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吉林省中东部森林分布区水曲柳分布及其生态特征

范春楠 郑金萍 韩士杰 郭忠玲 王丽丽 周振钊

范春楠, 郑金萍, 韩士杰, 郭忠玲, 王丽丽, 周振钊. 吉林省中东部森林分布区水曲柳分布及其生态特征[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2017, 39(4): 1-11. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160378
引用本文: 范春楠, 郑金萍, 韩士杰, 郭忠玲, 王丽丽, 周振钊. 吉林省中东部森林分布区水曲柳分布及其生态特征[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2017, 39(4): 1-11. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160378
FAN Chun-nan, ZHENG Jin-ping, HAN Shi-jie, GUO Zhong-ling, WANG Li-li, ZHOU Zhen-zhao. Resource distribution and ecological characteristics of Fraxinus mandshurica in central-eastern forest region of Jilin Province, northeastern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2017, 39(4): 1-11. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160378
Citation: FAN Chun-nan, ZHENG Jin-ping, HAN Shi-jie, GUO Zhong-ling, WANG Li-li, ZHOU Zhen-zhao. Resource distribution and ecological characteristics of Fraxinus mandshurica in central-eastern forest region of Jilin Province, northeastern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2017, 39(4): 1-11. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160378

吉林省中东部森林分布区水曲柳分布及其生态特征

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160378
基金项目: 

科技部基础性工作专项重点项目 2007FY110400

林业公益性行业科研专项 201204309

详细信息
    作者简介:

    范春楠,博士,副研究员。主要研究方向:森林生态系统结构、功能与碳循环。Email:fanchunnan@126.com  地址:132013  吉林省吉林市滨江东路3999号北华大学林学院环境科学系16号信箱

    责任作者:

    郭忠玲,教授,博士生导师。主要研究方向:森林生态系统结构和功能、生态恢复。Email:gzl65@163.com  地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S718.5

Resource distribution and ecological characteristics of Fraxinus mandshurica in central-eastern forest region of Jilin Province, northeastern China

  • 摘要: 研究基于水曲柳在我国温带阔叶混交林区的生态地位、经济价值和资源几近枯竭的不争事实,以吉林省中东部森林分布区为对象,旨在通过水曲柳在不同群落中的数量特征、区域差异和生态特征分析等,为该物种的保育及可持续经营等提供科学依据。研究采用标准地法,均匀设置并调查了面积为30 m×30 m的样地509块,通过对不同森林群落和市/区尺度的水曲柳种群(D1.3≥5 cm)蓄积、密度和幼树更新的分别统计、比对,获得其资源分异特征,同时分析了水曲柳资源状况与经度、纬度、海拔和水热条件的关系。结果表明:除少数以水曲柳为优势的纯林和阔叶混交林外,水曲柳种群数量在红松针阔混交林、云冷杉针阔混交林和优势种不明显的阔叶混交林中相对较高;而在人工林、白桦林、杨树林和蒙古栎林等群落则较低。不同森林群落的水曲柳幼树整体呈进展型,但幼树密度与水曲柳种群数量的关系并不显著,整体表现在水曲柳种群数量较低的人工林类型组中相对较高,在种源充足的水曲柳林和以水曲柳为优势的阔叶混交林中相对较低。利用Acrgis软件绘制了吉林省中东部林区水曲柳的市/区分布图,通过聚类分析得出和龙市、桦甸市、通化县、靖宇县、抚松县和安图县为水曲柳的现存丰富区,敦化市、舒兰市、丰满区和蛟河市为水曲柳的潜在分布区;其余25个市/区为水曲柳的资源匮乏区。水曲柳种群蓄积和蓄积比随经度、海拔的增加均呈明显的单峰型变化,但随纬度的变化规律不明显。相关分析结果表明:水曲柳种群数量的空间分布受降水因子的影响小,但与温差变化和冬季低温显著相关。

     

  • 图  1  水曲柳蓄积分布状况

    BC.白城市;SY.松原市;CC.长春市;JL.吉林市;SP.四平市;LY.辽源市;YB.延边朝鲜族自治州;BS.白山市;TH.通化市。下同。

    Figure  1.  Volume distribution of F. mandshurica

    BC, Baicheng City; SY, Songyuan City; CC, Changchun City; JL, Jilin City; SP, Siping City; LY, Liaoyuan City; YB, Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture; BS, Baishan City; TH, Tonghua City. The same below.

    图  2  水曲柳密度分布状况

    Figure  2.  Stock density distribution of F. mandshurica

    图  3  水曲柳幼树密度分布状况

    Figure  3.  Stock density distribution of F. mandshurica sapling

    图  4  水曲柳资源的市/区聚类分析

    Figure  4.  Cluster analysis of city/district status of F. mandshurica

    图  5  水曲柳种群蓄积和蓄积比例随经度、纬度和海拔的变化

    Figure  5.  Variation of volume and its percentage of F. mandshurica with longitude, attitude and altitude

    表  1  不同群落类型的水曲柳资源状况

    Table  1.   Resource status of Fraxinus mandshurica in different forest types

    群落类型组
    Community type group
    优势种
    Dominant species
    标准地数
    Plotnumber
    蓄积/(m3·hm-2)
    Volume/(m3·ha-1)
    密度/(株·hm-2)
    Stock density/(tree·ha-1)
    幼树密度/(株·hm-2)
    Stock density of sapling/(tree·ha-1)
    合计Total
    人工林
    Plantation
    落叶松Larix olgensis530.87(0.72%)6(0.71%)718828187(2.20%)
    油松Pinus tabuliformis90.31(0.34%)2(0.23%)121115(0.64%)
    樟子松Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica300.29(0.18%)3(0.29%)1711935171(8.02%)
    红松Pinus koraiensis110.00(0.00)0(0.00)2826055(1.59%)
    针叶混Needle mixed140.15(0.04%)4(0.46%)5512049225(5.89%)
    加权平均Weighted mean0.51(0.40%)4(0.47%)478728162(3.96%)
    阔叶混交林Broadleaf mixed forest水曲柳Fraxinus mandshurica783.11(45.84%)278(29.23%)27131050(2.76%)
    胡桃楸Juglans mandshurica119.28(10.01%)28(8.34%)1124(0.42%)
    椴树Tilia spp.70.24(0.31%)5(1.28%)1919240(0.60%)
    白桦Betula platyphylla105.01(5.37%)42(4.72%)456320128(14.12%)
    杨树Populus spp.72.94(1.29%)40(4.03%)2630056(2.77%)
    风桦Betula costata42.66(3.18%)19(5.83%)280331(1.67%)
    蒙古栎Quercus mongolica270.56(0.70%)10(1.40%)95152112(3.25%)
    其他树种Others7811.23(7.26%)41(3.99%)22241459(4.84%)
    加权平均Weighted mean10.98(7.24%)43(4.99%)35221067(4.38%)
    针叶混交林
    Coniferous mixed forest
    云冷杉Picea spp. & Abies spp.40(0.00)0(0.00)2411439(1.44%)
    加权平均Weighted mean0(0.00)0(0.00)2411439(1.44%)
    阔叶林
    Broadleaf forest
    水曲柳Fraxinus mandshurica2122.78(83.10%)317(49.18%)125522(1.87%)
    胡桃楸Juglans mandshurica89.04(8.19%)109(11.52%)262213167642(6.73%)
    椴树Tilia spp.62.11(1.86%)15(1.67%)0000(0.00)
    枫桦Betula costata56.5(6.20%)15(1.51%)0000(0.00)
    白桦Betula platyphylla100.13(0.15%)6(0.66%)0741589(6.14%)
    杨树Populus spp.80.81(0.84%)15(1.72%)001010(5.47%)
    槭树Acer spp.40(0.00)0(0.00)172506228(4.18%)
    蒙古栎Quercus mongolica830.14(0.14%)1(0.13%)207532(0.55%)
    加权平均Weighted mean3.04(2.33%)15(1.90%)35261677(1.79%)
    针叶林
    Coniferous forest
    落叶松Larix olgensis154.2(4.76%)19(2.72%)0909(1.44%)
    长白松Pinus sylvestris var. sylvestriformis60(0.00)0(0.00)01000100(3.07%)
    红松Pinus koraiensis80(0.00)0(0.00)0000(0.00)
    加权平均Weighted mean2.17(2.46%)10(1.41%)025025(1.38%)
    针阔混交林Coniferous broadleaf mixed forest落叶松Larix olgensis160.81(0.76%)15(1.85%)1949235321(13.48%)
    云冷杉Picea spp. & Abies spp.1612.48(6.17%)19(3.85%)13711(0.91%)
    红松Pinus koraiensis2118.06(7.21%)19(2.09%)001010(0.10%)
    加权平均Weighted mean11.17(4.95%)18(2.55%)592917104(4.38%)
    总计Total加权平均Weighted mean4805.74(3.68%)21(2.55%)39401695(3.46%)
    注:第4、5、6列括号中的数据分别为水曲柳种群的蓄积、密度或幼树密度占群落的百分比;Ⅰ表示幼树0.1 m ≤H<0.5 m,Ⅱ表示幼树0.5 m ≤H<1.5 m,Ⅲ表示幼树H≥1.5 m且DBH<5 cm。Notes: data in bracket of colume 4, 5 and 6 are volume, density and sapling density of F. mandshurica population in different communities, respectively;Ⅰ, sapling 0.1 m ≤H<0.5 m; Ⅱ, sapling 0.5 m ≤H<1.5 m; Ⅲ, sapling H≥1.5 m and DBH<5 cm.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  水曲柳种群蓄积、密度与气象因子的相关分析

    Table  2.   Correlation analysis between population volume, stock density of F. mandshurica and meteorological factors

    气象因子
    Meteorological factor
    相关系数
    Correlation coefficient
    蓄积
    Volume
    密度
    Stock density
    年均温
    Annual mean temperature
    -0.054-0.019
    昼夜温差月均值
    Mean diurnal range
    0.167***0.201***
    等温性
    Isothermality (BIO2/BIO7) (×100)
    0.097*0.009
    温度季节性变化标准差
    Standard deviation of temperature seasonality
    0.0490.153**
    最暖月最高温
    Max. temperature of the warmest month
    -0.0260.035
    最冷月最低温
    Min. temperature of the coldest month
    -0.116**-0.172***
    年均温变化范围
    Temperature annual range (BIO5-BIO6)
    0.0780.178***
    最湿季度平均温
    Mean temperature of the wettest quarter
    -0.0350.028
    最干季度平均温
    Mean temperature of the driest quarter
    -0.090*-0.114*
    最暖季度平均温
    Mean temperature of the warmest quarter
    -0.0350.027
    最冷季度平均温
    Mean temperature of the coldest quarter
    -0.090*-0.114*
    年均降水量
    Annual precipitation
    0.0010.028
    最湿月降水量
    Precipitation of the wettest month
    -0.0260.047
    最干月降水量
    Precipitation of the driest month
    0.0210.023
    降水量变异系数
    Precipitation variation coefficient
    0.0010.062
    最湿季度降水量
    Precipitation of the wettest quarter
    0.0140.051
    最干季度降水量
    Precipitation of the driest quarter
    0.0410.036
    最暖季度降水量
    Precipitation of the warmest quarter
    0.0150.051
    最冷季度降水量
    Precipitation of the coldest quarter
    0.0410.036
    注:样本数509个;*表示在P<0.05水平上显著相关,**表示在P<0.01水平上显著相关,***表示在P<0.001水平上显著相关。Notes:sample number is 509;* means correlation is significant at P<0.01 level;** means correlation is significant at P<0.05 level;*** means correlation is significant at P<0.001 level.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2016-11-18
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