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塔里木河下游植被空间分布特征及其用水策略

易小波 邵明安 袁国富 杜涛 朱绪超

易小波, 邵明安, 袁国富, 杜涛, 朱绪超. 塔里木河下游植被空间分布特征及其用水策略[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2017, 39(5): 1-8. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160314
引用本文: 易小波, 邵明安, 袁国富, 杜涛, 朱绪超. 塔里木河下游植被空间分布特征及其用水策略[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2017, 39(5): 1-8. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160314
YI Xiao-bo, SHAO Ming-an, YUAN Guo-fu, DU Tao, ZHU Xu-chao. Spatial distribution of vegetation and its strategy in using water in the lower reaches of the Tarim River, western China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2017, 39(5): 1-8. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160314
Citation: YI Xiao-bo, SHAO Ming-an, YUAN Guo-fu, DU Tao, ZHU Xu-chao. Spatial distribution of vegetation and its strategy in using water in the lower reaches of the Tarim River, western China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2017, 39(5): 1-8. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160314

塔里木河下游植被空间分布特征及其用水策略

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160314
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 41271050

详细信息
    作者简介:

    易小波,博士生。主要研究方向:环境生态。Email:abobobi@163.com   地址:712100  陕西杨凌邰城路3号西北农林科技大学南校区资源环境学院

    责任作者:

    邵明安,研究员,博士生导师。主要研究方向:土壤物理。Email:shaoma@igsnrr.ac.cn   地址:100101  北京市朝阳区大屯路甲11号中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所

    袁国富,副研究员。主要研究方向:生态水文。Email:yuangf@igsnrr.ac.cn   地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S715-3

Spatial distribution of vegetation and its strategy in using water in the lower reaches of the Tarim River, western China

  • 摘要: 采用点位监测和取样测定的方法对塔里木河下游植被空间分布和影响因素进行了研究。定点监测选取了柽柳样地和胡杨样地各一个,取样测定选取了16个断面共计67个样点。结果表明:地下水位和植被盖度随着离河道距离增加分别呈显著性对数和指数下降关系。不同质地土壤的持水性有显著差异,粉壤土的田间持水量(0.32 g/g)为沙土田间持水量(0.10 g/g)的3倍以上,前者的有效含水量约为后者的1.6倍。植被盖度受地下水位和土壤含水量的共同影响。胡杨和柽柳均具有适应极端干旱环境的能力,但二者的用水策略不同。胡杨根系可以直接吸收地下水和土壤水,且在生长季有明显的水力提升现象;柽柳根系主要吸收地下水和近地下水位饱和土壤水。

     

  • 图  1  塔里木河下游断面示意图

    数字为断面编号。

    Figure  1.  Schematic diagram of transects in the lower reaches of Tarim River

    The number represents code.

    图  2  塔里木河下游地下水埋深(a)和植被盖度(b)与离河道距离的关系

    Figure  2.  Relationship of groundwater depth (a) and vegetation coverage (b) with the distance to Tarim River

    图  3  塔里木河下游同一植被盖度(a)和不同类型植被盖度(b)与地下水位的关系

    Figure  3.  Relationship of vegetation coverage in the same forest (a) and different forests (b) with groundwater table in the lower reaches of Tarim River

    图  4  土壤质地对土壤水分特征曲线的影响

    Figure  4.  Effects of soil textures on soil water characteristic curves

    图  5  植被盖度与土壤平均含水量的关系

    Figure  5.  Relationship between vegetation coverage and SMWC

    图  6  生长盛期胡杨林土壤含水量和地下水位平均日波动过程

    3.0 m、3.5 m、4.0 m和4.5 m分别表示在3.0、3.5、4.0和4.5 m深土层的土壤体积含水量。

    Figure  6.  Mean diurnal variations of SVWC and GWD in Populus euphratica observation site during the growing season in 2014

    3.0 m, 3.5 m, 4.0 m and 4.5 m represent SVWC at 3.0, 3.5, 4.0 and 4.5 m depth, respectively.

    图  7  生长盛期柽柳林土壤含水量和地下水位平均日波动

    Figure  7.  Mean diurnal variations of SVWC and GWD in Tamarix spp. observation sites during the growing season in 2014

    表  1  胡杨和柽柳样地统计特征

    Table  1.   Statistics of Populus euphratica and Tamarix spp. plots

    样地类型
    Plot type
    项目
    Item
    高度
    Height/m
    胸径
    DBH/m
    冠幅
    Canopy
    width/m
    植被盖度
    Vegetation
    coverage
    地下水埋深
    Groundwater
    depth(GWD)/
    cm
    土壤含水量
    Soil mass water
    content(SMWC)/
    (g·g-1)
    根系深度
    Root
    depth/m
    胡杨
    Populus euphratica
    最小值Min. 0.34 0.04 0.40 0.02 370 0.03 >3
    最大值Max. 15.08 1.04 12.52 0.54 750 0.17
    平均值Mean 6.43 0.32 4.65 0.17 533 0.08
    变异系数CV/% 40 50 44 79 20 53
    柽柳
    Tamarix spp.
    最小值Min. 0.07 0.11 0.003 380 0.03 >3
    最大值Max. 4.52 16.78 0.56 760 0.21
    平均值Mean 1.46 2.52 0.16 570 0.10
    变异系数CV/% 56 94 100 18 52
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  土壤水分特征曲线拟合参数统计

    Table  2.   Statistics of fitting parameters on soil water characteristic curve

    参数Parameter θr θs α n m R2
    沙壤土Sandy loam 0.016 0.269 0.021 2.242 0.554 0.998
    粉壤土Silt loam 0.067 0.334 0.001 1.338 0.253 0.963
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2016-09-30
  • 修回日期:  2017-03-12
  • 刊出日期:  2017-05-01

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