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火烧对河北平泉油松林土壤微生物量的影响

李伟克 刘晓东 牛树奎 李炳怡 刘冠宏 褚艳琴

李伟克, 刘晓东, 牛树奎, 李炳怡, 刘冠宏, 褚艳琴. 火烧对河北平泉油松林土壤微生物量的影响[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2017, 39(10): 70-77. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160420
引用本文: 李伟克, 刘晓东, 牛树奎, 李炳怡, 刘冠宏, 褚艳琴. 火烧对河北平泉油松林土壤微生物量的影响[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2017, 39(10): 70-77. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160420
LI Wei-ke, LIU Xiao-dong, NIU Shu-kui, LI Bing-yi, LIU Guan-hong, CHU Yan-qin. Impact of fire on soil microbial biomass of Pinus tabuliformis forest in Pingquan County, Hebei of northern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2017, 39(10): 70-77. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160420
Citation: LI Wei-ke, LIU Xiao-dong, NIU Shu-kui, LI Bing-yi, LIU Guan-hong, CHU Yan-qin. Impact of fire on soil microbial biomass of Pinus tabuliformis forest in Pingquan County, Hebei of northern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2017, 39(10): 70-77. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160420

火烧对河北平泉油松林土壤微生物量的影响

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20160420
基金项目: 

国家重点研发计划项目 2017YFD060010006

国家自然科学基金项目 31270696

详细信息
    作者简介:

    李伟克,博士生。主要研究方向:生态管理与规划。Email: lwk2016@bjfu.edu.cn  地址:100083 北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学林学院

    责任作者:

    刘晓东,副教授。主要研究方向:生态管理与规划。Email: xd-liu@bjfu.edu.cn  地址:同上

    牛树奎,教授。主要研究方向:生态管理与规划。Email:shukuiniu@163.com  地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S762.8;S714.3

Impact of fire on soil microbial biomass of Pinus tabuliformis forest in Pingquan County, Hebei of northern China

  • 摘要: 以河北平泉油松林近期(火后半年)火烧迹地为研究对象,根据树干熏黑高度和树木死亡率情况,划分不同火烧强度(轻度、中度、重度),并以邻近未火烧区设置对照样地,采用氯仿熏蒸浸提法测定各研究区土壤微生物量碳、氮(Cmic、Nmic),分析不同强度火烧对其土壤微生物量碳、氮(Cmic、Nmic)的影响。结果表明:不同强度火烧后土壤Cmic、Nmic含量均呈下降的趋势,不同土层间土壤Cmic、Nmic含量随土层深度增加而逐渐减小,土壤Cmic变化在34~205 mg/kg之间,土壤Nmic变化在7~40 mg/kg之间;土壤微生物量碳氮比(Cmic/Nmic)整体处于5~6之间。双因素方差分析表明:火烧强度、土层深度及二者的交互作用对土壤有机碳(SOC)、全氮(TN)、铵态氮(NH4+-N)、硝态氮(NO3--N)均有显著影响(P < 0.05),对于土壤pH值,仅火烧强度对其影响显著(P < 0.05);同时,火烧强度、土层深度及二者的交互作用对土壤Cmic和Nmic的影响均达到极显著水平(P < 0.01)。土壤养分(SOC、TN、NH4+-N和NO3--N)主要集中在表层(0~10 cm),重度火烧后土壤养分含量显著减少,同时,土壤pH显著升高。相关分析结果表明:土壤有机碳、全氮对土壤Cmic、Nmic有极显著影响(P < 0.01),土壤Cmic、Nmic含量与土壤有机碳、全氮均呈正相关。主成分分析进一步表明土壤有机碳、全氮是影响土壤Cmic、Nmic的主要因素。

     

  • 图  1  不同火烧强度下土壤微生物量碳

    Figure  1.  Soil microbial biomass C after different fire intensities

    图  2  不同火烧强度下土壤微生物量氮

    Figure  2.  Soil microbial biomass N under different fire intensities

    图  3  不同火烧强度下土壤微生物量碳/氮

    Figure  3.  Soil microbial biomass C/N under different fire intensities

    表  1  样地概况

    Table  1.   General situation of sample plots

    样地
    Sample
    plot
    火烧程度
    Burning
    degree
    平均胸径
    Mean
    DBH/cm
    郁闭度
    Canopy
    density
    平均树高
    Mean
    height/m
    平均熏黑高度
    Mean scorched
    height/m
    树木死亡率
    Tree
    mortality/%
    优势种
    Dominant
    species
    1 重度High(H) 22.30 <0.10 12.42 12.42 100 大花溲疏Deutzia grandiflora、胡枝子Lespedeza bicolor、照山白Rhododendron micranthum、狗尾巴草Setaria viridis、鸡腿堇菜Viola acuminata
    2 重度High 27.10 <0.10 11.05 11.05 100
    3 重度High 22.49 <0.10 10.95 10.95 100
    4 中度Moderate(M) 22.87 0.32 11.02 3.64 66.72 油松Pinus tabuliformis、土庄绣线菊Spiraea pubescens、大花溲疏Deutzia grandiflora、小红菊Dendranthema chanetii、细叶薹草Carex duriuscula
    5 中度Moderate 19.90 0.39 9.70 2.85 63.46
    6 中度Moderate 22.10 0.28 10.80 3.12 54.60
    7 轻度Light(L) 24.33 0.56 11.99 1.47 16.35 油松Pinus tabuliformis、胡枝子Lespedeza bicolor、土庄绣线菊Spiraea pubescens、小红菊Dendranthema chanetii、细叶薹草Carex duriuscula
    8 轻度Light 21.80 0.59 9.90 1.66 18.20
    9 轻度Light 25.03 0.52 13.66 0.79 13.26
    10 对照Control(C) 20.90 0.60 11.50 0 0 油松Pinus tabuliformis、土庄绣线菊Spiraea pubescens、胡枝子Lespedeza bicolor、细叶薹草Carex duriuscula、毛茛Ranunculus japonicus
    11 对照Control 23.06 0.69 11.47 0 0
    12 对照Control 21.17 0.65 10.40 0 0
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  土壤理化性质特征

    Table  2.   Soil physiochemical properties

    指标
    Index
    土层
    Soil
    layer/cm
    火烧强度Fire severity Sig.
    H M L C 火烧强度(Ⅰ)
    Fire
    severity (Ⅰ)
    土层(Ⅱ)
    Soil
    layer (Ⅱ)
    Ⅰ×Ⅱ
    土壤有机碳
    Soil organic carbon (SOC)/
    (g·kg-1)
    0~10 9.19±0.09Ab 17.13±0.76Aa 17.46±1.23Aa 16.16±0.55Aa
    10~20 4.00±0.49Bb 6.91±0.59Ba 7.39±1.18Ba 7.92±0.44Ba <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
    20~30 2.15±0.39Cc 5.04±0.08Cb 4.81±0.74Cb 6.75±1.22Ba
    全氮
    Soil total nitrogen (TN)/
    (g·kg-1)
    0~10 0.31±0.01Ac 0.56±0.04Ab 0.85±0.03Aa 0.88±0.05Aa
    10~20 0.18±0.01Bd 0.27±0.04Bc 0.40±0.01Bb 0.66±0.04Ba <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
    20~30 0.10±0.03Bd 0.23±0.01Bc 0.28±0.01Cb 0.54±0.05Ca
    铵态氮
    NH4+-N/(mg·kg-1)
    0~10 1.72±0.03Bc 1.45±0.37Bc 3.70±0.62 Cb 19.49±0.90Aa
    10~20 1.25±0.30Cc 3.01±0.68Bc 11.78±0.67Bb 16.32±1.07Ba <0.01 <0.01 <0.01
    20~30 15.10±0.14Aa 16.75±1.16Aa 16.13±1.64Aa 15.85±0.89Ba
    硝态氮
    NO3--N/(mg·kg-1)
    0~10 1.64±0.43Bb 2.45±0.84ABa 3.56±0.36Aa 2.64±0.06Aa
    10~20 2.10±0.62ABb 2.10±0.44Bb 3.87±0.72Aa 3.16±0.54Aa <0.01 0.03 0.02
    20~30 3.10±0.58Aa 3.23±0.18Aa 3.39±0.21Aa 2.81±0.11Aa
    pH 0~10 6.90±0.27Aa 6.13±0.12Ab 5.68±0.38Ab 5.65±0.25Ab
    10~20 6.19±0.03Ba 5.67±0.14Ba 5.62±0.49Aa 5.61±0.44Aa <0.01 0.43 0.73
    20~30 6.27±0.15Ba 5.73±0.05Ba 5.87±0.33Aa 5.86±0.64Aa
    注:数据为平均值±标准差。不同大写字母表示同一样地不同土层之间差异显著(P<0.05),不同小写字母表示不同样地同一土层之间差异显著(P<0.05)。下同。Notes: different capital letters mean significant difference in different soil layers of the same sample plot at P<0.05 level, different lowercase letters mean significant difference in the same soil layer of different sample plots at P<0.05 level. The same below.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  火烧强度和土层对土壤Cmic含量的影响

    Table  3.   Effects of fire severity and soil layer on soil Cmic

    变异来源Source of variation F Sig.
    火烧强度Fire intensity 20.32 <0.01
    土层Soil layer 824.27 <0.01
    火烧强度×土层Fire intensity×soil layer 8.32 <0.01
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  火烧强度和土层对土壤Nmic含量的影响

    Table  4.   Effects of fire intensity and soil layer on soil Nmic

    变异来源Source of variation F Sig.
    火烧强度Fire intensity 22.32 <0.01
    土层Soil layer 232.85 <0.01
    火烧强度×土层Fire intensity×soil layer 9.75 <0.01
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  火后土壤微生物量碳、氮与土壤理化性质间的相关系数

    Table  5.   Spearman correlation coefficients between sCmic, Nmic and soil physiochemical characteristics

    Cmic Nmic Cmic/ Nmic SOC TN NH4+-N NO3--N pH
    Cmic 1.000 0.930** 0.306 0.905** 0.721** -0.336 -0.188 0.024
    Nmic 1.000 -0.026 0.884** 0.787** -0.156 -0.166 -0.033
    Cmic/Nmic 1.000 0.186 -0.005 -0.382 -0.072 0..058
    SOC 1.000 0.831** -0.254 -0.037 -0.134
    TN 1.000 0.140 0.183 -0.351*
    NH4+-N 1.000 0.458** -0.291
    NO3--N 1.000 -0.254
    pH 1.000
    注:*表示相关性达到P<0.05的显著水平,**表示相关性达到P<0.01的极显著水平。Notes:* means correlation is significant at P<0.05 level,** means correlation is extremely significant at P<0.01 level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  土壤因子主成分载荷矩阵及贡献率

    Table  6.   Principal component loading matrix and contribution rate for soil factors

    因子Factor 主成分Principal component
    1 2
    SOC 0.735 -0.633
    TN 0.921 -0.275
    NH4+-N 0.304 0.798
    NO3--N 0.424 0.652
    pH -0.603 -0.333
    特征值Eigenvalue 2.024 1.649
    贡献率Contribution rate/% 40.487 32.972
    累计贡献率
    Accumulative contribution rate/%
    40.487 73.459
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2016-12-29
  • 修回日期:  2017-03-26
  • 刊出日期:  2017-10-01

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