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樟树叶提取物对木材霉菌的防治效果及防霉机理研究

常璐璐 孙墨珑 徐国祺 刘泽旭 王立海

常璐璐, 孙墨珑, 徐国祺, 刘泽旭, 王立海. 樟树叶提取物对木材霉菌的防治效果及防霉机理研究[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2017, 39(1): 99-106. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160255
引用本文: 常璐璐, 孙墨珑, 徐国祺, 刘泽旭, 王立海. 樟树叶提取物对木材霉菌的防治效果及防霉机理研究[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2017, 39(1): 99-106. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160255
CHANG Lu-lu, SUN Mo-long, XU Guo-qi, LIU Ze-xu, WANG Li-hai. Control efficiency and action mechanisms of camphor leaf extractives on mold resistance of wood[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2017, 39(1): 99-106. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160255
Citation: CHANG Lu-lu, SUN Mo-long, XU Guo-qi, LIU Ze-xu, WANG Li-hai. Control efficiency and action mechanisms of camphor leaf extractives on mold resistance of wood[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2017, 39(1): 99-106. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160255

樟树叶提取物对木材霉菌的防治效果及防霉机理研究

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160255
基金项目: 

中央高校基本科研业务费专项 2572016AB68

高等学校博士学科点专项科研基金 20130062110001

详细信息
    作者简介:

    常璐璐,博士生。主要研究方向:木材防腐与保护。Email: 740589964@qq.com  地址:150040  黑龙江省哈尔滨市香坊区和兴路26号东北林业大学工程学院

    责任作者:

    孙墨珑,博士,教授。主要研究方向:天然产物化学。Email: sunmolong@hotmail.com  地址: 150040  黑龙江省哈尔滨市香坊区和兴路26号东北林业大学理学院

  • 中图分类号: S718.43

Control efficiency and action mechanisms of camphor leaf extractives on mold resistance of wood

  • 摘要: 为探明樟树叶提取物对木材霉菌的防治效果及防霉机理,采用牛津杯法,探讨了不同质量分数的提取物对3种木材常见霉菌(桔青霉、绿木霉、黑曲霉)的抑菌性,之后通过光学显微镜和分光光度法对防霉机理进行分析,探讨了其在木材中的霉菌防治效果。结果表明:樟树叶提取物对桔青霉、绿木霉以及黑曲霉均有一定的抑制作用,且其通过破坏霉菌菌丝结构,扰乱霉菌生长周期,从而抑制3种霉菌生长。质量分数为12.50%的提取物对3种霉菌的抑菌效果最佳,对应的抑菌圈直径分别为:桔青霉14.2 mm,绿木霉14.9 mm,黑曲霉20.1 mm。提取物对3种霉菌的最低抑菌质量分数为:桔青霉0.50%~1.00%,绿木霉0.50%~1.00%,黑曲霉0.25%。对不同菌种,分别采用如下处理方式可使平均感染值达到最小,防治效力达到最大:桔青霉(涂刷处理)、绿木霉以及混合菌(浸渍处理)、黑曲霉(任意一种处理方式均可),其中浸渍处理方式适用霉菌最为广泛。

     

  • 图  1  桔青霉、绿木霉和黑曲霉抑菌圈直径差值变化趋势

    Figure  1.  Trends of inhibiton diameter differences of Penicillium citrinum, Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus niger

    图  2  加入提取物前后霉菌形态特征

    Figure  2.  Morphological characteristics of molds before and after adding extractives

    图  3  3种霉菌在不同培养基下的生长周期变化

    Figure  3.  Growth cycle variation of three molds in different culture media

    图  4  12.5%的樟树叶提取物处理材受桔青霉、绿木霉、黑曲霉和混合菌的感染值变化趋势

    Figure  4.  Trends of average infection of extractive-treated woods treated with Penicillium citrinum, Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus niger and mixed molds

    图  5  提取物处理材对霉菌的防治效力

    Figure  5.  Control effectiveness of extractive-treated wood against molds

    表  1  试件受霉菌表面感染值分级

    Table  1.   Grade of surface infection of specimen affected by mold

    感染值
    Infection value
    试件表面感染面积
    Infection area of specimen surface
    0无菌丝、霉点
    No mycelium and mildew point
    1<1/4
    21/4~1/2
    31/2~3/4
    4>3/4
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同质量分数的樟叶提取物的霉菌抑菌圈平均直径

    Table  2.   Means of inhibition diameter of the camphor leaf extractives against different molds

    mm
    供试菌
    Mold
    对照组
    Control
    2.50%样品
    2.50% sample
    5.00%样品
    5.00% sample
    7.50%样品
    7.50% sample
    10.00%样品
    10.00% sample
    12.50%样品
    12.50% sample
    15.00%样品
    15.00% sample
    桔青霉Penicillium citrinum8.09.311.011.912.614.214.4
    绿木霉Trichoderma viride7.48.69.69.913.914.915.5
    黑曲霉Aspergillus niger8.014.917.618.119.020.120.9
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  低质量分数樟树叶提取物的霉菌抑菌圈平均直径

    Table  3.   Means of inhibition diameter of the camphor leaf extractives at low mass fractions against different molds

    mm
    供试菌
    Mold
    对照组
    Control
    0.25%样品
    0.25% sample
    0.50%样品
    0.50% sample
    1.00%样品
    1.00% sample
    1.50%样品
    1.50% sample
    2.00%样品
    2.00% sample
    2.50%样品
    2.50% sample
    桔青霉Penicillium citrinum8.307.908.308.7010.4012.4012.40
    绿木霉Trichoderma viride7.907.907.908.3010.4012.4012.50
    黑曲霉Aspergillus niger7.207.408.1014.6015.8016.6017.30
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  各组试件平均吸药量及表面变化

    Table  4.   Average absorbance of specimens and surface changes

    对照组
    Control
    涂刷
    Brush
    浸渍
    Immersion
    浸渍涂刷
    Immersion and brush
    吸药量
    Absorbance/(g·m-3)
    06.927.418.85
    试件表面变化
    Surface changes
    无变化Samples without change试件表面呈棕色,纹理基本不可见Surface color of samples was brown,the textures were almost invisible试件略有变色Surface color of samples changed slightly试件表面呈深棕色,纹理不可见Surface color of samples was dark brown,the textures were invisible
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2016-08-08
  • 修回日期:  2016-08-30
  • 刊出日期:  2017-01-01

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