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植被过滤带水土保持和水质净化效益研究

茅超颖 王云琦 马瑞 夏妍 王婕 向靓杰 张守红

茅超颖, 王云琦, 马瑞, 夏妍, 王婕, 向靓杰, 张守红. 植被过滤带水土保持和水质净化效益研究[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2017, 39(11): 65-74. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170163
引用本文: 茅超颖, 王云琦, 马瑞, 夏妍, 王婕, 向靓杰, 张守红. 植被过滤带水土保持和水质净化效益研究[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2017, 39(11): 65-74. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170163
MAO Chao-ying, WANG Yun-qi, MA Rui, XIA Yan, WANG Jie, XIANG Liang-jie, ZHANG Shou-hong. Effects of soil and water conservation and water purification by vegetative filter strips[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2017, 39(11): 65-74. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170163
Citation: MAO Chao-ying, WANG Yun-qi, MA Rui, XIA Yan, WANG Jie, XIANG Liang-jie, ZHANG Shou-hong. Effects of soil and water conservation and water purification by vegetative filter strips[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2017, 39(11): 65-74. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170163

植被过滤带水土保持和水质净化效益研究

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170163
基金项目: 

北京林业大学大学生创新创业训练项目 201610022014

详细信息
    作者简介:

    茅超颖。主要研究方向:水土保持。Email:568702484@qq.com   地址: 100083 北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学水土保持学院

    责任作者:

    张守红,博士,副教授。主要研究方向:城市雨水控制与利用、水土保持。Email:zhangs@bjfu.edu.cn   地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S714.7

Effects of soil and water conservation and water purification by vegetative filter strips

  • 摘要: 植被过滤带是水土保持和面源污染防控的重要措施之一。本研究于2016年8月在鹫峰人工降雨大厅通过土槽植草冲刷试验,观测不同宽度和坡度的植被过滤带(高羊茅)对地表径流、总悬浮物(TSS)以及污染物(TN、TP、K)的削减效果,定量分析植被过滤带宽度、坡度及入流流量大小等因素对植被过滤带径流拦蓄、TSS拦截和水质净化效益的影响。结果表明:植被过滤带的宽度对径流拦蓄效益影响较大,宽度为1、3和5 m植被过滤带的径流削减率分别为25.9%、79.6%、79.7%;污染物(TN、TP、K)削减率随着宽度逐渐增大,分别为51.7%~92.9%、44.4%~98.8%、31.7%~97.9%;TSS削减率分别为97.6%、99.4%和77.4%。随着坡度的增加(3°、7°和10°),径流和TSS的削减率呈逐渐减小趋势。对于同一个植被过滤带而言,较小的入流流量所对应的径流和TSS削减率较大,而污染物负荷削减率较小。研究表明,植被过滤带能有效拦蓄径流、拦截悬浮固体等污染物质,具有较好水土保持和水质净化效益。

     

  • 图  1  试验装置示意图

    Figure  1.  Schematic map of the experiment

    图  2  植被过滤带不同带宽条件下的径流削减率

    Figure  2.  Runoff reduction rates of VFS with different strip widths

    图  3  植被过滤带不同坡度条件下的径流削减率

    Figure  3.  Runoff reduction rates of VFS with different slopes

    图  4  植被过滤带不同入流流量条件下的径流削减率

    Figure  4.  Runoff reduction rates of VFS under different inflow rate conditions

    图  5  植被过滤带不同带宽条件下的TSS质量浓度削减率

    Figure  5.  Reduction rate of TSS mass concentration of VFS

    图  6  植被过滤带不同坡度条件下的TSS质量浓度削减率

    Figure  6.  Reduction rate of TSS mass concentration of VFS with different slopes

    图  7  植被过滤带不同入流流量条件下的TSS质量浓度削减率

    Figure  7.  Reduction rate of TSS mass concentration of VFS under different inflow rate conditions

    图  8  植被过滤带不同带宽条件下的污染物负荷削减率

    Figure  8.  Reduction rate of pollutat load of VFS with different strip widths

    图  9  植被过滤带不同坡度条件下的污染物负荷削减率

    Figure  9.  Reduction rate of pollutat load of VFS with different slopes

    图  10  植被过滤带不同入流流量条件下的污染物负荷削减率

    Figure  10.  Reduction rate of pollutant load of VFS under different inflow rate conditions

    表  1  入流配制参数

    Table  1.   Configuration parameters of inflow pollutants

    污染元素
    Pollution
    element
    污染元素含量
    Concentration of
    pollution element/
    (g·kg-1)
    使用试剂
    Reagent
    试剂质量浓度
    Reagent mass
    concentration/
    (g·L-1)
    N 35 NH4CL 0.220 2
    P 16 KH2PO4 0.140 4
    K 20 KH2PO4 0.140 4
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  冲刷试验方案

    Table  2.   Scheme of the scouring tests

    VFS编号
    VFS No.
    流量Inflow
    rate/(L·s-1)
    坡度
    Slope /(°)
    带宽
    Strip width/m
    A1 0.22 3 1
    A2 0.11 3 1
    B1 0.22 7 1
    B2 0.11 7 1
    C1 0.22 10 1
    C2 0.11 10 1
    D1 0.22 3 3
    D2 0.11 3 3
    E1 0.22 7 3
    E2 0.11 7 3
    F1 0.22 10 3
    F2 0.11 10 3
    G1 0.22 3 5
    G2 0.11 3 5
    H1 0.22 7 5
    H2 0.11 7 5
    I1 0.22 10 5
    I2 0.11 10 5
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  测试项目方法仪器一览表

    Table  3.   List of test methods and instruments

    测试项目
    Test item
    分析方法
    Analysis method
    方法来源
    Method source
    仪器设备
    Instrument and equipment
    总悬浮物Total suspended solid (TSS) 重量法
    Gravimetric method
    PONY-BJXZSZ107-2016A 风恒温干燥箱、分析天平
    Electricthermostatic drying oven, analytical balance
    钾Potassium(K) 电感耦合等离子体发射光谱法Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry 水质-32种元素的测定Water quality-determination of 32 elements HJ 776—2015 电感耦合等离子体发射光谱仪
    ICP
    总磷Total phosphorus(TP) 钼酸铵分光光度法
    Ammonium molybdate spectrophotometric method
    水质-总磷的测定Water quality-determination of total phosphorus GB 11893—1989 紫外可见分光光度计
    Ultraviolet and visible spectrometer
    总氮Total nitrogen(TN) 碱性过硫酸钾消解紫外分光光度法Alkaline potassium persulfate digestion-UV spectrophotometric 水质-总氮的测定Water quality- determination of total nitrogen HJ 636—2012 紫外可见分光光度计
    Ultraviolet and visible spectrometer
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  植被过滤带在不同条件下的径流拦蓄效益

    Table  4.   Runoff reduction effect of VFS under different experimental conditions

    VFS编号
    VFS No.
    流量
    Inflow rate/
    (L·s-1)
    坡度
    Slope/
    (°)
    带宽
    Strip
    width/m
    径流削减率
    Runoff reduction
    rate/%
    A1 0.22 3 1 37.27
    A2 0.11 3 1 17.50
    B1 0.22 7 1 24.00
    B2 0.11 7 1 30.71
    C1 0.22 10 1 30.83
    C2 0.11 10 1 15.00
    D1 0.22 3 3 71.40
    D2 0.11 3 3 83.33
    E1 0.22 7 3 58.21
    E2 0.11 7 3 52.86
    F1 0.22 10 3 63.32
    F2 0.11 10 3 88.57
    G1 0.22 3 5 79.22
    G2 0.11 3 5 81.26
    H1 0.22 7 5 87.78
    H2 0.11 7 5 90.79
    I1 0.22 10 5 80.54
    I2 0.11 10 5 60.22
    平均Mean 58.49
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  植被过滤带在不同条件下的悬浮固体拦截效益

    Table  5.   Suspended solid removing effects of VFS under different experimental conditions

    VFS编号
    VFS No.
    流量
    Inflow rate/
    (L·s-1)
    坡度
    Slope/
    (°)
    带宽
    Strip
    width/m
    TSS质量
    浓度削减率
    Reduction rate of TSS mass
    concentration/%
    A1 0.22 3 1 91.44
    A2 0.11 3 1 96.59
    B1 0.22 7 1 99.44
    B2 0.11 7 1 99.44
    C1 0.22 10 1 99.44
    C2 0.11 10 1 99.44
    D1 0.22 3 3 99.44
    D2 0.11 3 3 99.44
    E1 0.22 7 3 99.44
    E2 0.11 7 3 99.44
    F1 0.22 10 3 99.44
    F2 0.11 10 3 99.44
    G1 0.22 3 5 96.25
    G2 0.11 3 5 89.67
    H1 0.22 7 5 80.70
    H2 0.11 7 5 97.54
    I1 0.22 10 5 99.44
    I2 0.11 10 5 64.71
    平均Mean 95.04
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  植被过滤带在不同条件下的水质净化效益

    Table  6.   Water purification effects of VFS under different experimental conditions

    VFS编号
    VFS No.
    流量
    Inflow rate/
    (L·s-1)
    坡度
    Slope/(°)
    带宽
    Strip
    width/m
    TN负荷削减率
    Reduction rate
    of TN load/%
    TP负荷削减率
    Reduction rate
    of TP load/%
    K负荷削减率
    Removing efficiency
    of K load/%
    A1 0.22 3 1 55.99 39.00 35.11
    A2 0.11 3 1 36.19 21.49 13.68
    B1 0.22 7 1 52.76 29.09 22.89
    B2 0.11 7 1 50.24 33.90 31.51
    C1 0.22 10 1 52.62 36.77 35.41
    C2 0.11 10 1 62.27 57.48 51.82
    D1 0.22 3 3 90.65 92.32 90.83
    D2 0.11 3 3 86.16 92.55 91.33
    E1 0.22 7 3 84.11 81.57 81.65
    E2 0.11 7 3 87.32 96.60 94.08
    F1 0.22 10 3 87.37 86.37 83.82
    F2 0.11 10 3 94.92 99.63 98.74
    G1 0.22 3 5 92.54 95.90 95.70
    G2 0.11 3 5 91.23 94.36 92.17
    H1 0.22 7 5 95.26 99.79 99.18
    H2 0.11 7 5 96.98 99.90 99.29
    I1 0.22 10 5 93.21 99.62 98.59
    I2 0.11 10 5 86.32 98.84 96.76
    平均Mean 77.56 75.29 72.92
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2017-05-03
  • 修回日期:  2017-07-31
  • 刊出日期:  2017-11-01

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