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井干式木结构墙体产品物化环境影响评价

胡家航 姬晓迪 李凤龙 郭明辉

胡家航, 姬晓迪, 李凤龙, 郭明辉. 井干式木结构墙体产品物化环境影响评价[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2017, 39(6): 116-122. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160307
引用本文: 胡家航, 姬晓迪, 李凤龙, 郭明辉. 井干式木结构墙体产品物化环境影响评价[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2017, 39(6): 116-122. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160307
HU Jia-hang, JI Xiao-di Xiao-di, LI Feng-long, GUO Ming-hui. Assessment of embodied environmental impact on log wooden wall member.[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2017, 39(6): 116-122. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160307
Citation: HU Jia-hang, JI Xiao-di Xiao-di, LI Feng-long, GUO Ming-hui. Assessment of embodied environmental impact on log wooden wall member.[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2017, 39(6): 116-122. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160307

井干式木结构墙体产品物化环境影响评价

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160307
基金项目: 

十二五”国家科技计划支撑课题 2015BAD14B0501

详细信息
    作者简介:

    胡家航。主要研究方向:木质生态环境材料学、建筑环境与结构工程。Email:jiahang_hu@163.com  地址:150040黑龙江省哈尔滨市香坊区和兴路26号东北林业大学生物质材料与技术教育部重点实验室

    责任作者:

    郭明辉,教授,博士生导师。主要研究方向:木质复合材料、木材功能性改良、建筑环境与结构工程。Email:gmh1964@126.com地址:150040黑龙江省哈尔滨市香坊区和兴路26号东北林业大学材料科学与工程学院

  • 中图分类号: TU366.2;X828

Assessment of embodied environmental impact on log wooden wall member.

  • 摘要: 基于生命周期评价法,根据工厂搜集的基础数据清单,采用GaBi6.0软件分析了1 m3井干式木结构墙体产品物化过程(从原材料开采到产品出厂的生命周期)的原材料消耗、能源消耗和环境负荷,并利用软件提供的CML2001评价方法和数据库评价了墙体产品生命周期范围内造成的环境影响。结果表明:1)生产1 m3墙体产品,全球变暖潜值、人体毒性、环境酸化、富营养化、光化学臭氧生成潜力和非生物资源耗竭的加权后结果(绝对值)依次为3.50×10-9、2.11×10-9、1.38×10-10、1.38×10-10、2.33×10-11、1.30×10-12,其中全球变暖潜值和人体毒性是墙体产品环境影响的主要类型,分别占环境影响总值的59.2%和35.7%;2)墙体产品从原材料获取到产品出厂可分为原材料获取、集成材制造、墙体制造和油漆与包装这4个阶段,4个阶段的环境影响结果(绝对值)分别为2.40×10-9、7.32×10-10、4.25×10-10、7.20×10-11,原材料获取阶段为环境影响的主要阶段;3)除去原材料获取阶段木材固定大量CO2对环境的积极影响,在环境污染方面,人体毒性占总环境影响的35.7%,占污染的绝大部分,人体毒性主要由原材料获取、集成材制造和墙体制造这3个阶段贡献,且主要由这3个阶段的木材加工粉尘和电能使用造成。

     

  • 图  1  预制墙体

    Figure  1.  Prefabricated wall

    图  2  墙体产品生命周期系统边界

    Figure  2.  Life circle boundaries of wall product

    表  1  CML2001方法的分类、特征化、归一化和权重因子

    Table  1.   Classification, characterization, normalization and weighting factors in the CML2001 method

    环境影响类别
    Classification of environmental impact
    当量单位
    Equivalent unit/kg
    归一化基准
    Normalization benchmark/kg
    权重因子
    Weighting factor
    非生物资源耗竭Abiotic depletion (ADP) 锑Sb 1.83×10 11 1.5
    全球变暖潜值Global warming potential (GWP) 二氧化碳CO 2 4.18×10 13 10.0
    富营养化Eutrophication (EP) 磷酸根PO 3- 4 1.58×10 11 7.0
    环境酸化Acidification (AP) 二氧化硫SO 2 2.39×10 11 2.0
    人体毒性Human toxic potential (HTP) 二氯苯C 6H 4Cl 2 3.63×10 13 8.0
    光化学臭氧生成潜力Photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP) 乙烯C 2H 4 4.04×10 10 3.0
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  1 m3墙体产品原材料消耗清单

    Table  2.   Raw material consumption inventory of 1 m3 wall product

    kg
    原材料
    Raw material
    落叶松
    Larix gmelinii
    白乳胶
    White latex

    Water
    水性漆
    Water-based paint
    瓦楞纸
    Corrugate board
    消耗量Consumption 1 890 4.26 23 4.05 22
    注:落叶松、白乳胶、水、水性漆和瓦楞纸数据用GaBi 6.0 Professional + Extension数据库换算[15], 单位统一转化成kg。Notes:data of Larix gmelinii, white latex, water, water-based paint and corrugate board have been converted to the unit of MJ.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  1 m3墙体产品能源消耗清单

    Table  3.   Energy consumption inventory of 1 m3 wall product

    MJ
    生产阶段
    Manufacture stage
    电能
    Electric energy
    原油
    Crude oil
    天然气
    Natural gas
    无烟煤
    Anthracite coal
    原材料获取Raw material obtaining 458.00 1 906.55 144.15 52.87
    集成材制造Glulam preparation 193.18 81.88 5.41 5.09
    墙体制造Wood wall preparation 184.61 88.18 5.41 2.98
    油漆和包装Painting and packing 115.43 68.45
    合计Total 835.79 2 192.04 223.42 60.94
    注:电能、原油、天然气和无烟煤数据用GaBi 6.0 Professional + Extension数据库换算[15], 单位统一转化成MJ。Notes:data of electric energy, crude oil, natural gas and anthracite coal have been converted to the unit of MJ.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  1 m3墙体产品生命周期环境影响特征化结果

    Table  4.   Characterization of life circle impact assessment

    kg
    生产阶段Manufacture stage ADP AP EP GWP HTP POCP
    原材料获取Raw material obtaining 1.06(38%) 1.83(68%) 0.33(70%) -1 667.31(94%) 55.22(58%) -0.21(75%)
    集成材制造Glulam preparation 0.49(17%) 0.52(19%) 0.09(19%) 60.34(3%) 23.79(25%) 0.04(14%)
    墙体制造Wood wall preparation 0.12(4%) 0.26(10%) 0.03(6%) 37.60(2%) 13.99(14%) 0.02(7%)
    油漆与包装Painting and packing 1.14(41%) 0.09(3%) 0.02(5%) -4.12(1%) 2.90(3%) 0.01(4%)
    合计Total 2.81(100%) 2.70(100%) 0.47(100%) -1 537.49(100%) 95.90(100%) -0.14(100%)
    注:括号内为环境影响比例。Note:values in brackets are the proportion of environmental impact.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  1 m3墙体产品生命周期环境影响加权结果

    Table  5.   Weighing results of life cycle impact assessment

    生产阶段Manufacture stage ADP AP EP GWP HTP POCP 合计Total
    原材料获取Raw material obtaining 4.91×10-13 9.32×10-11 9.73×10-11 -3.71×10-9 1.22×10-9 -1.10×1-10 -2.40×10 -9
    集成材制造Glulam preparation 2.25×10 -13 2.66×10 -11 2.63×10 -11 1.34×10 -10 5.24×10 -10 2.11×10 -11 7.32×10 -10
    墙体制造Wood wall preparation 5.70×10 -14 1.32×10 -11 8.82×10 -12 8.36×10 -11 3.08×10 -10 1.11×10 -11 4.25×10 -10
    油漆与包装Painting and packing 5.30×10 -13 4.72×10 -12 5.51×10 -12 -9.15×10 -12 6.38×10 -11 6.57×10 -12 7.20×10 -11
    合计Total 1.30×10 -12 1.38×10 -10 1.38×10 -10 -3.50×10 -9 2.11×10 -9 -2.33×10 -11 -1.18×10 -9
    (0.1%) (2.3%) (2.3%) (59.2%) (35.7%) (0.4%) (100%)
    注:括号内为环境影响比例。Note:values in brackets are the proportion of environmental impact.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  1 m3墙体产品各工艺人体毒性特征化结果

    Table  6.   Human toxic potential characterization of different processes

    阶段
    Stage
    工艺
    Process
    人体毒性特征化结果
    Characterization of HTP/kg
    比例
    Percentage/%
    原材料获取Raw material obtaining 原木加工Converting timber 29.62 30.9
    锯材干燥Timber drying 25.60 26.7
    集成材制造Glulam preparation 横截Cross cutting 0.89 0.9
    预刨Pre-milling 8.83 9.2
    铣齿Finger milling 10.24 10.7
    指接Finger joining 1.05 1.1
    层积Laminating 2.78 2.9
    墙体制造Wood wall preparation 精刨Slicing 3.82 4.0
    截断Wood cutting 0.88 0.9
    铣形Molding plane 2.83 3.0
    打孔Punching 0.77 0.8
    砂光Sanding 5.69 5.9
    油漆与包装Painting and packing 油漆Painting 2.5 2.6
    包装Packing 0.4 0.4
    合计Total 95.90 100
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  各工艺电能使用情况

    Table  7.   Electricity usage of different processes

    阶段Stage 工艺Process 电能Electric energy/MJ 比例Percentage/%
    原材料获取Raw material obtaining 原木加工Converting timber 204.00 24.4
    锯材干燥Timber drying 254.00 30.4
    集成材制造Glulam preparation 横截Cross cutting 8.78 1.1
    预刨Pre-milling 48.00 5.7
    铣齿Finger milling 102.00 12.2
    指接Finger joining 10.40 1.3
    层积Laminating 24.00 2.9
    墙体制造Wood wall preparation 精刨Slicing 47.90 5.7
    截断Wood cutting 8.78 1.1
    铣形Molding plane 48.00 5.7
    打孔Punching 3.53 0.4
    砂光Sanding 76.40 9.1
    合计Total 835.79 100
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2016-09-28
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