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苦楝种源间生长性状的早期地理变异分析

何霞 邓成 杨嘉麒 张登 张梦洁 廖柏勇 王芳 陈晓阳

何霞, 邓成, 杨嘉麒, 张登, 张梦洁, 廖柏勇, 王芳, 陈晓阳. 苦楝种源间生长性状的早期地理变异分析[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2018, 40(7): 45-54. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170321
引用本文: 何霞, 邓成, 杨嘉麒, 张登, 张梦洁, 廖柏勇, 王芳, 陈晓阳. 苦楝种源间生长性状的早期地理变异分析[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2018, 40(7): 45-54. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170321
He Xia, Deng Cheng, Yang Jiaqi, Zhang Deng, Zhang Mengjie, Liao Boyong, Wang Fang, Chen Xiaoyang. Geographic variation of growth traits in early stage for Melia azedarach among different provenances[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2018, 40(7): 45-54. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170321
Citation: He Xia, Deng Cheng, Yang Jiaqi, Zhang Deng, Zhang Mengjie, Liao Boyong, Wang Fang, Chen Xiaoyang. Geographic variation of growth traits in early stage for Melia azedarach among different provenances[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2018, 40(7): 45-54. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170321

苦楝种源间生长性状的早期地理变异分析

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170321
基金项目: 

广东省林业科技创新项目 2011KJCX002

详细信息
    作者简介:

    何霞。主要研究方向:林木遗传育种。Email:416080525@qq.com 地址: 510642广东省广州市天河区五山华南农业大学林学与风景园林学院

    责任作者:

    陈晓阳,教授,博士生导师。主要研究方向:林木良种选育与生物技术。Email:xychen@scau.edu.com 地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S722.3

Geographic variation of growth traits in early stage for Melia azedarach among different provenances

  • 摘要: 目的研究苦楝种源间生长性状的差异,揭示其地理变异规律,分析其气候生态学基础,为苦楝种子调拨提供理论依据,为广东省营造苦楝速生用材林提供技术参考。方法对15个省(自治区)的62个种源的树高、胸径、枝下高、干型、冠幅等6个性状进行观测统计,采用SPSS 20.0、SAS 9.0、Surfer 13.0与EXCEL 2011等数据分析软件对观测数据进行描述性统计分析、方差分析、Pearson相关分析、典型相关分析与趋势面分析。结果大部分苦楝种源在四会试验点的生长表现较好,且各性状在种源内及种源间均存在显著或极显著差异,其中冠幅的变幅最大,优劣单株相差23倍,在主要性状树高与胸径的表现上也分别相差8倍与12倍。苦楝的地理变异受纬度、经度和海拔的多重控制,以纬向变异为主,并具有一定的气候生态学基础,温度是制约苦楝生长的主导因子,光照、降水、气压等气候因子对苦楝各性状也有着不同程度的影响。聚类分析将62个种源分为5类,类别之间差异明显,类别之中符合物候区划。结论苦楝在种源间的变异存在明显的地理变异模式,由东向西,由北向南,苦楝的生长量变大,形质表现变佳,随着海拔上升,保存率下降。气候生态学基础则表现为来自极端气温与气压温和、温度高、降水多的种源更具生长优势。纬度是引起温度变化的主要因素,所以纬向变异这一模式与温度随纬度增加而递减这一规律密切相关。本研究后续将对四会种源试验林进行长期跟踪观测,并辅以分子遗传学分析,更全面探索苦楝地理变异规律。

     

  • 图  1  苦楝采种点分布图

    Figure  1.  Distribution of seed collected sites

    图  2  树高与经纬度趋势面图

    Figure  2.  Trend surface diagram of tree height and longitude as well as latitude

    图  3  胸径与经纬度趋势面图

    Figure  3.  Trend surface diagram of DBH and longitude as well as latitude

    图  4  62个种源聚类分析结果

    Figure  4.  Cluster analysis of 62 provenances

    表  1  苦楝各种源编号及海拔

    Table  1.   No. and elevation of Melia azedarach provenances

    编号No. 种源地Provenance 海拔Elevation/m 编号No. 种源地Provenance 海拔Elevation/m 编号No. 种源地Provenance 海拔Elevation/m
    101 福建连城Liancheng, Fujian 351 422 广东阳山Yangshan, Guangdong 93 844 贵州黎平Liping, Guizhou 650
    102 福建永安Yongan, Fujian 373 523 海南海口Haikou, Hainan 129 845 贵州罗甸Luodian, Guizhou 386
    103 福建漳平Zhangping, Fujian 219 524 海南屯昌Tunchang, Hainan 160 846 贵州荔波Libo, Guizhou 467
    204 江西赣县Ganxian, Jiangxi 115 525 海南五指山Wuzhishan, Hainan 341 847 贵州德江Dejiang, Guizhou 851
    205 江西于都Yudu, Jiangxi 145 526 海南陵水Lingshui, Hainan 79 848 贵州麻江Majiang, Guizhou 1 048
    206 江西遂川Suichuan, Jiangxi 103 527 海南琼海Qionghai, Hainan 32 849 贵州贵阳Guiyang, Guizhou 1 205
    307 湖南东安Dongan, Hunan 252 628 广西桂林Guilin, Guangxi 166 850 贵州石阡Shiqian, Guizhou 496
    308 湖南浏阳Liuyang, Hunan 137 629 广西融安Rongan, Guangxi 226 952 浙江绍兴Shaoxing, Zhejiang 181
    309 湖南通道Tongdao, Hunan 442 630 广西三江Sanjiang, Guangxi 240 959 浙江临安Lin’an, Zhejiang 47
    310 湖南炎陵Yanling, Hunan 192 631 广西钦州Qinzhou, Guangxi 250 1053 重庆Chongqing 183
    311 湖南龙山Longshan, Hunan 779 632 广西梧州Wuzhou, Guangxi 31 1154 安徽黄山Huangshan, Anhui 306
    412 广东仁化Renhua, Guangdong 196 633 广西凭祥Pingxiang, Guangxi 255 1155 安徽利辛Lixin, Anhui 38
    413 广东郁南Yunan, Guangdong 22 634 广西靖西Jingxi, Guangxi 764 1256 江苏泰兴Taixing, Jiangsu 7
    414 广东博罗Boluo, Guangdong 13 735 云南富宁Funing, Yunnan 732 1257 江苏南京Nanjing, Jiangsu 22
    415 广东开平Kaiping, Guangdong 8 736 云南广南Guangnan, Yunnan 1 079 1258 江苏姜堰Jiangyan, Jiangsu 8
    416 广东清远Qingyuan, Guangdong 73 737 云南开远Kaiyuan, Yunnan 1 122 1359 河南内乡Neixiang, Henan 178
    417 广东恩平Enping, Guangdong 17 739 云南勐腊Mengla, Yunnan 1 005 1461 陕西安康Ankang, Shaanxi 422
    418 广东饶平Raoping, Guangdong 20 740 云南罗平Luoping, Yunnan 1 415 1462 陕西蒲城Pucheng, Shaanxi 488
    419 广东五华Wuhua, Guangdong 123 741 云南麻栗坡Malipo, Yunnan 1 113 1463 陕西南郑Nanzheng, Shaanxi 716
    420 广东东源Dongyuan, Guangdong 57 842 贵州兴义Xingyi, Guizhou 1 217 1564 甘肃舟曲Zhouqu, Gansu 1 354
    421 广东茂名Maoming, Guangdong 162 843 贵州册亨Ceheng, Guizhou 993
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  苦楝生长性状种源变异分析

    Table  2.   Provenance variances of growth traits of Melia azedarach

    性状Trait 均值Average 变幅Range 变异系数Coefficient of variation/% 标准差Standard deviation 变异来源Variation source
    种源Provenance 区组Block
    树高Tree height/m 9.24 2.00~15.90 22.46 2.07 5.87** 10.91**
    胸径DBH/cm 11.83 2.30~28.20 33.92 4.01 8.52** 3.43**
    枝下高Clear bole height/m 3.12 0.30~8.90 46.98 4.01 1.41* 7.04**
    干型Stem form 2.41 1.00~4.00 48.25 1.16 2.58** 2.82**
    冠幅Crown width/m 3.14 0.40~9.20 33.54 1.05 2.48** 5.09**
    保存率Survival rate 0.65 0.38~0.90 21.05 0.14 3.62** 4.26**
    注:*表示P < 0.05水平上差异显著,**表示P < 0.01水平上差异极显著。下同。Notes: * represents significant differences at P < 0.05 level,** represents extremely significant differences at P < 0.01 level. Same as below.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  生长性状与地理因子的Pearson相关分析

    Table  3.   Pearson correlation analysis of growth traits and geographic factors

    性状Trait 树高Tree height 胸径DBH 枝下高Clear bole height 干型Stem form 冠幅Crown width 保存率Survival rate
    经度Longitude -0.387** -0.403** -0.501** -0.441** -0.399** 0.241
    纬度Latitude -0.631** -0.598** -0.379** -0.497** -0.520** 0.081
    海拔Elevation 0.118 0.208 0.354** 0.257* 0.264* -0.252*
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  树高与胸径的趋势面分析回归方程

    Table  4.   Regression equation of binary quadratic trend surface analysis for tree height and DBH

    性状Trait 趋势面回归方程Regression equation of trend surface analysis 拟合系数Fitting coefficient P
    树高Tree height Z=1.179 5x+0.938 0y-0.018 0x2-0.004 1y2-0.003 0xy-54.497 0 0.628 < 0.01
    胸径DBH Z=1.792 0x+2.016 6y-0.049 5x2-0.010 3y2+0.005 5xy-113.761 0 0.641 < 0.01
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  生长性状与气候因子的Pearson相关分析

    Table  5.   Pearson correlation analysis of growth traits and climatic factors

    气候因子
    Climate factor
    树高
    Tree height
    胸径
    DBH
    枝下高
    Clear bole height
    干型
    Stem form
    冠幅
    Crown width
    保存率
    Survival rate
    极端最低气温Extreme minimum air temperature 0.461** 0.435** 0.254* 0.325** 0.387** 0.028
    极端最高气压Extreme maximum air pressure -0.149 -0.184 -0.362** -0.174 -0.22 0.327**
    极端最高气温Extreme maximum air temperature -0.205 -0.173 -0.412** -0.279* -0.257* 0.307*
    平均气温Mean air temperature 0.403** 0.373** 0.107 0.245 0.304* 0.08
    平均最低气温Mean minimum air temperature 0.404** 0.375** 0.117 0.257* 0.308* 0.125
    平均最高气温Mean maximum air temperature 0.420** 0.396** 0.135 0.251* 0.322* -0.015
    日降水量>0.1 mm日数Daily precipitation>0.1 mm days 0.434** 0.418** 0.166 0.327** 0.328** 0.165
    日照百分率Sunshine percentage -0.227 -0.251* -0.051 -0.234 -0.181 -0.389**
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  生长性状与气候因子的典型相关

    Table  6.   Canonical correlation analysis of growth traits and climate factors

    性状Trait 第一典型变量The first canonical variable(r=0.802,P < 0.001) 气候因子Climate factor 第一典型变量The first canonical variable(r=0.802,P < 0.001)
    树高Tree height 0.857 极端最低气温Extreme minimum air temperature 0.555 0
    胸径DBH 0.827 极端最高气压Extreme maximum air pressure -0.427 6
    枝下高Clear bole height 0.582 极端最高气温Extreme maximum air temperature -0.469 5
    干型Stem form 0.678 平均气温Mean air temperature 0.426 1
    冠幅Crown width 0.762 平均最低气温Mean minimum air temperature 0.406 9
    保存率Survival rate -0.222 平均最高气温Mean maximum air temperature 0.501 9
    日降水量>0.1 mm日数Daily precipitation>0.1 mm days 0.458 9
    日照百分率Sunshine percentage 0.015 7
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  聚类分析结果

    Table  7.   Result of cluster analysis

    类群Cluster 种源Provenance 地区Area 平均树高Mean treeheight/m 平均胸径Mean DBH/cm 平均干型Mean stem form 平均保存率Mean survival rate
    1 101、102、310、311、418、419、420、524、527 闽西、粤东及海南等地区Northern Fujian, eastern Guangdong and Hainan, etc 8.838 10.715 2.118 0.579
    2 847、850、952、959、1053、1154、1256、1257、1258、1359、1461、1462、1564 苏中南、浙北、安徽等华东地区,陇南、陕东等西北地区,渝及豫南等中部地区Central and southern of Jiangsu, northern Zhejiang, eastern Shaanxi, southern area of Henan and Gansu, Chongqing and Anhui, etc 8.033 8.934 2.007 0.633
    3 103、204、205、206、307、308、309、412、414、415、417、526、629、631、633 粤桂湘赣的南部等地区Southern area of Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan and Jiangxi, etc 9.671 12.725 2.526 0.661
    4 413、422、525、628、630、632、634、741、842、843、844、845、846、848、849、1463 黔南及桂北等地区Southern Guizhou and northern Guangxi, etc 9.894 13.494 2.718 0.764
    5 416、421、523、735、736、737、739、740 滇东南Eastern and southern Yunnan 9.411 12.48 2.51 0.507
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2017-09-08
  • 修回日期:  2018-03-06
  • 刊出日期:  2018-07-01

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