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6种植物叶片的滞尘能力与其叶面结构的关系

张桐 洪秀玲 孙立炜 刘玉军

张桐, 洪秀玲, 孙立炜, 刘玉军. 6种植物叶片的滞尘能力与其叶面结构的关系[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2017, 39(6): 70-77. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170012
引用本文: 张桐, 洪秀玲, 孙立炜, 刘玉军. 6种植物叶片的滞尘能力与其叶面结构的关系[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2017, 39(6): 70-77. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170012
ZHANG Tong, HONG Xiu-ling, SUN Li-wei, LIU Yu-jun. Particle-retaining characteristics of six tree species and their relations with micro-configurations of leaf epidermis[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2017, 39(6): 70-77. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170012
Citation: ZHANG Tong, HONG Xiu-ling, SUN Li-wei, LIU Yu-jun. Particle-retaining characteristics of six tree species and their relations with micro-configurations of leaf epidermis[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2017, 39(6): 70-77. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170012

6种植物叶片的滞尘能力与其叶面结构的关系

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170012
基金项目: 

林业公益性行业科研专项 201304301

详细信息
    作者简介:

    张桐。主要研究方向:社区绿化植物的滞尘特征及其机理。Email:zhangtongown@sina.cn  地址:100083北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学生物科学与技术学院

    责任作者:

    刘玉军, 教授, 博士生导师。主要研究方向:植物生理。Email:yjliubio@163.com  地址:同上

    刘玉军, 教授, 博士生导师。主要研究方向:植物生理。Email:yjliubio@163.com  地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S731.2;Q945

Particle-retaining characteristics of six tree species and their relations with micro-configurations of leaf epidermis

  • 摘要: 为研究不同绿化树种在单位叶面积上对于不同粒径颗粒物的滞留能力及叶表颗粒物粒度分布特性,分析叶表微观结构与滞尘能力的关系,以期为绿化植物选择及降低社区颗粒物污染提供依据。本实验以北京林业大学校园内社区绿化树种为研究对象,定量测量了6个常见树种的单位叶表面滞尘能力,并利用Mastersizer 2000对叶表滞留颗粒物的粒度分布特征进行分析,采用扫描电镜分析比较了各树种叶表面微观结构。结果表明:对于不同树种,在单位叶面积上所滞留颗粒物的能力方面有较大差异,滞留量由大到小依次为:油松>金银忍冬>大叶黄杨>暴马丁香>洋白蜡>元宝枫,油松的滞留颗粒物能力为元宝枫的44倍。在叶表颗粒物滞留粒径的分布方面,颗粒物主要粒径分布在10~50 μm,按照平均粒径(D50)从小到大的顺序为:元宝枫<暴马丁香<大叶黄杨<洋白蜡<金银忍冬<油松。在比表面积大小方面,植物叶面滞留颗粒物从大到小的顺序为:元宝枫>暴马丁香>大叶黄杨>洋白蜡>油松>金银忍冬。植物叶表的滞尘能力与叶表气孔的数目及气孔是否开放无显著关系,而与植物叶表的气孔大小有关:对于气孔大的树种,滞尘能力相对较强。叶表微观性状对颗粒物滞留能力的影响排序为:分泌物>沟状组织>凹槽>褶皱>条状突起。依据不同绿化树种滞尘能力,提出树种选择建议,为科学合理的选择抗颗粒物污染树种提供基础。

     

  • 图  1  不同树种叶面滞留颗粒物粒径累积分布图

    A 油松 Pinus tabuliformis;B 金银忍冬 Lonicera maackii;C 大叶黄杨 Buxus megistophylla;D 暴马丁香 Fraxinus pennsylvanica;E 洋白蜡 Fraxinus Americana;F 元宝枫 Acer truncatum

    Figure  1.  Cumulative distribution of particle size of different plants

    图  2  扫描电镜500倍视野下供试树种叶表微观结构

    a1.油松近轴面; a2.油松远轴面;b1.金银忍冬上表面; b2.金银忍冬下表面;c1.大叶黄杨上表面; c2.大叶黄杨下表面;d1.暴马丁香上表面; d2.暴马丁香下表面;e1.洋白蜡上表面; e2.洋白蜡下表面;f1.元宝枫上表面; f2.元宝枫下表面。

    Figure  2.  Scanning electron micrographs of micro-configurations of leaf epidermis for different tree species

    a1, adaxial side of Pinus tabuliformis; a2, abaxial side of Pinus tabuliformis; b1, upper surface of Lonicera maackii; b2, lower surface of Lonicera maackii; c1, upper surface of Buxus megistophylla; c2, lower surface of Buxus megistophylla; d1, upper surface of Syringa reticulate; d2, lower surface of Syringa reticulate; e1, upper surface of Fraxinus Americana; e2, lower surface of Fraxinus Americana; f1, upper surface of Acer truncatum; f2, lower surface of Acer truncatum.

    表  1  供试树种及其特征

    Table  1.   Selected tree species and their characteristics

    植物名称
    Tree species

    Family

    Genus
    生活型
    Life form
    类型
    Form
    金银忍冬
    Lonicera maackii
    忍冬科
    Caprifoliaceae
    忍冬属
    Lonicera
    落叶阔叶
    Deciduous and broadleaved
    灌木
    Shrub
    大叶黄杨
    Buxus megistophylla
    黄杨科
    Buxaceae
    黄杨属
    Buxus
    常绿阔叶Evergreen broadleaved
    暴马丁香
    Syringa reticulate var. amurensis
    木犀科
    Oleaceae
    丁香属
    Syringa
    落叶阔叶
    Deciduous and broadleaved
    乔木
    Tree
    洋白蜡
    Fraxinus pennsylvanica
    木犀科
    Oleaceae
    梣属
    Fraxinus
    元宝枫
    Acer truncatum
    槭树科
    Aceraceae
    槭属
    Acer
    油松
    Pinus tabuliformis
    松科
    Pinaceae
    松属
    Pinus
    常绿针叶
    Evergreen conifer
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  供试树种总颗粒物滞留能力

    Table  2.   Capture capacities of particulate matters retained by plant leaves

    植物名称
    Tree species
    单位叶面积滞留量Dust retention on per leaf area/(μg·cm -2) 变异系数
    Variation coefficient/%
    范围Range 平均值Average value
    金银忍冬Lonicera maackii 22.67~179.89 83.42 57.82
    大叶黄杨Buxus megistophylla 26.19~110.44 70.62 39.95
    暴马丁香Syringa reticulate var. amurensis 17.85~134.29 51.84 79.53
    洋白蜡Fraxinus pennsylvanica 15.19~78.43 40.96 60.29
    元宝枫Acer truncatum 20.13~46.00 31.42 34.19
    油松Pinus tabuliformis 495.06~2 082.68 1 379.96 50.17
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  供试树种叶表颗粒物粒度分布

    Table  3.   Size distribution of particulate matters retained on selected trees

    植物名称
    Tree species
    D50/
    μm
    SSA/
    (m2·g -1)
    < 2.5 μm/
    %
    2.5~10 μm/
    %
    10~50 μm/
    %
    50~100 μm/
    %
    > 100 μm/
    %
    油松Pinus tabuliformis 38.717 0.58 5.31 15.5 36.65 14.32 28.22
    金银忍冬Lonicera maackii 34.087 0.567 4.69 15.16 40.81 15.31 24.03
    大叶黄杨Buxus megistophylla 20.654 0.815 7.17 21.8 57.18 11.2 2.65
    暴马丁香Syringa reticulate var. amurensis 19.026 0.858 7.49 21.81 63.96 6.74 0
    洋白蜡Fraxinus pennsylvanica 23.800 0.669 5.38 17.39 57.13 11.27 8.83
    元宝枫Acer truncatum 18.447 0.874 7.66 23.79 63.23 5.32 0
    注:D50表示平均粒径/中位粒径。SSA为比表面积,单位质量颗粒的表面积之和。Notes: D50, median particle diameter or average particle diameter, means particulates which are greater than it occupies 50%. SSA, specific surface area, total superficial area of particles in unit mass.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  北京树种表皮气孔及表皮毛特征(500倍视野下)

    Table  4.   Characteristics of stomata and trichome of Beijing species(500×)

    树种
    Tree species
    气孔器形态
    Stoma shape
    气孔数量
    Stoma number
    表皮毛形态
    Epiderma
    hair shape
    表皮毛密度
    Density of
    epiderma hair
    油松
    Pinus tabuliformis
    圆形,开放,下陷,大小不均一,排列整齐,直径约100~200 μm The shape of stoma is circle, with different size, the diameter is 100-200 μm, and is open. Stoma is cave and range with regulation 6
    Nothing

    Nothing
    金银忍冬
    Lonicera maackii
    圆形,几乎均关闭,大小均匀,直径约100 μm The shape of stoma is circle, and the size is uniform, the diameter is 100 μm, nearly all of them are close 17
    Nothing

    Nothing
    大叶黄杨
    Buxus megistophylla
    圆形,全部开放,下陷,大小均一,直径约300 μm,表皮细胞与下陷气孔形成沟The shape of stoma is circle, and the size is uniform, the diameter is 300 μm, all of them are open. Stoma is cave and form curve with epidermic cells 13
    Nothing

    Nothing
    暴马丁香
    Syringa reticulate var. amurensis
    圆形,全部开放,大小均一,直径约120 μm,保卫细胞凸起The shape of stoma is circle, and the size is uniform, the diameter is 120 μm, all of them are open. The guard cells are bulge 22
    Nothing

    Nothing
    洋白蜡
    Fraxinus pennsylvanica
    长椭圆形,小部分开放,大小不一,短边约50 μm,长边约100 μm The shape of stoma is oval, with different size, the short side is 50 μm while the long side is 100 μm, some of them are open 14
    Nothing

    Nothing
    元宝枫
    Acer truncatum
    细长型,部分开放,大小均一,短边约20 μm,长边约40 μm The shape of stoma is long and thin, the size is uniform, and the diameter of short side is 20 μm, the long side is 40 μm, some of them are open 15
    Nothing

    Nothing
    下载: 导出CSV
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    [24] 李海梅, 王珂.青岛市城阳区5种绿化植物滞尘能力研究[J].山东林业科技, 2009, 39(3):34 - 36. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1002-2724.2009.03.010

    LI H M, WANG K. Study on the effect of dust removal of 5 forestation plants in Chengyang District of Qingdao City[J]. Journal of Shandong Forestry Science & Technology, 2009, 39(3):34 - 36. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1002-2724.2009.03.010
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  • 收稿日期:  2016-01-10
  • 修回日期:  2017-02-22
  • 刊出日期:  2017-06-01

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