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北京市中心城社区公园使用时空差异及成因分析——基于58个公园的实证研究

李方正 戴超兰 姚朋

李方正, 戴超兰, 姚朋. 北京市中心城社区公园使用时空差异及成因分析——基于58个公园的实证研究[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2017, 39(9): 91-101. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170123
引用本文: 李方正, 戴超兰, 姚朋. 北京市中心城社区公园使用时空差异及成因分析——基于58个公园的实证研究[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2017, 39(9): 91-101. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170123
LI Fang-zheng, DAI Chao-lan, YAO Peng. Spatial-temporal pattern and causes of the use of community parks in central city of Beijing: an empirical study based on 58 parks[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2017, 39(9): 91-101. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170123
Citation: LI Fang-zheng, DAI Chao-lan, YAO Peng. Spatial-temporal pattern and causes of the use of community parks in central city of Beijing: an empirical study based on 58 parks[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2017, 39(9): 91-101. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170123

北京市中心城社区公园使用时空差异及成因分析——基于58个公园的实证研究

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170123
基金项目: 

北京林业大学科技创新计划项目 YX2015-19

国家自然科学基金项目 31670704

北京市共建项目 2015BLUREE01

详细信息
    作者简介:

    李方正,博士生。主要研究方向:城市绿地系统规划。Email:fangzhengli@bjfu.edu.cn  地址:100083  北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学园林学院

    责任作者:

    姚朋,博士,副教授。主要研究方向:风景园林规划与设计。Email:chinayp815@163.com  地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: TU986

Spatial-temporal pattern and causes of the use of community parks in central city of Beijing: an empirical study based on 58 parks

  • 摘要: 社区公园的使用存在时间与空间差异。已有很多学者对社区公园的使用情况、使用影响因素进行研究,但目前多以社区公园内部影响因素为切入点,对影响社区公园使用的外部因素的研究仍然较少,而外部因素往往会产生较大影响。本文以北京市中心城58个社区公园为研究对象,以腾讯宜出行游客签到大数据为基础,使用核密度估算分析和地理探测器的研究方法,分析社区公园使用的时空分布特征及其外部因素(步行可达性、车行可达性、人口密度及商业办公设施)的影响程度。研究表明:1)社区公园使用存在明显的时间变化规律。2)社区公园使用的空间分布呈现向中心区与东北部聚集的趋势。3)在4个外部影响因素中,步行可达性与社区公园使用关联性最强,人口密度及商业办公设施对社区公园使用的影响同样不可忽视,车行可达性对社区公园使用的影响并不显著。根据研究结果,我们建议在社区公园的建设中协调与周边用地的关系,并完善步行体系的建设。

     

  • 图  1  社区公园分布图

    Figure  1.  Distribution of community park

    图  2  北京市社区公园工作日和周末每小时平均人流量分析

    Figure  2.  Analysis on the average daily traffic of working day and weekend in Beijing community parks

    图  3  第一组社区公园工作日和周末相对活动量分析

    Figure  3.  Analysis on the relative activity of working day and weekend in the first group of community parks

    图  4  第二组社区公园工作日和周末相对活动量分析

    Figure  4.  Analysis on the relative activity of working day and weekend in the second group of community parks

    图  5  社区公园工作日游人分布

    Figure  5.  Visitor distribution of community park in working days

    图  6  社区公园周末游人分布

    Figure  6.  Visitor distribution of community park at weekend

    表  1  北京市社区公园工作日和周末日均人流量分析

    Table  1.   Analysis on daily traffic flow of working day and weekend in Beijing community parks

    人person
    公园名称
    Park name
    工作日日均相对活动量
    Daily relative activity of working days
    周末日均相对活动量
    Daily relative activity of weekend
    CBD历史人文公园CBD History Cultural Park673.482 30616.438 49
    安乐林公园Anlelin Park265.200 00406.927 73
    安贞社区公园Anzhen Community Park302.463 54489.181 70
    北辰绿色中央公园Beichen Green Center Park530.327 26704.389 73
    北小河公园Beixiaohe Park658.094 87951.896 70
    碧水风荷公园Bishui Fenghe Park186.855 84262.998 12
    菖蒲河公园Changpuhe Park3 408.602 574 927.583 56
    门城湖景区观光教育园区Education Garden of Mencheng Lake Scenic772.067 111 288.430 12
    翠城公园Cuicheng Park177.284 63306.656 19
    翠芳园Cuifang Park270.961 59288.879 26
    东四奥林匹克社区公园Dongsi Olympic Community Park526.033 35556.780 20
    芳华园Fanghua Park135.789 13226.961 32
    芳沁园Fangqin Park488.882 04724.450 44
    官园公园Guanyuan Park1 542.676 132 000.650 48
    和谐公园Hexie Park62.673 4956.378 90
    黑塔公园Heita Park763.609 571 093.433 34
    呼家楼社区公园Hujialou Community Park35.601 2239.083 07
    华凯花园Huakai Park349.536 45595.480 61
    槐房钓鱼公园Huaifangdiaoyu Park85.309 56164.024 20
    回龙园Huilong Park485.384 541 053.15 08
    金色怡人公园Jinseyiren Park443.971 47685.971 87
    劲松五区公园Jinsongwuqu Park125.039 96198.090 49
    旧宫碧海公园Jiugongbihai Park1 033.959 712 149.816 09
    立水桥公园Lishuiqiao Park1 793.847 562 071.560 74
    柳荫公园Liuyin Park1 275.833 081 913.260 62
    龙潭西湖公园Longtanxihu Park385.191 69655.815 17
    美丽园小区公园Meiliyuan Community Park115.781 03108.292 97
    南店公园Nandian Park141.353 00260.603 51
    南礼士路公园Nanlishilu Park314.503 05434.150 14
    南苑公园Nanyuan Park418.720 35761.833 80
    平房公园Pingfang Park803.976 351 237.071 37
    人定湖公园Rending Lake Park1 094.259 571 397.237 42
    融乐公园Rongle Park1 124.442 991 732.818 87
    如苑公园Ruyuan Park388.371 82662.754 91
    上地公园Shangdi Park995.515 621 385.012 62
    石各庄公园Shigezhuang Park1 210.655 161 763.226 59
    双龙公园Shuanglong Park89.344 24151.072 31
    双秀公园Shuangxiu Park491.390 99654.145 07
    双榆树公园Shuangyushu Park448.616 38670.192 35
    四季曙光公园Sijishuguang Park384.169 63434.791 89
    回龙园东区East District of Huilong Park290.400 65521.793 79
    松榆里公园Songyuli Park87.929 53136.211 02
    万寿公园Wanshou Park541.999 921 285.705 44
    望承公园Wangcheng Park697.318 22767.490 19
    望湖公园Wanghu Park1 476.997 702 211.445 89
    西山公园Xishan Park194.769 58294.997 32
    西秀园Xixiu Park121.732 31203.908 67
    希望公园Xiwang Park160.890 79294.622 72
    小天鹅公园Xiaotiane Park420.429 20623.849 30
    宣武艺园Xuanwu Park536.895 70743.451 25
    仰山公园Yangshan Park757.536 25791.783 21
    永泰社区公园Yongtai Community Park194.922 21317.826 53
    涌溪公园Yongxi Park199.836 13268.467 82
    榆树庄公园Yushuzhuang Park233.085 79302.784 65
    长春健身园Changchun Exercise Park559.376 01845.440 63
    知春公园Zhichun Park101.990 70162.040 46
    中天公园Zhongtian Park237.247 51509.951 92
    庄怡公园Zhuangyi Park596.632 17977.760 59
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  第一组社区公园1.0 km半径范围内商业办公设施用地统计

    Table  2.   Scope of the use of commercial land statistics of the first group of community park within 1.0 km radius

    m2
    名称
    Name
    商业办公设施用地面积
    Area of land for business service facilities
    立水桥公园Lishuiqiao Park24 754.490 0
    望湖公园Wanghu Park181 790.815 1
    北辰绿色中央公园Beichen Green Center Park143 885.496 2
    东四奥林匹克社区公园Dongsi Olympic Community Park660 635.557 7
    柳荫公园Liuyin Park797 558.852 5
    双榆树公园Shuangyushu Park420 052.819 5
    四季曙光公园Sijishuguang Park118 357.424 3
    南礼士路公园Nanlishilu Park410 769.884 3
    涌溪公园Yongxi Park481 165.476 5
    菖蒲河公园Changpuhe Park655 220.512 3
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  第二组社区公园1.0 km半径范围内用地统计

    Table  3.   Scope of the use of land statistics of the second group of community park within 1.0 km radius

    %
    名称
    Name
    居住区用地占比
    Ratio of land for residential areas
    商业办公设施用地占比
    Ratio of land for business services facilities
    芳沁园Fangqin Park58.045.45
    回龙园Huilong Park45.164.14
    回龙园东区East District of Huilong Park40.593.66
    劲松五区公园Jinsongwuqu Park60.423.43
    双榆树公园Shuangyushu Park43.1613.41
    松榆里公园Songyuli Park55.286.24
    万寿公园Wanshou Park58.324.06
    长春健身园Changchun Exercise Park40.325.87
    知春公园Zhichun Park45.807.89
    如苑公园Ruyuan Park31.911.76
    平房公园Pingfang Park13.041.60
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  各因素对社区公园游人空间分布的影响力(P值)

    Table  4.   P of various factors on the spatial distribution of community park visitors

    因素
    Factor
    步行可达性
    Walking accessibility
    车行可达性
    Accessibility of vehicle
    人口密度
    Population density
    商业办公设施
    Business services facility
    P0.290.150.260.23
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2017-04-07
  • 修回日期:  2017-09-03
  • 刊出日期:  2017-09-01

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