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河北平山片麻岩山区微地形植物群落异质性

袁振 魏松坡 贾黎明 张亚雄 刘龙龙 刘正立

袁振, 魏松坡, 贾黎明, 张亚雄, 刘龙龙, 刘正立. 河北平山片麻岩山区微地形植物群落异质性[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2017, 39(2): 49-57. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160277
引用本文: 袁振, 魏松坡, 贾黎明, 张亚雄, 刘龙龙, 刘正立. 河北平山片麻岩山区微地形植物群落异质性[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2017, 39(2): 49-57. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160277
YUAN Zhen, WEI Song-po, JIA Li-ming, ZHANG Ya-xiong, LIU Long-long, LIU Zheng-li. Differentiation of vegetation characteristics on micro-topography in gneiss mountainous area of Pingshan County, Hebei Province of northern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2017, 39(2): 49-57. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160277
Citation: YUAN Zhen, WEI Song-po, JIA Li-ming, ZHANG Ya-xiong, LIU Long-long, LIU Zheng-li. Differentiation of vegetation characteristics on micro-topography in gneiss mountainous area of Pingshan County, Hebei Province of northern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2017, 39(2): 49-57. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160277

河北平山片麻岩山区微地形植物群落异质性

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160277
基金项目: 

“十二五”国家科技支撑计划项目 2015BAD07B02

详细信息
    作者简介:

    袁振。主要研究方向:困难立地植被恢复。Email:279938085@qq.com  地址:100083 北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学林学院

    责任作者:

    贾黎明,教授,博士生导师。主要研究方向:森林培育理论与技术。Email:jlm@bjfu.edu.cn  地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S728.1

Differentiation of vegetation characteristics on micro-topography in gneiss mountainous area of Pingshan County, Hebei Province of northern China

  • 摘要: 微地形是导致植物群落特征产生差异的主要地形因子,探讨不同微地形对植物群落特征的影响,对于困难立地植被的恢复与重建具有重要意义。本文以河北省平山县片麻岩山区内的微地形及原状坡的植物群落调查数据为基础,分析了坡顶、塌陷、巨石背阴、缓台、陡坎、谷坡和U形沟7种微地形的植物群落特征及其与原状坡的差异,为片麻岩山区植被的恢复提供参考依据。结果表明:微地形与原状坡在植物群落数量特征方面存在明显差异,微地形植被平均高、盖度和生物量多优于原状坡(33.64 cm、59.61%、291.79 g/m2),其中以U形沟(49.12 cm、78.02%、574.84 g/m2)、塌陷(50.94 cm、74.81%、570.50 g/m2)最为显著,陡坎(30.65 cm、62.49%、89.13 g/m2)和坡顶(28.73 cm、52.67%、78.36 g/m2)较差。植物群落多样性方面,在各个微地形及原状坡中,谷坡与原状坡植物群落多样性特征相似,物种较少,多样性指数较高,分布较均匀;缓台和U形沟植物群落的多样性指数最优,且这两种微地形物种丰富且分布均匀;塌陷、巨石背阴、坡顶属于单优势种群落,物种种类少且分布不均匀,优势种的优势地位突出;陡坎虽然物种丰富,但是多样性指数较低,而且大都是伴生种或偶见种,且分布最不均匀。因此从植物群落数量特征及多样性的角度看,U形沟、塌陷、缓台是最有利于植被生长的微地形,是片麻岩山区进行植被恢复的较好选择。

     

  • 图  1  片麻岩山区微地形示意图

    Figure  1.  Schematic diagram of micro-topography in gneiss mountainous area

    图  2  微地形及原状坡植物群落多样性指数

    ST.坡顶; CO.塌陷; HS.巨石背阴; PF.缓台; SC.陡坎; BR.谷坡; UG.U形沟; US.原状坡。不同的小写字母表示差异显著(P<0.05)。

    Figure  2.  Diversity indices of plant communities on micro-topography and undisturbed slope

    ST, slope top; CO, collapse; HS, huge stone shadow; PF, platform; SC, scarp; BR, brae; UG, U-gully; US, undisturbed slope. Different small letters mean significant difference at P < 0.05 level.

    表  1  样地内微地形种类及特征

    Table  1.   Types and characteristics of micro-topography in sampling sites

    微地形
    Micro-topography
    特征
    Characteristic
    规格
    Scale/m2
    数量
    Quantity
     坡顶
     Slope top
    坡面的最顶端,较为平坦的小地形,土层瘠薄,水分条件最差A micro-topography on the top of the slope, with barren soil layer, and the condition of water is the worst 4~9 6
     塌陷
     Collapse
    坡面上凹陷状小地形,有利于汇集水分和养分
    A sunken micro-topography on the slope, which is beneficial to collect more water and nutrient
    4~6 18
     巨石背阴
     Huge stone shadow
    坡面存在体积较大且稳固的石块,在其侧旁存留一些土壤,特别是在石块背阴处,形成一个较阴湿的微环境Giant and stable stones with soil aside on the slope can provide a quite moist micro-topography, especially in the shadow of the huge stone 4~9 13
     缓台
     Platform
    坡面局部坡度明显小于所在坡面坡度的小地形,有利于水分的下渗
    A micro-topography with a gentle slope, which is good for infiltration
    9~16 22
     陡坎
     Scarp
    坡面局部坡度明显大于所在坡面坡度的小地形,不利于水分的保存
    A micro-topography with a significant steeper slope, which is not good for water storing
    4~9 24
     谷坡
     Brae
    坡面的底部,与沟底相连的小地形,水分和养分条件与原状坡相似
    A micro-topography at the bottom of the slope, connected with gully and has the similar water and nutrient condition as undisturbed slope
    16~25 22
     U形沟
     U-gully
    降雨形成的径流在汇集过程中冲蚀形成的横断面为U形的沟,深度1 m左右,最有利于水分和养分的汇集Rainfall runoff results in a U-shaped gully, whose depth is about 1 meter and is the best for the collection of water and nutrient 6~9 22
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  植物群落与立地因子逐步回归方程

    Table  2.   Stepwise multiple regression between plant community and topography factors

    项目Item 逐步回归方程Stepwise multiple regression F R2 P
    平均高Average height Y1=24.82+0.671 9x1+0.425 6x2+0.199 4x4 54.96 0.859 <0.01
    盖度Coverage Y2=15.79+0.586 8x1+0.300 4x5 58.24 0.872 <0.01
    生物量Biomass Y3=51.57+0.635 8x1+0.112 8x4+0.409 3x5 47.72 0.846 <0.01
    Shannon-Wiener指数Shannon-Wiener index Y4=2.26+0.506 8x1-0.257 1x3 6.97 0.773 <0.05
    Margalef指数Margalef index Y5=2.45+0.431 1x1+0.301 6x2-0.408 0x7 10.99 0.691 <0.01
    Pielou指数Pielou index Y6=0.85+0.741 8x1-0.415 7x7 5.48 0.705 <0.05
    注:x1表示微地形;x2表示坡向;x3表示坡度;x4表示坡位;x5表示风化层厚度;x6表示粗糙度;x7表示土壤硬度;x8表示含石率。Notes: x1, micro-topography; x2, aspect; x3, slope; x4, slope position; x5, weathered layer thickness; x6, roughness; x7, soil hardness; x8, stone content.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同微地形植物群落数量特征

    Table  3.   Quantitative characteristics of plant communities on micro-topography

    坡向
    Slope aspect
    微地形
    Micro-topography
    平均高
    Average height /cm
    盖度
    Coverage /%
    生物量
    Biomass/(g·m-2)
    阴坡Shady slope 坡顶Slope top 30.49±3.13c 51.23±3.08d 92.79±29.71d
    塌陷Collapse 52.57±5.64a 77.52±2.67ab 600.75±34.71a
    巨石背阴Huge stone shadow 48.05±4.38a 75.08±5.77ab 592.51±19.84a
    缓台Platform 38.32±3.27b 72.33±4.04ab 465.33±32.17b
    陡坎Scarp 31.23±1.83c 67.66±2.08bc 112.33±32.51d
    谷坡Brae 37.92±4.68b 68.25±6.32bc 422.25±32.77b
    U形沟U-gully 50.27±4.87a 81.55±4.91a 618.75±15.77a
    原状坡Undisturbed slope 35.46±2.32bc 63.16±2.37bc 323.33±25.02c
    平均Average 40.54 69.61 403.51
    阳坡Sunny slope 坡顶Slope top 26.97±3.25c 54.12±4.96b 63.93±13.12d
    塌陷Collapse 49.32±4.13a 72.11±5.56a 540.25±33.64a
    巨石背阴Huge stone shadow 45.21±2.87a 53.52±3.16b 385.61±54.37b
    缓台Platform 35.54±4.45b 61.53±5.19b 427.75±42.09b
    陡坎Scarp 30.08±3.99c 57.33±4.56b 65.93±24.72d
    谷坡Brae 32.72±3.07bc 60.32±4.15b 398.25±24.29b
    U形沟U-gully 47.96±3.82a 74.48±4.66a 530.92±55.41a
    原状坡Undisturbed slope 31.83±1.05bc 56.07±4.03b 260.25±26.53c
    平均Average 37.45 61.18 334.11
    注:同列不同小写字母表示差异显著(P<0.05)。Note: different small letters in the same column mean significant difference at P<0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  微地形及原状坡植物群落中主要植物的重要值

    Table  4.   Importance values of main species of plant communities on micro-topography and undisturbed slope

    植物种
    Plant species
    坡顶
    Slope top
    塌陷
    Collapse
    巨石背阴
    Huge stone
    shadow
    缓台
    Platform
    陡坎
    Scarp
    谷坡
    Brae
    U形沟
    U-gully
    原状坡
    Undisturbed
    slope
    铁杆蒿Artemisia sacrorum 0.109 0.223 0.173 0.116 0.125 0.131 0.237 0.147
    茭蒿Artemisia giraldii 0.061 0.050 0.062 0.054
    黄背草Themeda triandra 0.082 0.127
    狗尾草Setaria viridis 0.082 0.077 0.073
    野古草Arundinella anomala 0.102 0.058 0.072 0.094 0.112 0.067
    白羊草Bothriochloa ischaemum 0.166 0.133 0.159 0.112 0.110 0.176 0.178 0.121
    阿尔泰狗娃花Heteropappus altaicus 0.119 0.071 0.051 0.069
    画眉草Eragrostis pilosa 0.196 0.086 0.079 0.059 0.096 0.075
    委陵菜Potentilla chinensis 0.053
    达呼里胡枝子Lespedeza davurica 0.081 0.127 0.100 0.116 0.087 0.107 0.182 0.114
    披针叶苔草Carex lanceolata 0.094 0.090 0.063
    中华隐子草Cleistogenes chinensis 0.091 0.097 0.076 0.109 0.059
    酸枣Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa 0.267 0.297 0.088 0.067 0.093 0.352 0.184
    荆条Vitex negundo var. heterophylla 0.309 0.186 0.103 0.198 0.156
    薄皮木Leptodermis oblonga 0.050 0.133 0.119 0.097 0.055 0.103 0.245
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2016-09-03
  • 修回日期:  2016-11-04
  • 刊出日期:  2017-02-01

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