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油松大孢子叶球发生发育的形态与解剖学观察

张敏 张唯 宫再欣 郑彩霞

张敏, 张唯, 宫再欣, 郑彩霞. 油松大孢子叶球发生发育的形态与解剖学观察[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2017, 39(6): 1-12. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160411
引用本文: 张敏, 张唯, 宫再欣, 郑彩霞. 油松大孢子叶球发生发育的形态与解剖学观察[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2017, 39(6): 1-12. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160411
ZHANG Min, ZHANG Wei, GONG Zai-xin, ZHENG Cai-xia. Morphologic and anatomical observations in the process of ovulate strobilus generation and development in Pinus tabuliformis[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2017, 39(6): 1-12. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160411
Citation: ZHANG Min, ZHANG Wei, GONG Zai-xin, ZHENG Cai-xia. Morphologic and anatomical observations in the process of ovulate strobilus generation and development in Pinus tabuliformis[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2017, 39(6): 1-12. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160411

油松大孢子叶球发生发育的形态与解剖学观察

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160411
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 30671655

国家自然科学基金项目 31170563

国家自然科学基金项目 30371144

详细信息
    作者简介:

    张敏, 博士生.主要研究方向:树木生长发育及其调控.Email: zhangmin1990@bjfu.edu.cn   地址:100083 北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学生物科学与技术学院

    责任作者:

    郑彩霞, 教授, 博士生导师.主要研究方向:树木生长发育及其调控.Email: zhengcx@bjfu.edu.cn   地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S718.47

Morphologic and anatomical observations in the process of ovulate strobilus generation and development in Pinus tabuliformis

  • 摘要: 为了准确掌握油松大孢子叶球发生发育过程的外部形态特征及内部胚珠生长的解剖学特征,建立其外部形态和内部组织发育的对应关系,本研究采用形态观测和石蜡切片法,在2013—2016年对北京地区油松大孢子叶球,从花芽分化到种子成熟的过程进行了形态学和解剖学观察。结果显示:北京地区油松的花芽在第1年8月初分化,9月底大孢子叶球原基形成。原基在冬季休眠,至第2年春季继续发育。大孢子叶球在4月初从形态学上可辨,到4月10日左右,胚珠进行细胞分化,此时,大孢子叶球纵径约为5.0 mm。大孢子母细胞在4月20日左右形成,随后进行减数分裂形成功能大孢子。至5月10日左右,大孢子叶球接受小孢子叶球的传粉,随后,珠鳞的颜色由红转绿再逐渐变为棕色。同时,球果缓慢长大,其胚珠内的功能大孢子进行几次分裂,在6月初形成16~32个核的雌配子体,胚珠发育进入游离核分裂期。球果在冬季转入休眠,此时,大孢子叶球纵径约为11.0 mm。至第3年春季,胚珠内部的雌配子体继续发育,4月20日左右含有几千个游离核,此时,大孢子叶球纵径约为21.0 mm。雌配子体在4月30日左右进入细胞化时期,5月初颈卵器开始发育,形成卵细胞,此时,大孢子叶球生长至37.0 mm。待卵细胞在5月10日左右发育成熟时,雌配子体细胞化过程也全部结束。在雌配子体发育、球果长大的同时,珠鳞的颜色逐渐复绿。受精于5月20日左右进行,此时,大孢子叶球纵径约为45.0 mm。受精后,胚胎不断发育。球果在7月10日长约58.0 mm,之后略有萎缩,珠磷逐渐木质化成为种磷。至10月底,球果开裂,长约53.0 mm,种子成熟并弹出。北京地区油松的大孢子叶球从花芽分化、原基形成、胚珠分化、大孢子母细胞产生与分裂、传粉、雌配子体与颈卵器发育、卵细胞成熟、受精、胚胎发育至大孢子叶球成熟形成种子,历时2年2个月。本研究为裸子植物大孢子叶球发生发育的相关研究提供了形态学和解剖学依据。

     

  • 图  1  油松花芽

    第1年7月20日(A)、9月20日(B)和11月20日(C), 以及第2年2月20日(D)、3月10日(E)、3月20日(F), 3月30日(G)和4月10日(H)的油松花芽。

    Figure  1.  Flower buds of P. tabuliformis

    The flower buds of P. tabuliformis in July 20 (A), September 20 (B) and November 20 (C) of the first year, and in February 20 (D), March 10 (E), March 20 (F), March 30 (G) and April 10 (H) of the second year.

    图  2  油松新枝及球果

    第2年4月20日(A)、4月30日(B)、5月10日(C)的油松新枝及球果。

    Figure  2.  Shoots and ovulate strobilus of P. tabuliformis

    The flower buds and cone of P. tabuliformis in April 20 (A), April 30 (B) and May 10 (C) of the second year.

    图  3  油松球果(第2年5月10日—11月30日)

    第2年5月10日(A)、5月20日(B)、5月30日(C)、6月20日(D)、7月30日(E)、9月10日(F)、10月20日(G)和11月30日(H)的油松球果。

    Figure  3.  Cones of P. tabuliformis (from May 10 to November 30 of the second year)

    The cones of P. tabuliformis in May 10 (A), May 20 (B), May 30 (C), June 20 (D), July 30 (E), September 10 (F), October 20 (G) and November 30 (H) of the second year.

    图  4  油松球果纵径(第2年5月10日—第3年5月10日)

    数值由3次生物学重复获得, 为平均值± SE, 小写字母表示多重比较分析结果(P<0.05), “Ⅱ和“ Ⅲ"分别表示大孢子叶球整个发育过程的第2年和第3年。

    Figure  4.  Longitudinal diameter of cones in P. tabuliformis (from May 10 of the second year to May 10 of the third year)

    Data are shown as means ± SE from three independent biological replicates. Letters indicate statistical differences (P<0.05)."Ⅱ and "Ⅲ" indicate the second and third year in the process of ovulate strobilus generation and development.

    图  5  油松球果(第3年1月10日—5月10日)

    第3年1月10日(A)、2月20日(B)、3月20日(C)、3月30日(D)、4月10日(E)、4月20日(F)、4月30日(G)和5月10日(H)的油松球果.

    Figure  5.  Cones of P.tabuliformis (from January 10 to May 10 of the third year)

    The cones of P. tabuliformis in January10(A),February20(B),March20(C),March30(D),April10(E),April20(F),April30(G) and May10(H) of the third year.

    图  6  油松球果(第3年5月20日—10月30日)

    第3年5月20日(A)、5月30日(B)、6月10日(C)、6月20日(D)、6月30日(E)、7月10日(F)、7月20日(G)、8月10日(H)、8月30日(I)、9月20日(J)、10月10日(K)和10月30日(L)的油松球果。

    Figure  6.  Cones of P. tabuliformis (from May 20 to October 30 of the third year)

    The cones of P. tabuliformis in May20(A),May30(B),June10(C),June20(D),June30(E),July10(F),July20(G),August10(H),August30(I),September20(J),October10(K) and October30(L) of the third year.

    图  7  油松球果纵径(第3年5月20日—10月10日)

    数值由3次生物学重复获得, 为平均值±SE, 小写字母表示多重比较分析结果(P<0.05), “ Ⅲ"表示大孢子叶球整个发育过程的第3年。

    Figure  7.  Longitudinal diameter of cones in P. tabuliformis (from May 20 to October 10 of the third year)

    Data are shown as means ± SE from three independent biological replicates. Letters indicate statistical differences (P<0.05). " Ⅲ" indicates the third year in the process of ovulate strobilus generation and development.

    图  8  油松新芽及胚珠的发育

    A.第1年8月20日油松新芽纵切面观; B、C.图A的局部放大; D.第2年4月10日油松胚珠的纵切面观; ABP.腋芽原基; BS.芽鳞; I.珠被; M.珠孔; N.珠心; TBP.顶芽原基。

    Figure  8.  Development of buds and ovules in P. tabuliformis

    Figure A shows the longitudinal section of P. tabuliformis bud in August 20 of the first year; Figure B and C are the partial enlargements of Figure A; Figure D shows the longitudinal section of P. tabuliformis ovules in April 10 of the second year; ABP, axillary bud primordium; BS, bud scale; I, integument; M, micropyle; N, nucellus; TBP, terminal bud primordium.

    图  9  油松胚珠纵切(第2年4月20日)

    A.油松胚珠纵切面观; B. A的局部放大; I.珠被; M.珠孔; MMC.大孢子母细胞; N.珠心。

    Figure  9.  Longitudinal section of ovule in P. tabuliformis (April 20 in the second year)

    Figure A shows the longitudinal section of ovule in P. tabuliformis; Figure B is the partial enlargement of figure A; I, integument; M, micropyle; MMC, megaspore mother cell; N, nucellus.

    图  10  油松胚珠纵切(第2年9月10日)

    A.油松胚珠纵切面观; B. A的局部放大; FG.雌配子体; FN.游离核; I.珠被; M.珠孔; N.珠心; V.中央大液泡。

    Figure  10.  Longitudinal section of ovule in P. tabuliformis (September 10 in the second year)

    Figure A shows the longitudinal section of ovule in P. tabuliformis; Figure B is the partial enlargement of figure A; FG, female gametophyte; FN, free nucleus; I, integument; M, micropyle; N, nucellus; V, vacuole.

    图  11  油松胚珠纵切(第3年4月20日)

    A.油松胚珠纵切面观; B. A的局部放大; FG.雌配子体; FN.游离核; I.珠被; N.珠心。

    Figure  11.  Longitudinal section of ovule in P. tabuliformis (April 20 in the third year)

    Figure A shows the longitudinal section of ovule in P. tabuliformis; Figure B is the partial enlargement of figure A; FG, female gametophyte; FN, free nucleus; I, integument; N, nucellus.

    图  12  油松胚珠纵切(第3年4月30日)

    A.油松胚珠纵切面观; B. A的局部放大; 图中箭头所示为雌配子体中正在建成的细胞壁; FG.雌配子体; I.珠被; M.珠孔; N.珠心。

    Figure  12.  Longitudinal section of ovule in P. tabuliformis (April 30 in the third year)

    Figure A shows the longitudinal section of ovule in P.tabuliformis; Figure B is the partial enlargement of figure A; arrowheads indicate the establishing cell wall; FG, female gametophyte; I, integument; M, micropyle; N, nucellus.

    图  13  油松胚珠纵切(第3年5月2日)

    A.油松胚珠纵切面观; B. A的局部放大; AIC.颈卵器原始细胞; FG.雌配子体; I.珠被; M.珠孔; N.珠心。

    Figure  13.  Longitudinal section of ovule in P. tabuliformis (May 2 in the third year)

    Figure A shows the longitudinal section of ovule in P. tabuliformis; Figure B is the partial enlargement of figure A; AIC, archegonial initial cell; FG, female gametophyte; I, integument; M, micropyle; N, nucellus.

    图  14  油松胚珠纵切(第3年5月9日)

    A.油松胚珠纵切面观; B、C. A的局部放大; D.同一张胚珠切片的雌配子体区域; 箭头所示为雌配子体中已经建成的细胞壁; EC.卵细胞; EN.卵核; FG.雌配子体; I.珠被; JC.套细胞; N.珠心; PV.蛋白泡。

    Figure  14.  Longitudinal section of ovule in P. tabuliformis (May 9 in the third year)

    Figure A shows the longitudinal section of ovule in P. tabuliformis; Figure B-C are the partial enlargements of figure A; Figure D shows the female gametophyte in the same ovule section; arrowheads indicate the established cell wall; EC, egg cell; EN, egg nucleus; FG, female gametophyte; I, integument; JC, jacket cell; N, nucellus; PV, proteid vacuole.

    图  15  油松胚珠纵切(第3年5月16日)

    A.油松胚珠纵切面观; B. A的局部放大; EC.卵细胞; EN.卵核; FG.雌配子体; I.珠被; N.珠心; S.精子。

    Figure  15.  Longitudinal section of ovule in P. tabuliformis (May 16 in the third year)

    Figure A shows the longitudinal section of ovule in P. tabuliformis;Figure B is the partial enlargement of figure A;EC, egg cell;EN, egg nucleus;FG, female gametophyte;I,integument;N, nucellus;S, sperm

    图  16  油松成熟胚纵切(第3年9月1日)

    A.油松成熟胚纵切面观; B ~ D. A的局部放大, B为苗端区, C为下胚轴区, D为根端区; Co.子叶; CT.柱状组织; EC.胚皮层; EE.胚表皮; FG.雌配子体; Pi.髓; Pr.原形成层; RA.根端; RC.根冠; RCT.环柱组织; RPC.根原始细胞; SA.苗端。

    Figure  16.  Longitudinal section of mature embryo in P. tabuliformis (September 1 in the third year)

    Figure A shows the longitudinal section of P. tabuliformis mature embryo; figure B, C and D are the partial enlargements of figure A, and show the regions of shoot apex, hypocotyl and root apex, respectively; Co, cotyledon; CT, columnar tissue; EC, embryonic cortex; EE, embryonic epidermis; FG, female gametophyte; Pi, pith; Pr, procambia; RA, root apex; RC, root cap; RCT, ring columnar tissue; RPC, root primary cell; SA, shoot apex.

    图  17  油松大孢子叶球的形态及解剖学发生发育过程

    箭头所示为大孢子叶球; “Ⅰ”、“Ⅱ”和“Ⅲ”分别表示大孢子叶球整个发育过程的第1年、第2年和第3年。

    Figure  17.  Morphology and anatomy process of ovulate strobilus generation and development in P.tabuliformis

    Arrowheads indicate the ovulate strobilus; "Ⅰ", "Ⅱ" and "Ⅲ" indicate the first, second and third year in the process of ovulate strobilus generation and development, respectively

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  • 收稿日期:  2016-12-21
  • 修回日期:  2017-05-15
  • 刊出日期:  2017-06-01

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