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青海高寒区不同密度白桦林枯落物水文效应

刘凯 贺康宁 王先棒

刘凯, 贺康宁, 王先棒. 青海高寒区不同密度白桦林枯落物水文效应[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2018, 40(1): 89-97. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170225
引用本文: 刘凯, 贺康宁, 王先棒. 青海高寒区不同密度白桦林枯落物水文效应[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2018, 40(1): 89-97. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170225
Liu Kai, He Kang-ning, Wang Xian-bang. Hydrological effects of litter of Betula platyphylla forest with different densities in alpine region, Qinghai of northwestern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2018, 40(1): 89-97. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170225
Citation: Liu Kai, He Kang-ning, Wang Xian-bang. Hydrological effects of litter of Betula platyphylla forest with different densities in alpine region, Qinghai of northwestern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2018, 40(1): 89-97. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170225

青海高寒区不同密度白桦林枯落物水文效应

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170225
基金项目: 

国家科技支撑计划 2015BAD07B030302

详细信息
    作者简介:

    刘凯。主要研究方向:林业生态工程。Email:junminxianghuan@163.com 地址:100083北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学水土保持学院

    责任作者:

    贺康宁,教授,博士生导师。主要研究方向:水土保持、林业生态工程。Email:hkn@bjfu.edu.cn 地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S715.7

Hydrological effects of litter of Betula platyphylla forest with different densities in alpine region, Qinghai of northwestern China

  • 摘要: 目的定量研究青海高寒区不同密度白桦林枯落物的水文效应,为该区白桦林的营造、配置及水文功能管理等提供理论依据。方法于2016年7—8月对青海省大通县宝库林区进行了调查。每种密度白桦林选择3块样地,林龄均为22~24年, 测定了5种密度(225、500、688、900、1 220株/hm2)白桦林的枯落物厚度、蓄积量、最大持水率等指标,并用浸泡法来研究枯落物持水量与浸水时间的关系、吸水速率与浸水时间的关系。结果5种林分密度的枯落物厚度、蓄积量、持水能力有明显差异:(1)5种密度林分(按225、500、688、900、1 220株/hm2排序)枯落物厚度分别为4.51、4.64、5.30、6.10、5.35 cm,枯落物蓄积量分别为11.22、13.54、15.33、17.86、15.86 t/hm2,最大持水率分别为227.91%、214.40%、215.44%、236.81%、221.70%。(2)枯落物最大持水量、有效拦蓄量排序均为900株/hm2>1 220株/hm2>688株/hm2>500株/hm2>225株/hm2。(3)枯落物持水量和浸泡时间的关系与对数函数拟合较好,回归系数R2达0.90以上,吸水速率和浸泡时间的关系与幂函数拟合较好,回归系数R2达0.99以上。结论林分密度在900株/hm2时,枯落物蓄积量、最大持水量、有效拦蓄量均达到最大,枯落物水源涵养作用达到最优。所以从枯落物的水文效应角度来考虑,密度为900株/hm2时,枯落物的水文效应最佳。

     

  • 图  1  不同密度白桦林未分解层和半分解层枯落物持水量与浸泡时间的关系

    Figure  1.  Relationship between water-holding capacity and soaking time of litter in undecomposed and semi-decomposed layers from Betula platyphylla with different densities

    图  2  不同密度白桦林未分解层和半分解层枯落物吸水速率与浸泡时间的关系

    Figure  2.  Relationship between water absorption rate and soaking time of litter in undecomposed and semi-decomposed layers from Betula platyphylla with different densities

    表  1  不同密度林分标准地基本特征

    Table  1.   Basic features of different density stands

    样地编号
    Plot No.
    林分密度/
    (株·hm-2)
    Stand density/
    (tree·ha-1)
    海拔
    Altitude/m
    坡度
    Slope/(°)
    郁闭度
    Canopy
    density
    枝下高
    Under branch
    height/m
    平均树高
    Average tree
    height/m
    平均胸径
    Average
    DBH/cm
    平均冠幅
    Average crown
    width/m
    叶面积指数
    Leaf area
    index
    12252 882350.500.88.414.03.63.09
    22252 862390.550.78.613.73.83.22
    32252 890370.530.68.213.63.93.12
    45002 800360.550.813.222.54.13.13
    55002 835320.650.812.220.54.23.15
    65002 865300.650.713.721.73.93.22
    76882 880280.700.816.221.54.53.32
    86882 860320.750.615.020.54.33.42
    96882 890300.700.716.322.04.73.05
    109002 877280.700.514.819.24.83.40
    119002 835350.750.715.820.24.63.35
    129002 890340.800.915.021.55.13.09
    131 2202 980280.800.715.520.54.23.40
    141 2202 930290.850.815.019.33.83.30
    151 2202 900310.850.915.220.53.93.06
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同密度白桦林枯落物厚度与蓄积量

    Table  2.   Thickness and storage of the litter of Betula platyphylla with different densities

    林分密度/
    (株·hm-2)
    Stand density/
    (tree·ha-1)
    厚度
    Thickness/cm
    蓄积量/(t·hm-2)
    Volume/(t·ha-1)
    蓄积量比例
    Percentage of volume/%
    未分解层
    Undecomposed
    layer
    半分解层
    Semi-decomposed
    layer
    总计
    Total
    未分解层
    Undecomposed
    layer
    半分解层
    Semi-decomposed
    layer
    总计
    Total
    未分解层
    Undecomp-
    osed layer
    半分解层
    Semi-decomp-
    osed layer
    2250.89±0.17a3.62±0.22b4.51±0.31a3.42±0.13a7.80±0.14a11.22±0.13a30.4869.52
    5000.92±0.14a3.72±0.10ab4.64±0.15a5.49±0.12b8.05±0.13b13.54±0.23b40.5559.45
    6881.50±0.24b3.80±0.09a5.30±0.21b6.78±0.15c8.55±0.12c15.33±0.23c44.2355.77
    9001.90±0.19c4.20±0.13c6.10±0.22c8.76±0.15d9.10±0.12d17.86±0.22d49.0550.95
    1 2201.60±0.22b3.75±0.09a5.35±0.28b7.50±0.08e8.36±0.07e15.86±0.13e47.2952.71
    注:不同字母表示不同林分密度间枯落物厚度和蓄积量的均值差异显著(P < 0.05)。Note:the data with different letters indicate that they have significant differences at P < 0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同密度白桦林的枯落物持水特性

    Table  3.   Water-holding characteristics of the litter of Betula platyphylla with different densities

    林分密度/
    (株·hm-2)
    Stand density/
    (tree·ha-1)
    最大持水率
    Maximum water-holding rate/%
    最大持水量/(t · hm-2)
    Maximum water-holding capacity/(t·ha-1)
    最大持水深
    Maximum water-holding depth/mm
    未分解层
    Undecomposed
    layer
    半分解层Semi-
    decomposed
    layer
    平均
    Average
    未分解层
    Undecomposed
    layer
    半分解层Semi-
    decomposed
    layer
    总计
    Total
    未分解层
    Undecomposed
    layer
    半分解层Semi-
    decomposed
    layer
    总计
    Total
    225210.72245.10227.917.2119.1226.330.721.912.63
    500190.70238.10214.4010.4719.1729.641.051.922.97
    688200.52230.36215.4413.5919.7033.291.361.973.33
    900228.76244.86236.8120.0422.2842.322.002.234.23
    1 220212.80230.59221.7015.9619.2835.241.601.933.53
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  不同密度白桦林枯落物持水量、吸水速率与浸泡时间的关系

    Table  4.   Relationship between water-holding capacity, water absorption rate and soaking time of Betula platyphylla with different densities

    枯落物层
    Litter layer
    林分密度/
    (株·hm-2)
    Stand density/
    (tree·ha-1)
    持水量与浸泡时间
    Relationship between water-holding
    capacity and soaking time
    吸水速率与浸泡时间
    Relationship between water
    absorption rate and soaking time
    关系式RelationR2关系式RelationR2
    225Y=0.999 8lnt+3.958 90.901 9V=4.015 2t-0.8140.995 3
    500Y=1.313 0lnt+6.754 60.969 4V=5.711 0t-0.7730.995 4
    未分解层Undecomposed layer688Y=1.693 3lnt+8.606 90.948 2V=6.789 1t-0.7430.996 3
    900Y=2.593 3lnt+11.961 00.901 6V=8.789 6t-0.7020.994 5
    1 220Y=1.984 1lnt+9.987 10.936 0V=7.697 1t-0.7330.995 9
    225Y=3.017 0lnt+10.5710.944 7V=9.194 3t-0.7300.993 8
    500Y=1.932 9lnt+13.5650.948 8V=10.139 0t-0.7580.993 4
    半分解层Semi-decomposed layer688Y=1.773 3lnt+14.3430.961 7V=10.897 0t-0.7790.994 9
    900Y=2.255 6lnt+15.4480.965 0V=11.694 0t-0.7610.994 5
    1 220Y=1.900 0lnt+14.0940.950 3V=11.086 0t-0.7850.992 7
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  不同密度白桦林枯落物的有效拦蓄量

    Table  5.   Modified interception amount of the litter of Betula platyphylla with different densities


    枯落物层
    Litter layer
    林分密度/
    (株·hm-2)
    Stand density/
    (tree·ha-1)
    自然含水率
    Natural moisture
    rate/%
    最大拦蓄量/
    (t·hm-2)
    Maximum
    interception
    amount/(t·ha-1)
    有效拦蓄量/
    (t·hm-2)
    Effective
    interception
    amount/(t·ha-1)
    最大拦蓄率
    Maximum
    interception
    rate/%
    有效拦蓄率
    Effective
    interception
    rate/%
    22562.345.073.99148.25116.67
    50070.526.605.03120.2291.62
    未分解层Undecomposed layer68879.528.206.16120.9490.86
    90085.6212.549.53143.15108.79
    1 22084.639.617.22128.1396.27
    225135.548.555.68109.6272.82
    500123.609.226.34114.5378.76
    半分解层Semi-decomposed layer688102.1210.968.01128.1993.68
    900101.0813.089.74143.74107.03
    1 220101.3010.817.92129.3194.74
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2017-06-26
  • 修回日期:  2017-09-25
  • 刊出日期:  2018-01-01

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