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长江流域不同类型山洪灾害易发区划分

周建琴 庞占龙 蔡强国 余新晓 张克斌 孙莉英

周建琴, 庞占龙, 蔡强国, 余新晓, 张克斌, 孙莉英. 长江流域不同类型山洪灾害易发区划分[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2017, 39(11): 56-64. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170169
引用本文: 周建琴, 庞占龙, 蔡强国, 余新晓, 张克斌, 孙莉英. 长江流域不同类型山洪灾害易发区划分[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2017, 39(11): 56-64. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170169
ZHOU Jian-qin, PANG Zhan-long, CAI Qiang-guo, YU Xin-xiao, ZHANG Ke-bin, SUN Li-ying. Susceptibility zoning of different types of mountain torrent disasters in the Yangtze River Basin of sourthern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2017, 39(11): 56-64. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170169
Citation: ZHOU Jian-qin, PANG Zhan-long, CAI Qiang-guo, YU Xin-xiao, ZHANG Ke-bin, SUN Li-ying. Susceptibility zoning of different types of mountain torrent disasters in the Yangtze River Basin of sourthern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2017, 39(11): 56-64. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170169

长江流域不同类型山洪灾害易发区划分

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170169
基金项目: 

水利部公益性行业科研专项 201301059

长江水利委员会长江科学院开放研究基金 CKWV2015227/KY

详细信息
    作者简介:

    周建琴。主要研究方向:水土保持、自然灾害理论与分析。Email: 289889475@qq.com  地址:100083  北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学水土保持学院

    责任作者:

    孙莉英,博士,副研究员。主要研究方向:水沙环境风险分析与控制。Email: sunliying@igsnrr.ac.cn  地址:100101  北京市朝阳区大屯路甲11号中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所

  • 中图分类号: X43

Susceptibility zoning of different types of mountain torrent disasters in the Yangtze River Basin of sourthern China

  • 摘要: 长江流域因其复杂的地质地貌及气候条件成为我国山洪灾害发生最为密集的地区。山洪灾害易发区划分是山洪灾害防治工作的重要内容,针对长江流域大尺度(跨省级)区域的山洪灾害易发性研究可为长江流域及相似区域的山洪灾害评价研究以及规划、部署、实施山洪灾害防治工作提供科学依据。本文综合考虑影响山洪灾害形成的自然地理因素,以县域为评价单元,构建各类山洪灾害易发程度指标体系,基于Matlab,采用层次分析法计算各类山洪灾害易发性指数。据此,利用ArcGIS自然间距分类方案将长江流域划分为4个山洪灾害易发区,即高易发区、中易发区、低易发区和非防治区。结果表明:溪河洪水灾害呈现由东向西灾害易发程度逐渐降低的趋势,分布较为密集的区域在流域的中东部地区;滑坡灾害高易发区主要分布在流域中部,上游干流附近滇北和陇南山地,尤以四川盆地以东地区最为集中;泥石流灾害高易发区主要分布在流域西部,其中以断裂带发育的第一、二阶梯过渡带最为密集。划分结果显示各类山洪灾害在流域内的分布差异较为明显,不同类型山洪灾害的历史发生次数在高易发区的集中程度均在80%以上,表明分区结果能够较好反映各灾害的区域分布特征。

     

  • 图  1  长江流域地理位置图

    Figure  1.  Geographical location map of Yangtze River Basin

    图  2  长江流域地势及水系图

    Figure  2.  Land and drainage map of the Yangtze River Basin

    图  3  溪河洪水易发性评价指标体系

    Figure  3.  Assessment indices of susceptibility on landslide induced by river floods

    图  4  滑坡易发性评价指标体系

    Figure  4.  Assessment indices of susceptibility on landslide induced by river floods

    图  5  泥石流易发性评价体系

    Figure  5.  Evaluation system of susceptibility on debris flow induced by river floods

    图  6  溪河洪水灾害易发区分布图

    Figure  6.  Distribution diagram of susceptibility on river flood disaster

    图  7  滑坡灾害易发程度分布图

    Figure  7.  Distribution diagram of susceptibility on landslide disaster induced by river floods

    图  8  泥石流灾害易发程度分布

    Figure  8.  Distribution diagram of susceptibility on debris flow disaster induced by river floods

    表  1  指标数据来源和提取方法

    Table  1.   Data sources and index extraction methods

    指标Index 数据Data 来源Source 获取方法Extraction method
    降雨
    Rainfall
    暴雨频率
    Rainstorm frequency
    国家气象台站台数据
    Data of national meteorological station
    皮尔逊Ⅲ法
    Pearson method
    下垫面
    Underlying
    surface
    平均高差
    Average elevation difference
    地理空间数据云平台
    Geospatial data cloud platform
    ArcGIS邻域分析
    ArcGIS neighboring analysis
    ≥15°坡度百分比
    Percentage of slope greater than 15°
    国际科学数据服务平台下载国家90 m分辨率DEM数据
    Download DEM data of 90 metre resolution on international scientific data service platform
    ArcGIS表面分析、区域分析功能
    Surface analysis and regional analysis function of ArcGIS
    河网密度
    Drainage density
    国际科学数据服务平台下载
    Download from international scientific data service platform
    ArcGIS水文分析功能
    Hydrologic analysis function of ArcGIS
    植被指数
    Vegetation index
    地理空间数据云网站下载中国1 km NDVI月合成产品(TERRA星)
    Download China one kilometer NDVI month synthetic product of China on geospatial data cloud website
    2010年4—9月NDVI数据,ArcGIS栅格计算器、区域分析功能
    The data of NDVI from April to September, 2010, the grid calculator and regional analysis function of ArcGIS
    断裂带密度
    Active fault density
    1:250万中国地质图
    Geological map of China of 1:2.5 million
    ArcGIS空间联合功能
    Space joint function of ArcGIS
    土壤可蚀性指数
    Soil erodibility index
    长江流域土壤类型图、土壤可蚀性因子空间分布图
    Soil type map of the Yangtze River Basin, space distribution of the soil corrosion factors
    ArcGIS叠加计算
    Superposition calculation of ArcGIS
    岩性指数
    Lithological index
    全国岩性分区图
    The map of national lithologic partition
    提取长江流域岩性图
    Extracing tlithologic map of the Yangtze River Basin
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  各类型山洪灾害影响因素排序结果

    Table  2.   Sequencing of influencing factors of three kinds of mountain torrent hazards

    排序
    Sequencing
    影响因素Influencing factor
    溪河洪水River flood 滑坡Landslide 泥石流Debris flow
    1 暴雨频率Rainstorm frequency 平均高差Average elevation difference 坡度百分比Percentage of slope
    2 植被指数Vegetation index 坡度百分比Percentage of slope 平均高差Average elevation difference
    3 坡度百分比Percentage of slope 植被指数Vegetation index 植被指数Vegetation index
    4 平均高差Average elevation difference 断裂带密度Active fault density 断裂带密度Active fault density
    5 河网密度Drainage density 暴雨频率Rainstorm frequency 暴雨频率Rainstorm frequency
    6 岩性指数Lithological index 岩性指数Lithological index
    7 河网密度Drainage density 土壤可蚀性指数Soil erodibility index
    8 河网密度Drainage density
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  评价指标权重表

    Table  3.   Weights of assessment indices

    指标Index 权重Weight
    溪河洪水River flood 滑坡Landslide 泥石流Debris flow
    暴雨频率Rainstorm frequency 0.49 0.11 0.09
    平均高差Average elevation difference 0.10 0.24 0.19
    ≥15°坡度百分比Percentage of slope greater than 15° 0.15 0.20 0.20
    河网密度Drainage density 0.06 0.03 0.07
    植被指数Vegetation index 0.20 0.17 0.15
    断裂带密度Active fault density 0.15 0.12
    岩性指数Lithological index 0.10 0.08
    土壤可蚀性指数Soil erodibility index 0.08
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  各易发区内不同类型山洪灾害历史次数统计

    Table  4.   Statistics about historical disaster of different types of mountain torrent hazards in each susceptible area

    灾害类型
    Disaster type
    分区类型
    Zoning type
    灾害次数
    Disaster number
    百分比
    Percentage/%
    溪河洪水River flood 低易发区(非防治区)Lowly-susceptible area(insusceptible area) 1 985 5.66
    中易发区Medium-susceptible area 4 976 14.19
    高易发区Highly-susceptible area 28 107 80.15
    滑坡Landslide 低易发区(非防治区)Lowly-susceptible area(insusceptible area) 137 1.67
    中易发区Medium-susceptible area 1 032 12.62
    高易发区Highly-susceptible area 7 012 85.71
    泥石流Debris flow 低易发区(非防治区)Lowly-susceptible area(insusceptible area) 75 1.09
    中易发区Medium-susceptible area 849 12.41
    高易发区Highly-susceptible area 5 921 86.5
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2017-05-08
  • 修回日期:  2017-07-30
  • 刊出日期:  2017-11-01

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