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改良剂对盐碱土的改良效应及垂柳生长的影响

宋沙沙 苟宇波 何欣燕 程艳霞

宋沙沙, 苟宇波, 何欣燕, 程艳霞. 改良剂对盐碱土的改良效应及垂柳生长的影响[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2017, 39(5): 89-97. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160207
引用本文: 宋沙沙, 苟宇波, 何欣燕, 程艳霞. 改良剂对盐碱土的改良效应及垂柳生长的影响[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2017, 39(5): 89-97. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160207
SONG Sha-sha, GOU Yu-bo, HE Xin-yan, CHENG Yan-xia. Effects of modifier application on saline-alkali land amelioration and weeping willow growth[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2017, 39(5): 89-97. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160207
Citation: SONG Sha-sha, GOU Yu-bo, HE Xin-yan, CHENG Yan-xia. Effects of modifier application on saline-alkali land amelioration and weeping willow growth[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2017, 39(5): 89-97. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160207

改良剂对盐碱土的改良效应及垂柳生长的影响

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160207
基金项目: 

林业公益性行业科研专项 201504402

详细信息
    作者简介:

    宋沙沙。主要研究方向:光与植物生理生态。Email:songshasha_2012@sina.com   地址:100083 北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学理学院

    责任作者:

    程艳霞,博士,教授。主要研究方向;光与植物生理生态。Email:qcsj6463@163.com地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S714.6

Effects of modifier application on saline-alkali land amelioration and weeping willow growth

  • 摘要: 盐碱地作为生态建设和农林牧业可持续发展的重要限制因素,土壤盐碱化及其治理一直是多方关注的问题。为了研究出一种适合西北地区盐碱地治理的低成本长效治理技术,本文以脱硫石膏、糠醛渣和牛粪作为改良剂,配合暗沟排盐、树坑垫层防止返盐等技术,以垂柳为试验材料,通过对不同处理施加不同量的改良剂,测定了pH、电导率和光谱参数。结果表明:1)与对照相比,施加改良剂后盐碱地的pH和电导率明显下降,改良效果显著。2)从植物的光谱指数来看,施用改良剂后比对照能够明显改善植物的生长状况,其中处理1(脱硫石膏、糠醛渣和牛粪的平施量分别是60、40、80 kg/区;坑施量分别是6.5、4.5、9 kg/坑)效果最显著。3)通过对不同处理根际土与远根土对比发现,经改良剂处理后根际土壤电导率和pH均比远根土降低,说明种植垂柳能够强化改良剂的效果。

     

  • 图  1  不同改良方法处理对植物根际土和远根土盐碱变化的影响

    Figure  1.  Influences of different modifying methods on the salinity and pH of rhizosphere soil and distal rat soil of plant

    图  2  不同处理对植物不同土层的根际土与远根土盐碱变化的影响

    Figure  2.  Influences of different methods on the salinity and pH value of rhizosphere soil and distal root soil of different soil layers

    图  3  垂柳叶片反射光谱曲线和一阶导数曲线

    Figure  3.  Reflectance spectra and first derivative of weeping willow leaves

    表  1  试验地土壤基本理化性质

    Table  1.   Basic physical and chemical properties of experimental soil

    土层深度
    Soil depth/cm
    pH 电导率
    Electrical conductivity (EC)/(dS·m-1)
    有机质
    Organic matter/%
    全氮
    Total N/(g·kg-1)
    速效磷
    Available P/(mg·kg-1)
    速效钾
    Available K/(mg·kg-1)
    土壤密度
    Soil density/(g·cm-3)
    孔隙度
    Porosity/%
    0~20 9.5 4.6 1.24 0.29 9.53 57.93 1.32 43.9
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  脱硫石膏组成成分和性状

    Table  2.   Component and properties of byproduct of flue gas desulfurization gypsum (BFGD)

    pH 密度
    Density/(g·cm-3)
    自由水分
    Free water/%
    CaCO3 Ca[SO4]·2H2O ${\rm{Ca[S}}{{\rm{O}}_{{\rm{4]}}}} \cdot \frac{{\rm{1}}}{{\rm{2}}}{{\rm{H}}_{\rm{2}}}{\rm{O}}$
    5.09 1.02 10.1 5.55 89.8 0.2
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  糠醛渣理化性质

    Table  3.   Physicochemical properties of furfural residue

    pH 含水率
    Water content/%
    可溶性盐Soluble salt/% 主要养分Main nutrient/% 有机质
    Organic matter/%
    CO32- HCO3- SO42- Cl- Ca2+ Ma2+ Na+ K+ 全氮
    Total N
    全磷
    Total P(P2O5)
    1.95 64.795 0 0 0 1.874 0 0.019 8 0.154 0 0.103 2 0.010 3 0.743 0 0.279 9 0.047 4 87.03
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  牛粪组成成分和性状

    Table  4.   Component and properties of cow dung

    有机质
    Organic matter/%
    全氮
    Total N/%
    全磷
    Total P/%
    全钾
    Total K/%
    Ca/% Mg/%
    66.2 1.7 0.78 0.98 1.84 0.46
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  各处理的物料施用量

    Table  5.   Material amount of every treatment

    处理编号
    Treatment No.
    平施量/(kg·区-1)
    Ground fertilization amount/(kg·plot-1)
    坑施量/(kg·坑-1)
    Pit fertilization amount/(kg·pit-1)
    脱硫石膏
    Desulfurization gypsum
    糠醛渣
    Furfural residue
    牛粪
    Cow dung
    脱硫石膏
    Desulfurization gypsum
    糠醛渣
    Furfural residue
    牛粪
    Cow dung
    1 60 40 80 6.5 4.5 9
    2 30 20 40 6.5 4.5 9
    3 120 20 40 4.5 3.0 6
    4 30 20 40 2.5 1.5 3
    CK 0 0 0 0 0 0
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  不同处理对0~100 cm深度土壤pH、EC的影响

    Table  6.   Effects of different treatments on soil pH and EC at 0-100 cm depth

    处理编号
    Treatment No.
    根际土Rhizosphere soil 远根土Distal root soil
    EC pH EC pH
    1 1.42±0.84 bc 7.72±0.38 b 1.5±0.81 bc 9.18±0.36 ab
    2 0.86±0.51 c 8.35±0.49 a 0.89±0.52 c 9.193±0.33 ab
    3 1.48±1.03 b 8.37±0.62 a 1.55±1.03 b 9.04±0.43 b
    4 1.17±0.73 bc 7.79±0.35 b 1.41±0.89 bc 9.19±0.26 ab
    CK 2.29±1.31 a 8.73±0.45 a 2.25±1.27 a 9.32±0.39 a
    注:同列中不同字母表示处理间差异显著(P < 0.05)。下同。Notes: Different letters denote significant differences among varied treatments at P < 0.05 level. The same below.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  不同处理垂柳叶片的“三边”参数

    Table  7.   Three edge parameters of weeping willow leaves under different treatments

    参数Parameter 1 2 3 4 CK
    蓝光波长Blue light wavelength 523.0±0.0 a 523.0±0.0 a 523.0±0.0 a 523.0±3.5 a 521.0±0.0 a
    蓝光幅值Blue light amplitude 4.2×10-3±1.5×10-4 a 4.4×10-3±4.0×10-4 a 4.2×10-3±5.5×10-4 a 4.3×10-3±1.3×10-4 a 4.6×10-3±6.7×10-4 a
    蓝光面积Blue light area 0.1±7×10-3 a 0.1±1.0×10-2 a 0.1±2.6×10-2 a 0.1±3.5×10-2 a 0.1±1.8×10-2 a
    黄光波长Yellow light wavelength 631.2±0.3 a 631.2±0.3 a 631.3±0.3 a 631.0±0.0 a 630.5±0.0 b
    黄光幅值Yellow light amplitude -3.3×10-4±4.2×10-5 a -3.3×10-4±2.7×10-5 a -3.1×10-4±1.1×10-4 a -3.6×10-4±1.4×10-4 a -3.9×10-4±8.110-5 a
    黄光面积Yellow light area -9.7×10-2±5.4×10-3 a -9.8×10-2±8.1×10-3 a -9.4×10-2±2.0×10-2 a -1.0×10-2±2.7×10-2 a -0.1±1.4×10-2 a
    红光波长Red light wavelength 706.5±0.0 a 706.5±0.0 a 710.0±6.1 a 707.3±8.3 a 707.8±5.1 a
    红光幅值Red light amplitude 1.5×10-2±5.3×10-4 a 1.5×10-2±3.6×10-4 a 1.4×10-2±6.2×10-4 a 1.4×10-2±8.4×10-4 a 1.5×10-2±3.8×10-4 a
    红光面积Red light area 0.6±2.9×10-2 a 0.6±1.2×10-2 ab 0.6±1.2×10-2 ab 0.5±1.2×10-2 b 0.6±2.3×10-2 b
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  不同处理垂柳叶片反射光谱参数变化

    Table  8.   Changes of reflectance spectrum parameters of weeping willow leaves under different treatments

    处理编号
    Treatment No.
    光谱指数Spectral index
    PRI SIPI ChlNDI NDVI
    1 0.028 1±0.010 4 a 0.828 7±0.017 3 d 0.454 5±0.035 6 a 0.885 9±0.013 9 a
    2 -0.009 6±0.007 9 c 0.849 8±0.011 3 b 0.449 1±0.045 9 a 0.875 2±0.012 7 b
    3 -0.010 4±0.007 6 c 0.874 4±0.011 3 a 0.427 4±0.058 6 b 0.854 3±0.015 4 c
    4 -0.004 7±0.008 b 0.834 5±0.015 8 c 0.454 4±0.052 2 a 0.883 7±0.013 1 a
    CK -0.013 4±0.011 9 d 0.876 3±0.012 9 a 0.423 6±0.070 7 b 0.843 1±0.018 2 d
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2016-06-24
  • 修回日期:  2016-07-25
  • 刊出日期:  2017-05-01

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