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基于生态红线的洱海流域生态安全格局构建

李维佳 马琳 臧振华 高健 李俊清

李维佳, 马琳, 臧振华, 高健, 李俊清. 基于生态红线的洱海流域生态安全格局构建[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2018, 40(7): 85-95. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170074
引用本文: 李维佳, 马琳, 臧振华, 高健, 李俊清. 基于生态红线的洱海流域生态安全格局构建[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2018, 40(7): 85-95. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170074
Li Weijia, Ma Lin, Zang Zhenhua, Gao Jian, Li Junqing. Construction of ecological security patterns based on ecological red line in Erhai Lake Basin of southwestern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2018, 40(7): 85-95. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170074
Citation: Li Weijia, Ma Lin, Zang Zhenhua, Gao Jian, Li Junqing. Construction of ecological security patterns based on ecological red line in Erhai Lake Basin of southwestern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2018, 40(7): 85-95. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170074

基于生态红线的洱海流域生态安全格局构建

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170074
基金项目: 

环保公益性行业科研专项 201509042

详细信息
    作者简介:

    李维佳。主要研究方向:生物多样性。Email:854971234@qq.com 地址:100083北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学林学院

    责任作者:

    李俊清,教授,博士生导师。主要研究方向:生物多样性与恢复生态学。Email:lijq@bjfu.edu.cn 地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S718.5;X171.1

Construction of ecological security patterns based on ecological red line in Erhai Lake Basin of southwestern China

  • 摘要: 目的构建区域生态安全格局解决生态环境问题,是实现区域可持续发展的重要途径。生态红线是国家和区域生态安全的底线,对维护区域生态安全具有重要作用。通过构建生态安全格局,为洱海流域土地资源和生态系统管理提供科学依据。方法本研究以洱海流域为对象,通过生物多样性保护和水源涵养重要性评价的方法划定红线区;基于土地适宜性评价,将生态红线区作为生态源地,建立最小阻力模型,构建生态安全格局。结果根据生态红线具有的生态系统服务功能,将其划分成“生物多样性保护生态红线区”“生物多样性保护—水源涵养生态红线区”和“水源涵养生态红线区”3类,面积分别为81.92、656.37和536.06 km2,占研究区总面积的3.15%、25.24%和20.62%。洱海流域生态安全格局由生态源地,高、中、低3种水平缓冲区,47条生态廊道和14个生态节点构成。其中,高、中、低3种生态安全格局缓冲区,面积分别为359.88、294.9和1 945.42 km2,分别占总面积的13.84%、11.34%和74.82%。结论本研究根据土地利用/覆盖类型与生物多样性保护、水源涵养功能之间的空间对应关系,选取参评因子划定生态红线,为区域生态红线的划分提供了实践参考。根据生态红线区识别生态源地构建生态安全格局,不仅具有全面性和准确性,也为区域生态红线的划定及应用于生态安全格局的构建提供实践参考。

     

  • 图  1  各阻力因子生态保护用地扩张最小累积阻力表面

    Figure  1.  Minimum cumulative resistance surface of ecological conservation land expansion for each resistance factor

    图  2  生态用地扩张和建设用地扩张最小累积阻力面及差值表面

    Figure  2.  Minimum cumulative resistance surface and difference value surface of ecological conservation and construction land expansion

    图  3  最小累积阻力差值与栅格数目的关系

    Figure  3.  Relations between difference of minimum cumulative resistance and grid number

    图  4  生物多样性保护重要性和水源涵养重要性空间分布图

    Figure  4.  Spatial distribution of importance for biodiversity protection and water conservation

    图  5  生态红线区及其划分分布图

    Figure  5.  Ecological red line area and its classification distribution

    图  6  生态保护用地和建设用地分布图

    Figure  6.  Distribution of ecological protection land and construction land

    图  7  不同水平安全格局缓冲区、生态节点和生态廊道分布

    Figure  7.  Distribution of buffer zones with different safety scale levels, ecological nodes and ecological corridor

    图  8  洱海流域综合生态安全格局

    Figure  8.  Comprehensive ecological security pattern in Erhai Lake Basin

    表  1  生物多样性保护重要性评价分级标准

    Table  1.   Classification standard of importance evaluation of biodiversity protection

    重要性分级
    Importance level
    评价因子
    Evaluation factor
    分级赋值
    Grading assignment
    极重要
    Most important
    自然生态系统类保护区、国家级和省级保护的物种分布区域Distribution area of natural ecosystem reserve, national and provincial protected species 7
    重要
    Important
    常绿针叶林、常绿阔叶林、常绿阔叶灌木林、草甸、水库/坑塘、湖泊、河流
    Evergreen coniferous forest, evergreen broadleaved forest, evergreen broadleaved shrub forest, meadow, reservoir/swag, lake, river
    5
    比较重要
    Quite important
    草丛
    Grass
    3
    一般重要
    General important
    水田、旱地、裸地、居住地、工业用地、交通用地
    Paddy filed, dry farm, bare land, residence area, industrial land, transportation land
    1
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  生态系统水源涵养重要性评价分级标准

    Table  2.   Classification standard of importance evaluation of source of river conservation

    重要性分级
    Importance level
    评价因子
    Evaluation factor
    分级赋值
    Grading assignment
    极重要
    Most important
    水库/坑塘、湖泊、河流、常绿针叶林、常绿阔叶林
    Reservoir/swag, lake, river, evergreen coniferous forest, evergreen broadleaved forest
    7
    重要
    Important
    常绿阔叶灌木林
    Evergreen broadleaved shrub forest
    5
    比较重要
    Quite important
    草甸、草丛、水田、旱地
    Meadow, grass, paddy filed, dry farm
    3
    一般重要
    General important
    裸地、居住地、工业用地、交通用地
    Bare land, residence area, industrial land, transportation land
    1
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  景观过程阻力赋值体系

    Table  3.   Resistance assigning system of landscape process

    生态保护用地扩张阻力值
    Expansion resistance value of ecological protection land
    建设用地扩张阻力值
    Expansion resistance value of construction land
    自然因素Natural factor 社会经济因素Social economic factor
    坡度
    Slope degree/(°)
    归一化植被指数
    Normalized difference vegetation index, NDVI
    海拔
    Altitude/m
    景观类型
    Landscape type
    距水域距离
    Distance from water area/m
    距国道/省道距离
    Distance from national and provincial highway/m
    距居民点距离
    Distance from residence area/m
    1 5 >35 0.8~1 >3 500 常绿针叶林、常绿阔叶林、常绿阔叶灌木林、水库/坑塘、河流、湖泊
    Evergreen coniferous forest, evergreen broadleaved forest, evergreen broadleaved shrub forest, reservoir/swag, river, lake
    0~500 >1 200 >1 500
    2 4 25~35 0.6~0.8 3 000~3 500 水田、旱地
    Paddy filed, dry farm
    500~1 000 800~1 200 1 000~1 500
    3 3 15~25 0.4~0.6 2 500~3 000 草丛、草甸
    Grass, meadow
    1 000~2 000 400~800 500~1 000
    4 2 8~15 0.2~0.4 2 000~2 500 裸地、工业用地
    Bare land, industrial land
    2 000~3 000 200~400 200~500
    5 1 0~8 0~0.2 0~2 000 居住地、交通用地
    Residence area, transportation land
    >3 000 0~200 0~200
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  生物多样性保护和水源涵养重要性评价结果

    Table  4.   Importance evaluating results of biodiversity protection and water conservation

    重要性评价
    Importance evaluation
    生物多样性保护
    Biodiversity conservation/km2
    比例
    Proportion/%
    水源涵养
    Water conservation/km2
    比例
    Proportion/%
    1 555.750 21.373 4 153.765 5.911 6
    3 537.480 20.670 8 988.335 37.997 3
    5 888.975 34.188 8 265.680 10.214 3
    7 617.985 23.766 9 1 193.288 45.876 8
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  不同水平安全格局缓冲区分区区间

    Table  5.   Threshold range for buffer zone with different safety levels

    不同水平安全格局缓冲区
    Buffer zone with different safety scale levels
    阻力值断点区间
    Resistance breakpoint interval
    高High -4 122 103.500 00~-44 816.875 00
    中Medium -44 816.875 000~31 768.640 625
    低Low 31 768.640 625~616 675.750 00
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2017-03-10
  • 修回日期:  2018-05-16
  • 刊出日期:  2018-07-01

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