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不同生境土壤跳虫及地表节肢动物群落结构和多样性特征

何振 赵琴 李迪强 李密 谷志容

何振, 赵琴, 李迪强, 李密, 谷志容. 不同生境土壤跳虫及地表节肢动物群落结构和多样性特征[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2017, 39(5): 98-108. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170045
引用本文: 何振, 赵琴, 李迪强, 李密, 谷志容. 不同生境土壤跳虫及地表节肢动物群落结构和多样性特征[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2017, 39(5): 98-108. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170045
HE Zhen, ZHAO Qin, LI Di-qiang, LI Mi, GU Zhi-rong. Structure and diversity of soil collembolan and aboveground arthropod communities under different habitats[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2017, 39(5): 98-108. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170045
Citation: HE Zhen, ZHAO Qin, LI Di-qiang, LI Mi, GU Zhi-rong. Structure and diversity of soil collembolan and aboveground arthropod communities under different habitats[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2017, 39(5): 98-108. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170045

不同生境土壤跳虫及地表节肢动物群落结构和多样性特征

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170045
基金项目: 

“十三五”国家科技支撑计划项目 2013BAC09B02

详细信息
    作者简介:

    何振,博士生,高级工程师。主要研究方向:自然保护区与生物多样性。Email:hezhen531@sina.com  地址:410004 湖南省长沙市韶山南路658号湖南省林业科学院

    责任作者:

    李迪强,研究员,博士生导师。主要研究方向:保护生物学。Email: lidq@caf.ac.cn   地址:100091 北京市海淀区香山路东小府1号中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所

  • 中图分类号: S154.5

Structure and diversity of soil collembolan and aboveground arthropod communities under different habitats

  • 摘要: 为探明天然次生林和人工油茶林土壤节肢动物多样性特征及其变化规律,基于Tullgren干漏斗法和罐诱法对八大公山亮叶水青冈林、枫香林、光皮桦林、栲树林和耒阳市南京乡半垦复油茶幼林、全垦复油茶幼林、全垦复油茶成林、未垦复油茶成林8种生境的土壤跳虫和地表节肢动物群落结构及多样性特征进行研究。Tullgren干漏斗法共分离出土壤跳虫1 830头,隶属4目10科19属;罐诱地表节肢动物12目24科34属1 136头。分析结果表明:天然次生林土壤跳虫的多样性显著高于人工油茶林,多样化的地表植被和凋落物有利于提高土壤跳虫的多样性,但对地表节肢动物没有显著影响;而油茶人工林不同垦复方式对跳虫群落和地表节肢动物结构及多样性均影响显著,适当垦复对于增加土壤动物的多样性具有积极作用。

     

  • 图  1  不同生境土壤跳虫群落的水平分布

    Figure  1.  Horizontal distribution of soil collembolan communities in different habitats

    图  2  不同生境土壤跳虫群落的垂直分布

    图中数据是平均值±标准误,n=5。小写字母代表显著性差异,相同字母差异不显著,不同字母差异显著(P < 0.05)。*代表缺失数据。下同。

    Figure  2.  Vertical distribution of soil collembolan communities in different habitats

    Data in the figures are mean±SE, n=5. Small letters denote statistical significance, same letters indicate no significant difference, while different letters indicate significant differences (P < 0.05). * denotes missing data. Same as below.

    图  3  不同生境土壤跳虫群落多样性指数

    H′. Shannon-Wiener多样性指数;Js. Pielou均匀度指数;D. Margalef丰富度指数;C. Simpson优势度指数。

    Figure  3.  Soil collembolan community diversity index in different habitats

    H′, Shannon-Wiener diversity index; Js, Pielou evenness index; D, Margalef richness index; C, Simpson dominance index.

    表  1  样地基本情况

    Table  1.   Basic situation of sample plots

    生境
    Habitat
    林型
    Forest type
    优势树种
    Dominant species
    演替阶段或林龄/a
    Stage of succession or stand age/year
    经纬度
    Geographic location
    坡位
    Slope position
    海拔
    Altitude/m
    落叶阔叶林Broadleaved deciduous forest 亮叶水青冈Fagus lucida 天然次生林Natural secondary forest 111°05′34″ E, 29°47′22″ N 南South 1 455
    落叶常绿阔叶混交林Evergreen and deciduous broadleaved mixed forest 枫香Liquidambar formosana 天然次生林Natural secondary forest 111°03′25″ E, 29°45′10″ N 南South 1 233
    落叶常绿阔叶混交林Evergreen and deciduous broadleaved mixed forest 光皮桦Betula luminifera 天然次生林Natural secondary forest 111°03′06″ E, 29°45′06″ N 南South 1 059
    沟谷常绿阔叶林Vale evergreen broadleaved forest 栲树Castanopsis fargesii 天然次生林Natural secondary forest 111°02′38″ E, 29°45′02″ N 南South 575
    半垦复人工油茶幼林Semi-reclaimed young Camellia oleifera plantation 油茶Camellia oleifera 4 112°40′44″ E, 26°21′51″ N 山谷Valley 97
    全垦复人工油茶幼林Reclaimed young Camellia oleifera forest 油茶Camellia oleifera 4 112°40′34″ E, 26°22′08″ N 山脊Ridge 146
    全垦复人工油茶成林Wholly-reclaimed mature Camellia oleifera plantation 油茶Camellia oleifera 32 112°41′07″ E, 26°20′53″ N 南South 107
    未垦复人工油茶成林Non-reclaimed mature Camellia oleifera plantation 油茶Camellia oleifera 32 112°41′10″ E, 26°20′55″ N 南South 128
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同生境土壤跳虫群落组成

    Table  2.   Composition of soil collembolan communities in different habitats

    类群
    Group
    天然次生林Natural secondary forest 人工油茶林Camellia oleifera plantation
    小计
    Subtotal
    优势度
    Dominance
    小计
    Subtotal
    优势度
    Dominance
    长属Entomobrya sp. 100 118 61 52 331 + + + 21 3 10 16 50 + + +
    符属Folomia sp. 133 56 53 57 299 + + +
    等节属Isotoma sp. 46 93 77 69 285 + + +
    球角属Hypogastrura sp. 33 29 40 40 142 + + 24 4 5 26 59 + + +
    原等属Proisotoma sp. 8 13 3 24 + + 25 12 16 70 123 + + +
    圆属Sminthurus sp. 26 7 19 35 87 + + 7 18 6 31 + +
    刺齿属Homidia sp. 25 14 51 7 97 + +
    棘属Onychiurus sp. 15 21 29 7 72 + + 3 16 19 + +
    拟裸长属Pseudosinella sp. 1 9 7 17 + + 21 5 26 + +
    长角长属Orchesellides sp. 7 26 2 35 + +
    土属Tullbergia sp. 18 2 4 3 27 + +
    疣属Neanura sp. 8 6 6 4 24 + +
    齿棘圆属Arrhopalites sp. 12 6 6 24 + +
    鳞属Tomocerus sp. 3 15 18 + +
    德属Desoria sp. 3 3 1 7 + 5 5 + +
    伪亚属Pseudachorutes sp 7 2 3 12 +
    裔符属Folomides sp. 1 5 1 7 +
    刺属Acanthocyrtus sp. 2 2 4 + 2 2 +
    短角属Neelus sp. 3 3 +
    合计Total 448 371 417 279 1 515 108 19 49 139 315
    注:+++表示优势类群(个体数占总数的10%以上);++表示常见种群(个体数占总数的1%~10%);+表示稀有类群(个体数占总数的1%以下)。下同。Notes: +++ denote dominant group (individual number is more than 10%), ++ denote common group (individual number is between 1% and 10%), + denote rare group (individual number is less 1%). The same below.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同生境地表节肢动物群落组成

    Table  3.   Composition of trapped arthropod communities in different habitats

    类群
    Group
    天然次生林Natural secondary forest 人工油茶林Camellia oleifera plantation
    节肢动物数量
    Number of arthropod
    小计
    Subtotal
    优势度
    Dominance
    节肢动物数量
    Number of arthropod
    小计
    Subtotal
    优势度
    Dominance
    厚结猛蚁属Pachycondyla sp. 11 35 74 120 + + +
    举腹蚁属Crematogaster sp. 66 8 12 86 + + +
    多刺蚁属Polyrhachis sp. 34 3 1 38 + +
    立毛蚁属Paratrechina sp. 169 163 9 341 + + +
    小家蚁属Monomorium sp. 115 42 157 + + +
    弓背蚁属Camponotus sp. 30 30 + + +
    大头蚁属Pheidole sp. 50 50 + + +
    细长蚁属Tetraponera sp. 11 11 + +
    地蜂属Andrena sp. 1 1 2 +
    蜜蜂属Apis sp. 19 19 + +
    史氏叶蜂属Dasmithius sp. 7 7 + +
    斑腿蝗科Catantopidae 2 2 +
    剑角蝗属Acrida sp. 1 1 1 3 +
    油葫芦属Teleogryllus sp. 3 11 2 16 + + 38 33 11 19 101 + + +
    田野蟋蟀属Gryllus sp. 10 11 1 22 + +
    斗蟋属Velarifictorus sp. 12 7 11 9 39 + + +
    屁步甲属Pheropsophus sp. 4 4 +
    婪步甲属Harpalus sp. 1 1 +
    步甲属Carabus sp. 3 11 14 + +
    劫步甲属Lesticus sp. 1 1 +
    叶甲属Chrysomela sp. 1 1 2 +
    莹叶甲属Galeruca sp. 1 1 +
    守瓜属Aulacophora sp. 1 1 +
    角胸肖叶甲属Basilepta sp. 4 1 3 8 + +
    新锹甲属Neolucanus sp. 2 2 +
    隐翅虫属Staphylinus sp. 2 2 4 +
    蜣螂属Gymnopleurus sp. 1 1 +
    刺蛾寄蝇属Chaetexorista sp. 3 1 2 6 + +
    蠼螋属Labidura sp. 2 6 1 9 + + 1 1 +
    鼠妇属Porcellio sp. 1 1 +
    林蠊属Episymploce sp. 3 3 6 + +
    钻头蛛属Hylyphantes sp. 2 5 1 8 + +
    新圆蛛属Neoscona sp. 3 3 + +
    象甲科Curculionidae 3 3 +
    尺蛾科Geometridae 1 1 2 + 1 1 +
    管蓟马科Phlaeothripidae 1 1 +
    圆马陆科Sphaeropoeidae 1 2 3 +
    地蜈蚣科Geophilidae 5 1 1 7 +
    革翅目Dermaptera 2 2 +
    合计Total 347 339 55 100 841 113 73 75 34 295
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  不同生境地表节肢动物群落结构的多样性

    Table  4.   Diversity of trapped arthropod community structure in different habitats

    生境Habitat 类群数Group number 个体数Individual number H Js D C
    5.60±0.55 b 69.40±49.64 a 1.02±0.20 bc 0.60±0.12 ns 1.15±0.14 b 0.45±0.10 abc
    8.20±1.48 a 64.80±84.64 ab 1.49±0.39 a 0.75±0.23 ns 1.96±0.36 a 0.31±0.15 c
    4.00±0.82 bc 13.75±8.42 bcd 1.04±0.30 bc 0.77±0.21 ns 1.58±0.51 ab 0.44±0.17 abc
    3.00±0.71 cd 20.00±8.00 bc 0.67±0.23 c 0.64±0.21 ns 0.68±0.25 c 0.62±0.15 a
    4.20±1.30 bc 22.60±18.54 bc 1.07±0.22 b 0.78±0.17 ns 1.25±0.41 b 0.40±0.10 bc
    3.60±0.55 bc 14.60±3.29 bcd 0.95±0.20 bc 0.78±0.08 ns 1.09±0.64 b 0.37±0.17 bc
    5.00±1.41 b 15.00±8.28 cd 1.17±0.19 ab 0.77±0.18 ns 1.56±0.55 ab 0.33±0.16 c
    2.40±0.55 d 6.80±2.49 d 0.73±0.29 c 0.83±0.18 ns 0.86±0.59 c 0.54±0.17 ab
    注:表中数据是平均值±标准误,n=5。小写字母代表显著性差异,同列相同字母表示差异不显著,不同字母表示差异显著(P < 0.05)。Notes: data in the table are mean±SE, n=5. Small letters denote statistical significance, same letters in the column indicate no significant difference, while different letters in the column indicate significant differences (P < 0.05).
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2017-02-22
  • 修回日期:  2017-03-06
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