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鲜海带生物酶解有机液肥对沙木蓼生长和土壤理化性质的影响

李惋瑾 王若水 肖辉杰 王百田 张克斌 刘青青 郭冰寒

李惋瑾, 王若水, 肖辉杰, 王百田, 张克斌, 刘青青, 郭冰寒. 鲜海带生物酶解有机液肥对沙木蓼生长和土壤理化性质的影响[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2018, 40(7): 62-72. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170269
引用本文: 李惋瑾, 王若水, 肖辉杰, 王百田, 张克斌, 刘青青, 郭冰寒. 鲜海带生物酶解有机液肥对沙木蓼生长和土壤理化性质的影响[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2018, 40(7): 62-72. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170269
Li Wanjin, Wang Ruoshui, Xiao Huijie, Wang Baitian, Zhang Kebin, Liu Qingqing, Guo Binghan. Effects of fresh seaweed bio-enzymatic organic fertilizer on the growth and soil physicochemical properties of Atraphaxis bracteata[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2018, 40(7): 62-72. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170269
Citation: Li Wanjin, Wang Ruoshui, Xiao Huijie, Wang Baitian, Zhang Kebin, Liu Qingqing, Guo Binghan. Effects of fresh seaweed bio-enzymatic organic fertilizer on the growth and soil physicochemical properties of Atraphaxis bracteata[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2018, 40(7): 62-72. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170269

鲜海带生物酶解有机液肥对沙木蓼生长和土壤理化性质的影响

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170269
基金项目: 

基于荒漠化防治和盐碱地改良的海藻肥施用技术 2016HXFWSBXY002

林业公益性行业科研专项 201504402-3

详细信息
    作者简介:

    李惋瑾。主要研究方向:荒漠化防治。Email:1429634479@qq.com 地址:100083北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学水土保持学院

    责任作者:

    肖辉杰,博士,副教授。主要研究方向:林业生态、森林水文、盐碱地治理。Email:herr_xiao@hotmail.com 地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S728.4

Effects of fresh seaweed bio-enzymatic organic fertilizer on the growth and soil physicochemical properties of Atraphaxis bracteata

  • 摘要: 目的为提高荒漠沙地植被的存活率和覆盖度,本文以毛乌素沙地西南缘的沙木蓼为研究对象,通过施用鲜海带生物酶解有机液肥,研究其对沙地土壤理化性质和沙木蓼生长及群落物种多样性的影响。方法采用不同梯度的鲜海带生物酶解有机液肥对沙木蓼进行1年的试验,利用土壤水分测定仪测量土壤含水率,凯氏定氮法测定土壤全氮含量,重铬酸钾滴定法测定土壤有机质含量,公式法计算群落物种多样性。结果(1) 该有机液肥有效地增加了土壤0~10 cm层的含水率,且施用冲施肥研究区的土壤含水率较叶面肥研究区的高10.6%。(2)土壤0~20 cm层的全氮和有机质的含量随着施肥量的增加而增加,并在施肥量为15 mL/m2时,达到最高,与对照间差异显著(P < 0.05),且叶面肥处理的有机质含量远高于冲施肥。(3)该有机液肥有效地促进了沙木蓼的生长,沙木蓼地径、株高和新梢增长量均随着施肥量增加而呈先增加后减小的趋势,在施肥量为6 mL/m2时达到最大,与对照差异显著(P < 0.05),且冲施肥的效果要比叶面肥更优。(4)该有机液肥增加了沙木蓼群落的物种组成、Margalef物种丰富度指数、Simpson优势度指数和Shannon-Wiener多样性指数。结论鲜海带生物酶解有机液肥能够增加毛乌素沙地土壤水分与养分的含量,促进沙木蓼的生长,有助于毛乌素沙地植被的恢复,更好地发挥其生态效益。

     

  • 图  1  试验小区布设图

    CK.对照组;Y.叶面肥;C.冲施肥。数字表示肥料用量,单位为mL/m2

    Figure  1.  Layout of experimental plots

    CK, control; Y, foliar fertilizer; C, flush fertilizer. The numbers represent the amount of fertilizer, the unit is mL/m2.

    图  2  2016年7—8月降雨量与土壤蒸发量

    Figure  2.  Rainfall and soil evaporation during July to August in 2016

    图  3  冲施肥对沙木蓼土壤含水率的影响

    不同字母表示处理间差异显著(P<0.05)。下同。

    Figure  3.  Effects of flush fertilizer on the soil water content of Atraphaxis bracteata

    Different letters indicate significant difference among treatments at P < 0.05 level. The same below.

    图  4  叶面肥对沙木蓼土壤含水率的影响

    Figure  4.  Effects of foliar fertilizer on soil water content of Atraphaxis bracteata

    图  5  施肥对土壤全氮的影响

    Figure  5.  Effects of fertilization on soil total nitrogen

    图  6  施肥对土壤有机质的影响

    Figure  6.  Effects of fertilization on soil organic matter

    图  7  施肥对沙木蓼地径增长量的影响

    Figure  7.  Effects of fertilization on the growth of ground diameter of Atraphaxis bracteata

    图  8  施肥对沙木蓼株高增长量的影响

    Figure  8.  Effects of fertilization on the tree height increment of Atraphaxis bracteata

    图  9  施肥对沙木蓼新梢生长的影响

    Figure  9.  Effects of fertilization on the growth of Atraphaxis bracteata new shoots

    9  施肥对沙木蓼群落物种多样性的影响

    不同字母表示处理间差异显著(P<0.05)。

    9.  Effects of fertilization on the species diversity of Atraphaxis bracteata

    Different letters indicate significant difference among treatments at P < 0.05 level.

    表  1  沙木蓼地径与株高的原始值分析

    Table  1.   Analysis on original values of ground diameter and tree height of Atraphaxis bracteata

    cm
    施肥处理
    Fertilization treatment
    植物指标
    Plant index
    肥料用量Fertilizing amount
    0 3 mL/m2 6 mL/m2 9 mL/m2 12 mL/m2 15 mL/m2
    冲施肥Flush fertilizer 地径Ground diameter 0.50a 0.49a 0.53a 0.54a 0.57a 0.53a
    株高Plant height 104.87a 103.87a 119.67a 104.93a 106.40a 104.93a
    叶面肥Foliar fertilizer 地径Ground diameter 0.50a 0.53a 0.49a 0.54a 0.56a 0.55a
    株高Plant height 104.87a 103.33a 100.33a 108.73a 108.60a 104.67a
    注:不同小写字母表示不同处理之间差异显著(P>0.05)。Note: different lowercases mean significant difference among varied treatments at P>0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  鲜海带生物酶解有机液肥主要成分

    Table  2.   Main ingredients of fresh seaweed bio-enzymatic liquid organic fertilizer

    液肥
    Liquid fertilizer
    主要成分
    Main component
    叶面肥
    Foliar fertilizer
    海带酶解液、海藻多糖、海藻蛋白、甘露醇、甜菜碱、赤霉素、吲哚乙酸、脱落酸、氨基酸等Kelp hydrolysate, seaweed polysaccharide, seaweed protein, mannitol, betaine, gibberellin, indoleacetic acid, abscisic acid, amino acid, etc
    冲施肥
    Flush fertilizer
    海带纤维、有机质、海藻多糖、吲哚乙酸、海藻蛋白、甘露醇、甜菜碱等Kelp fiber, organic matter, seaweed polysaccharide, indoleacetic acid, seaweed protein, mannitol, betaine, etc
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  小区施肥用量

    Table  3.   Fertilizing amount in 3 plots

    肥料用量
    Fertilizing amount/(mL·m-2)
    小区肥料用量
    Community fertilizing amount/mL
    小区用水量
    Community water consumption/mL
    小区补水量
    Community water recharge/mL
    0 0 27 000 0
    3 27 5 400 21 600
    6 54 10 800 16 200
    9 81 16 200 10 800
    12 108 21 600 5 400
    15 135 27 000 0
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  不同梯度冲施肥处理的物种相对丰度

    Table  4.   Relative abundance of species in different gradient treatments of flush fertilizer

    物种名称Species name CK 3 mL/m2 6 mL/m2 9 mL/m2 12 mL/m2 15 mL/m2
    杨柴Hedysarum fruticosum 44.84 23.88 22.09 19.06 16.08 14.53
    白蒿Artimisiae sphaerocephala 25.82 21.70 0 6.36 22.99 39.40
    油蒿Artemisia ordosica 20.92 9.20 0 10.00 0 0
    冰草Agropyron cristatum 8.42 0 22.42 24.57 0 9.53
    芦苇Phragmites australis 0 14.48 6.30 0 0 12.15
    狗尾草Setaria viridis 0 17.70 19.76 18.66 15.54 12.37
    砂蓝刺头Echinops gmelini 0 13.49 0 0 0 6.36
    沙蓬Agriophyllum squarrosum 0 14.56 5.39 0 0 0
    角蒿Incarvillea sinensis 0 0 0 0 4.53 0
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  不同梯度叶面肥处理的物种相对丰度

    Table  5.   Relative abundance of species in different gradient treatments of foliar fertilizer

    物种名称Species name CK 2 mL/m2 4 mL/m2 6 mL/m2 8 mL/m2 10 mL/m2
    杨柴Hedysarum fruticosum 58.33 29.67 15.06 18.62 13.47 12.75
    白蒿Artimisiae sphaerocephala 0 34.71 7.10 31.36 27.99 19.52
    油蒿Artemisia ordosica 41.67 6.56 8.87 23.11 11.92 17.27
    冰草Agropyron cristatum 0 24.56 21.89 21.07 22.57 16.53
    芦苇Phragmites australias 0 0 12.32 0 6.57 12.52
    狗尾草Setaria viridis 0 9.56 11.42 14.18 15.94 7.28
    针茅Stipa capillata 0 0 10.59 0 0 6.40
    花棒Hedysarum scoparium 0 0 0 10.61 0 0
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2017-07-26
  • 修回日期:  2018-01-23
  • 刊出日期:  2018-07-01

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