(1): 62-69. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160156
CHEN Wen-yuan, ZHANG Shao-ni, HUA Rui, XU Xue-xuan. Effects of forestland and grassland restoration process on soil infiltration characteristics in loess hilly region[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2017, 39(1): 62-69. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160156
Citation: CHEN Wen-yuan, ZHANG Shao-ni, HUA Rui, XU Xue-xuan. Effects of forestland and grassland restoration process on soil infiltration characteristics in loess hilly region[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2017, 39(1): 62-69. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160156

黄土丘陵区林草恢复进程中土壤入渗特征研究

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160156
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 41171421

国家自然科学基金项目 41471439

详细信息
    作者简介:

    陈文媛。主要研究方向:流域管理。Email:chenwy92@163.com  地址:712100  陕西省杨凌市西农路26号西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所

    责任作者:

    徐学选,研究员,博士生导师。主要研究方向:流域水文。Email:xuxuexuan@nwsuaf.edu.cn  地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S714.2

Effects of forestland and grassland restoration process on soil infiltration characteristics in loess hilly region

  • 摘要: 植被恢复可以改善土壤的入渗能力,植被恢复方式不同及恢复进程中其土壤性质的改善对土壤水文特征的影响程度也将影响到植被恢复的格局。为确定林地、草地植被恢复年限对土壤水分入渗特征的影响,以黄土丘陵区西部官山林场退耕后栽植的刺槐林地、撂荒草地为对象,选取退耕年限为9年、15年、25年的林地、草地。于2014年5月对各样地的原状土土柱进行定水头入渗,比较不同退耕年限林地、草地的入渗性能和湿润锋穿透60 cm土柱的时间,并分析影响入渗特性的因素。结果表明:退耕年限为25年林地的土壤稳定入渗率、平均入渗率、前120 min累积入渗量、湿润锋到达60 cm土柱的时间分别为1.86,2.60 mm/min,387.82 mm,23.00 min;退耕年限为15年林地分别为1.38,1.90 mm/min,288.88 mm,35.33 min;退耕年限为9年林地分别为0.35,1.03 mm/min,194.50 mm,40.00 min;退耕年限为25年草地分别为3.17,3.17 mm/min,386.43 mm,24.00 min;退耕年限为15年草地分别为1.86,2.60 mm/min,387.82 mm,34.33 min;退耕年限为9年草地分别为1.86,2.60 mm/min,387.82 mm,38.33 min。6种样地的土壤入渗过程均能用通用模型进行高精度拟合。各样地土壤入渗速率与土壤有机质、>0.25 mm水稳性团聚体含量呈正相关关系,与土壤密度呈负相关关系。土壤入渗能力随退耕年限增加而增强,退耕还草比退耕还林更有利于土壤入渗能力增强。因此建议在水资源有限的黄土区以退耕还草为主以促进更多的降雨就地入渗。

     

  • 图  1  入渗装置示意图

    Figure  1.  Schematic diagram of experiment apparatus

    图  2  不同年限林地、草地土壤水分入渗过程

    Figure  2.  Soil infiltration process of the forestland and grassland under different vegetation restoration years

    表  1  样地基本情况

    Table  1.   Basic condition of sample plots

    样地
    Sample plot
    退耕年限/a
    Vegetation restoration/year
    群落组成
    Community composition
    树高Tree height/m胸径
    DBH/cm
    地径
    Ground diameter/cm
    郁闭度/覆盖度
    Canopy density/coverage/%
    林分密度/(株·hm-2)
    Stand density/(tree·ha-1)
    L25a25刺槐+茅莓+悬钩子+旱地芦苇Robinia pseudoacacia+Rubus parvifolius+Rubus corchorifoliu+Arundo donax12±2.514±4.917.7±6.890833
    L15a15刺槐+杠柳+蛇葡萄+铁杆蒿Robinia pseudoacacia+Periploca sepium+Ampelopsis sinica+Artemisia sacrorum10±1.111±6.312.9±6.585500
    L9a9刺槐+悬钩子+旱地芦苇Robinia pseudoacacia+Rubus corchorifolius+Arundo donax8±1.67±3.28.4±4.3801 667
    C25a25中华隐子草+铁杆蒿+草地风毛菊Cleistogenes chinensis+Artemisia sacrorum+Saussurea amara95
    C15a15狭叶艾蒿+胡枝子+刺儿菜Artemisia argyi+Lespedeza bicolor+Cirsium setosum90
    C9a9甘草+滨草+胡枝子Glycyrrhiza uralensis+Ammophila breviligulata+Lespedeza bicolor85
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  样地土壤的基本性质

    Table  2.   Basic soil properties of sample plots

    样地
    Sample plot
    初始含水率
    Initial moisture content/%
    土壤密度
    Soil density/(g·cm-3)
    水稳性团聚体含量
    Water-stable aggregate content/%
    有机质含量
    Organic matter content/(g·kg-1)
    L25a17.73±0.291.25±0.0158.97±1.638.75±1.33
    L15a15.96±0.341.26±0.0257.20±3.767.87±1.09
    L9a18.20±0.541.29±0.0347.77±2.746.15±0.80
    C25a14.07±0.671.26±0.0454.20±3.877.77±0.63
    C15a15.82±1.041.27±0.0449.82±4.416.74±0.64
    C9a18.78±1.381.31±0.0343.66±3.015.85±0.67
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  4种模型的公式及参数说明

    Table  3.   Formula and parameter description of the four models

    模型名称Model name公式Formula参数说明Parameter description
    Kostiakov模型Kostiakov model$f\left(t \right)=a{{t}^{-b}}$a为初始入渗率,mm/min;b为衰减系数a means initial infiltration rate, mm/min; b means decay factor
    Horton模型Horton model$f\left(t \right)={{f}_{\text{c}}}+({{f}_{0}}-{{f}_{\text{c}}}){{\text{e}}^{-kt}}$f0fc分别为初始入渗率和稳定入渗率,mm/min;k为参数f0 means the initial infiltration rate and fc means the stable infiltration rate, mm/min; k represents parameter
    Philip模型Philip model$f\left(t \right)=\left(1/2 \right)s{{t}^{-\frac{1}{2}}}+a$s为土壤吸湿率,$\text{mm}/{{\min }^{\frac{1}{2}}}$;a为常数,mm/min s means soil moisture absorption rate, $\text{mm}/{{\min }^{\frac{1}{2}}}$; a represents the constant, mm/min
    通用经验模型Universal empirical model$f\left(t \right)={{f}_{\text{c}}}+({{f}_{0}}-{{f}_{\text{c}}})/{{t}^{-a}}$f0fc分别为初始入渗率和稳定入渗率,mm/min;a为参数f0 means the initial infiltration rate and fc means the stable infiltration rate, mm/min; a represents the parameter
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同年限林地、草地土壤入渗特征指标

    Table  3.   Soil infiltration characteristic indices of the forestland and grassland under different vegetation restoration years

    样地
    Sample plot
    初始入渗率
    Initial infiltration rate/(mm·min-1)
    稳定入渗率
    Stable infiltration rate/(mm·min-1)
    平均入渗率
    Mean infiltration rate/(mm·min-1)
    前120 min累积入渗量
    Accumulative infiltration amount in 120 minutes/mm
    L25a13.94±1.89ab1.86±0.33b2.60±0.34bc387.82±46.63b
    L15a8.85±1.27b1.38±0.29bd1.90±0.16ac288.88±14.31ab
    L9a20.23±4.36a0.35±0.12a1.03±0.17a194.50±23.29a
    C25a11.57±3.21b3.17±0.13c3.17±0.32b386.43±85.98b
    C15a12.60±2.14ab2.03±0.75bc2.73±0.81bc377.77±96.78b
    C9a13.28±1.48ab0.78±0.25ad1.55±0.25a270.70±29.20ab
    注:同列不同字母表示不同年限林地、草地土壤入渗特征指标之间差异显著(P<0.05)。Note: different letters in the same column mean significant differences between the soil infiltration characteristic indices of forestland and grassland under different vegetation restoration years at P<0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  4种入渗模型参数的回归结果

    Table  5.   Regression results of 4 model parameters

    样地
    Sample plot
    Kostiakov模型
    Kostiakov model
    Horton模型
    Horton model
    Philip模型
    Philip model
    通用经验模型
    Universal empirical model
    abR2fcf0-fckR2asR2fcf0-fcaR2
    L25a13.20.30.9252.214.20.20.8301.813.60.9011.914.40.30.929
    L15a7.70.40.9041.49.80.20.7021.314.30.8831.59.10.40.905
    L9a19.90.70.9820.49.90.50.8090.425.70.9740.510.10.60.983
    C25a11.70.30.7723.213.80.10.8552.115.10.8823.013.20.20.946
    C15a12.30.30.9391.910.90.20.8471.521.40.9351.710.90.40.941
    C9a13.60.40.9270.511.50.40.9400.328.20.9090.711.90.90.950
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  湿润锋到达60 cm的时间

    Table  4.   Wetting front penetration time of 60 cm

    样地
    Sample plot
    最大值
    Max./min
    最小值
    Min./min
    均值
    Average/min
    标准差
    SD/min
    变异系数
    CV/%
    L25a271923.00a4.0017.39
    L15a402835.33a6.4318.20
    L9a453340.00a6.2415.61
    C25a291524.00a7.8132.54
    C15a353434.33a0.581.68
    C9a452838.33a9.0723.67
    注:同列不同字母表示不同退耕年限林地、草地湿润锋到达60 cm的时间之间差异显著(P<0.05)。Note: different letters in the same column mean significant differences between the wetting front penetration time of 60 cm on the forestland and grassland under different vegetation restoration years at P<0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  土壤理化性质与土壤入渗速率的相关性

    Table  6.   Correlations between soil physical and chemical properties and soil infiltration rates

    指标
    Index
    土壤密度
    Soil bulk density/(g·cm-3)
    有机质含量
    Organic matter content/(g·kg-1)
    >0.25 mm水稳性团聚体含量
    >0.25 mm water-stable aggregate content/%
    初始入渗率Initial infiltration rate-0.606*0.681*0.532*
    稳定入渗率Stable infiltration rate-0.782**0.719**0.646*
    平均入渗率Mean infiltration rate-0.704**0.658*0.555*
    注:**表示极显著相关(P<0.01);*表示显著相关(P<0.05)。Notes:** means extremely significant correlation (P<0.01); * means significant correlation (P<0.05).
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2016-05-09
  • 修回日期:  2016-09-09
  • 刊出日期:  2017-01-01

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