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城市森林主要树种树冠尺度及生长空间需求

王嘉楠 夏媛倩 赵德先 储显 胡马 胡隽 刘慧

王嘉楠, 夏媛倩, 赵德先, 储显, 胡马, 胡隽, 刘慧. 城市森林主要树种树冠尺度及生长空间需求[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2018, 40(3): 42-54. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170331
引用本文: 王嘉楠, 夏媛倩, 赵德先, 储显, 胡马, 胡隽, 刘慧. 城市森林主要树种树冠尺度及生长空间需求[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2018, 40(3): 42-54. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170331
Wang Jianan, Xia Yuanqian, Zhao Dexian, Chu Xian, Hu Ma, Hu Juan, Liu Hui. Crown scale and growth space demands of main tree species in urban forest[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2018, 40(3): 42-54. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170331
Citation: Wang Jianan, Xia Yuanqian, Zhao Dexian, Chu Xian, Hu Ma, Hu Juan, Liu Hui. Crown scale and growth space demands of main tree species in urban forest[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2018, 40(3): 42-54. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170331

城市森林主要树种树冠尺度及生长空间需求

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170331
基金项目: 

安徽省重点研究与开发计划项目 1704f0704063

国家自然科学基金项目 41301650

详细信息
    作者简介:

    王嘉楠,博士,副教授。主要研究方向:风景园林与城市森林生态。Email:wjn@ahau.edu.cn 地址:230036安徽省合肥市长江西路130号安徽农业大学林学与园林学院

  • 中图分类号: S731.2;S758.5

Crown scale and growth space demands of main tree species in urban forest

  • 摘要: 目的树冠的大小直接影响树木的生态价值,探明树种合理的生长空间需求对城市森林的规划建设与经营维护有重要意义。方法本文以合肥环城公园内优势度靠前的10个城市森林主要树种为研究对象,运用样方调查法,选取公园6个景区57块固定样地,在对冠幅、胸径及树高等数据调查的基础上,运用线性回归法、异速生长法,利用箱型图检验离群值,比较构建冠幅、树高与胸径的最优模型,并对树木最适宜生长空间大小进行预测。结果不同树种冠幅与胸径、树高与胸径均存在正相关关系,但对两种模型结果进行比较可以发现,除侧柏和栾树外,异速生长模型的决定系数(R2)均大于0.3,R2整体高于一元回归模型;均方根误差(RMSE)分布范围在0.2~0.3之间,整体上小于一元回归;F值除雪松外,均高于一元回归F值。综合比较结果表明,异速生长模型拟合度优于一元回归模型;不是所有树种的冠幅、树高都与胸径高度正相关,在10个树种的研究中,银杏、女贞和椤木石楠的冠幅-胸径模型的拟合度较高,R2分别为0.793、0.757和0.665;银杏、栾树和雪松的树高-胸径模型拟合度较好,R2分别为0.772、0.579和0.547;栾树、侧柏的冠幅-胸径模型相关性较低,R2分别为0.096和0.188;构树、刺槐和桂花的树高-胸径拟合度较差,R2分别为0.065、0.010和0.112;选择分位数回归对异速生长规律进行研究,构建10种树木的异速生长模型并在95%分位数回归下进行讨论,以树木平均胸径15cm为例,预测估算出当胸径为15cm时10种树木在适宜的生长空间中的冠幅和树高大小。结论本文构建的最优模型的参数估计值均显著,说明冠幅、树高变量对合肥环城公园内树木胸径的变化有明显影响,其中冠幅-胸径模型拟合精度略高于树高-胸径模型的拟合精度。

     

  • 图  1  研究区域及群落调查样地分布图

    Figure  1.  Sampling sites, study area and its location in Hefei of eastern China

    图  2  10种树木冠幅与胸径关系的散点分布图及一元回归直线图

    CD为冠幅, d为胸径。下同。

    Figure  2.  Distribution graphs of 10 tree species between crown diameter and stem-diameter, simple regression line graphs

    CD is crown diameter, d is DBH. Same as below.

    图  3  10种树木ln(CD)与lnd的95%、50%、5%分位数线性回归图

    Figure  3.  Quantile regression results (95%, 50%, 5%) of 10 tree species

    表  1  合肥环城公园树木调查因子统计

    Table  1.   Statistical list of tree survey factors in Ring Park around Hefei City

    树种编号
    Species No.
    树种
    Species
    数量
    Number
    胸径DBH/cm 冠幅Crown diameter/m 树高Tree height/m
    最小值
    Min.
    中位数
    Median
    最大值
    Max.
    最小值
    Min.
    中位数
    Median
    最大值
    Max.
    最小值
    Min.
    中位数
    Median
    最大值
    Max.
    1 侧柏Platycladus orientalis 58 8.20 15.61 26.11 2.05 3.90 6.25 2.90 6.70 12.50
    2 刺槐Robinia pseudoacaci 182 7.30 29.60 51.27 3.30 7.20 15.40 3.40 14.50 22.20
    3 构树Broussonetia papyrifera 143 3.20 8.80 44.60 2.95 6.10 13.10 3.40 10.30 50.10
    4 栾树Koelreuteria paniculata 92 11.10 21.66 41.40 3.10 6.60 12.90 6.00 12.90 22.00
    5 女贞Ligustrum lucidum 198 2.90 10.40 50.64 1.20 4.10 18.97 2.90 6.70 16.60
    6 椤木石楠Photinia davidsoniae 86 2.19 11.10 22.93 1.55 4.25 7.80 1.40 5.20 16.50
    7 雪松Cedrus deodara 105 8.90 24.80 47.80 2.60 4.85 10.10 3.50 11.3 19.40
    8 银杏Ginkgo biloba 72 2.90 16.50 29.94 0.5 3.90 8.70 2.50 10.00 22.80
    9 紫叶李Prunus cerasifera f.atropurpurea 60 3.50 7.60 16.88 2.10 3.70 7.30 2.30 5.40 8.50
    10 桂花Osmanthus fragrans 118 3.00 8.57 19.38 2.20 3.84 7.05 2.00 3.84 9.87
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  冠幅-胸径一元回归模型拟合结果

    Table  2.   Simple regression model between DBH and crown diameter

    编号
    No.
    树种Species a std.err(a) b std.err(b) R2 RMSE F F检验
    F test
    1 侧柏Platycladus orientalis 2.370 0.430 0.097 0.027 0.156 0.827 12.78 0.000
    2 刺槐Robinia pseudoacaci 2.863 0.434 0.159 0.014 0.384 1.818 127.70 0.000
    3 构树Broussonetia papyrifera 4.757 0.356 0.165 0.022 0.469 1.791 52.92 0.000
    4 栾树Koelreuteria paniculata 5.423 0.785 0.060 0.033 0.050 1.971 3.31 0.074
    5 女贞Ligustrum lucidum 1.688 0.175 0.213 0.010 0.697 1.401 448.20 0.000
    6 椤木石楠Photinia davidsoniae 1.578 0.238 0.252 0.020 0.557 1.042 153.20 0.000
    7 雪松Cedrus deodara 2.540 0.309 0.093 0.011 0.400 1.144 72.70 0.000
    8 银杏Ginkgo biloba 0.918 0.254 0.221 0.016 0.780 0.780 202.00 0.000
    9 紫叶李Prunus cerasiferaf.atropurpurea 1.767 0.196 0.268 0.023 0.486 0.800 137.00 0.000
    10 桂花Osmanthus fragrans -0.000 0.416 0.191 0.030 0.327 0.576 41.36 0.000
    注:a为截距,b为斜率,std.err(a)、std.err(b)分别为ab的标准误。下同。Notes:a is intercept,b is slope,std.err(a) and std.err(b) are the standard error of a and b, respectively. The same below.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  冠幅-胸径异速生长模型拟合结果

    Table  3.   Allometric model between DBH and crown diameter

    编号
    No.
    树种Species a std.err(a) α std.err(α) R2 RMSE F F检验
    F test
    1 侧柏Platycladus orientalis 0.174 0.309 0.424 0.113 0.171 0.222 14.18 0.000
    2 刺槐Robinia pseudoacaci 0.203 0.168 0.532 0.050 0.416 0.245 111.70 0.000
    3 构树Broussonetia papyrifera 0.914 0.112 0.414 0.048 0.557 0.245 75.41 0.000
    4 栾树Koelreuteria paniculata 1.177 0.337 0.226 0.109 0.064 0.289 4.29 0.000
    5 女贞Ligustrum lucidum -0.170 0.068 0.656 0.027 0.751 0.245 589.30 0.000
    6 椤木石楠Photinia davidsoniae -0.053 0.095 0.635 0.041 0.665 0.227 241.80 0.000
    7 雪松Cedrus deodara 0.222 0.163 0.422 0.051 0.390 0.218 69.54 0.000
    8 银杏Ginkgo biloba -0.536 0.127 0.733 0.050 0.793 0.793 217.70 0.000
    9 紫叶李Prunus cerasifera f.atropurpurea 0.183 0.093 0.56628 0.045 0.519 0.193 156.20 0.000
    10 桂花Osmanthus fragrans -2.355 0.502 1.256 0.191 0.336 0.336 42.95 0.000
    注:α为异速生长指数,std.err(α)为α的标准误。Notes:α is allometric exponent, std.err(α) is the standard error ofα.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  剔除异常值后冠幅-胸径一元回归模型拟合结果

    Table  4.   Fitting results of simple regression model between DBH and crown diameter

    编号
    No.
    树种
    Species
    a std.err(a) b std.err(b) R2 RMSE F F检验
    F test
    1 侧柏Platycladus orientalis 2.187 0.436 0.107 0.027 0.184 0.781 15.52 0.000
    2 刺槐Robinia pseudoacaci 3.537 0.375 0.127 0.012 0.345 1.506 104.10 0.000
    3 构树Broussonetia papyrifera 4.612 0.367 0.173 0.029 0.403 1.635 36.51 0.000
    4 栾树Koelreuteria paniculata 4.847 0.671 0.070 0.028 0.086 1.572 6.08 0.002
    5 女贞Ligustrum lucidum 1.853 0.130 0.191 0.008 0.752 0.992 566.00 0.000
    6 椤木石楠Photinia davidsoniae 1.651 0.232 0.240 0.021 0.548 1.009 143.30 0.000
    7 雪松Cedrus deodara 3.237 0.275 0.060 0.010 0.251 0.939 34.15 0.000
    8 银杏Ginkgo biloba 0.976 0.245 0.214 0.015 0.781 0.911 199.10 0.000
    9 紫叶李Prunus cerasifera f. atropurpurea 1.769 0.181 0.260 0.022 0.501 0.668 137.20 0.000
    10 桂花Osmanthus fragrans -0.870 0.543 0.258 0.040 0.342 0.571 41.52 0.000
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  剔除异常值后冠幅-胸径异速生长模型拟合结果

    Table  5.   Fitting results of allometric model between DBH and crown diameter after removing outliers

    编号
    No.
    树种Species a std.err(a) α std.err(α) R2 RMSE F F检验
    F test
    1 侧柏Platycladus orientalis 0.117 0.312 0.443 0.114 0.188 0.216 15.11 0.000
    2 刺槐Robinia pseudoacaci 0.424 0.161 0.458 0.049 0.381 0.225 88.93 0.000
    3 构树Broussonetia papyrifera 0.916 0.124 0.412 0.056 0.501 0.240 54.40 0.000
    4 栾树Koelreuteria paniculata 1.102 0.315 0.237 0.102 0.096 0.256 5.35 0.024
    5 女贞Ligustrum lucidum -0.127 0.065 0.630 0.026 0.757 0.223 583.10 0.000
    6 椤木石楠Photinia davidsoniae -0.025 0.094 0.618 0.041 0.658 0.224 227.60 0.000
    7 雪松Cedrus deodara 0.508 0.157 0.324 0.049 0.294 0.197 42.65 0.000
    8 银杏Ginkgo biloba -0.522 0.127 0.725 0.050 0.789 0.280 209.80 0.000
    9 紫叶李Prunus cerasifera f. atropurpurea 0.224 0.094 0.540 0.046 0.504 0.179 135.50 0.000
    10 桂花Osmanthus fragrans -3.195 0.632 1.584 0.243 0.346 0.253 42.35 0.000
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  10种树木冠幅-胸径最优回归模型

    Table  6.   Optimal regression models of 10 tree species between tree crown diameter and DBH

    编号No. 树种Species a α R2 RMSE F CD15/m
    1 侧柏Platycladus orientalis 0.117 0.443 0.188 0.216 15.11 3.73
    2 刺槐Robinia pseudoacaci 0.203 0.532 0.416 0.244 111.70 5.19
    3 构树Broussonetia papyrifera 0.913 0.413 0.556 0.245 75.41 7.65
    4 栾树Koelreuteria paniculata 1.102 0.236 0.096 0.256 5.35 5.72
    5 女贞Ligustrum lucidum -0.126 0.630 0.757 0.223 583.10 4.86
    6 椤木石楠Photinia davidsoniae -0.053 0.635 0.664 0.226 241.80 5.29
    7 雪松Cedrus deodara 0.222 0.422 0.389 0.217 69.54 3.92
    8 银杏Ginkgo biloba -0.536 0.733 0.792 0.792 217.70 4.26
    9 紫叶李Prunus cerasifera f. atropurpurea 0.182 0.566 0.518 0.193 156.20 5.57
    10 桂花Osmanthus fragrans -3.194 1.584 0.346 0.253 42.35 2.99
    注:CD15为胸径为15cm时的冠幅。Note:CD15 means the crown width with DBH of 15cm
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  树高-胸径一元回归模型拟合结果

    Table  7.   Fitting results of simple regression model between DBH and tree height in primary data

    编号
    No.
    树种Species a std.err(a) b std.err(b) R2 RMSE F F检验
    F test
    1 侧柏Platycladus orientalis 3.132 1.186 0.251 0.073 0.146 2.236 11.81 0.001
    2 刺槐Robinia pseudoacaci 11.763 0.937 0.094 0.030 0.051 3.894 9.81 0.002
    3 构树Broussonetia papyrifera 11.326 1.871 0.164 0.119 0.232 9.417 1.91 0.171
    4 栾树Koelreuteria paniculata 2.864 1.134 0.452 0.047 0.573 2.850 91.27 0.000
    5 女贞Ligustrum lucidum 4.626 0.274 0.195 0.015 0.439 2.198 153.00 0.000
    6 椤木石楠Photinia davidsoniae 2.112 0.493 0.305 0.0423 0.300 2.164 52.28 0.000
    7 雪松Cedrus deodara 4.940 0.777 0.239 0.027 0.410 2.876 75.92 0.000
    8 银杏Ginkgo biloba 4.077 0.853 0.383 0.052 0.488 3.187 54.33 0.000
    9 紫叶李Prunus cerasifera f.atropurpurea 4.132 0.314 0.170 0.036 0.129 1.282 21.55 0.000
    10 桂花Osmanthus fragrans 1.304 1.493 0.198 0.106 0.038 2.068 3.43 0.067
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  树高-胸径异速生长模型拟合结果

    Table  8.   Fitting results of allometric model between DBH and tree height

    编号
    No.
    树种Species a std.err(a) α std.err(α) R2 RMSE F F检验
    F test
    1 侧柏Platycladus orientalis 0.169 0.446 0.634 0.162 0.180 0.320 15.17 0.000
    2 刺槐Robinia pseudoacaci 1.780 0.209 0.256 0.062 0.085 0.305 16.65 0.000
    3 构树Broussonetia papyrifera 1.361 0.251 0.456 0.107 0.030 0.551 18.15 0.000
    4 栾树Koelreuteria paniculata 0.033 0.271 0.808 0.087 0.591 0.233 84.55 0.000
    5 女贞Ligustrum lucidum 0.922 0.071 0.413 0.028 0.521 0.521 212.20 0.000
    6 椤木石楠Photinia davidsoniae -0.106 0.148 0.739 0.064 0.522 0.355 133.50 0.000
    7 雪松Cedrus deodara 0.204 0.189 0.674 0.058 0.547 0.252 131.60 0.000
    8 银杏Ginkgo biloba 0.586 0.116 0.634 0.045 0.772 0.772 193.00 0.000
    9 紫叶李Prunus cerasifera f.atropurpurea 1.045 0.118 0.309 0.057 0.165 0.245 28.79 0.000
    10 桂花Osmanthus fragrans -1.116 1.008 0.910 0.385 0.061 0.509 5.59 0.020
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  9  剔除异常值后树高-胸径一元回归模型拟合结果

    Table  9.   Fitting results of simple regression model between DBH and tree height after removing outliers

    编号
    No.
    树种Species a std.err(a) b std.err(b) R2 RMSE F F检验
    F test
    1 侧柏Platycladus orientalis 2.521 1.239 0.295 0.077 0.178 2.221 14.53 0.000
    2 刺槐Robinia pseudoacaci 11.203 0.982 0.119 0.032 0.073 3.944 13.32 0.000
    3 构树Broussonetia papyrifera 9.478 1.593 0.240 0.124 0.301 7.102 3.76 0.057
    4 栾树Koelreuteria paniculata 3.014 1.209 0.450 0.051 0.575 2.836 77.16 0.000
    5 女贞Ligustrum lucidum 4.280 0.268 0.220 0.016 0.489 2.044 178.90 0.000
    6 椤木石楠Photinia davidsoniae 2.214 0.417 0.281 0.036 0.339 1.818 60.75 0.000
    7 雪松Cedrus deodara 4.328 0.849 0.268 0.031 0.412 2.904 71.63 0.000
    8 银杏Ginkgo biloba 4.026 0.862 0.389 0.053 0.488 3.205 53.50 0.000
    9 紫叶李Prunus cerasifera f.atropurpurea 3.662 0.331 0.239 0.040 0.203 1.226 34.51 0.000
    10 桂花Osmanthus fragrans -2.029 1.940 0.453 0.143 0.110 2.040 10.05 0.002
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  10  剔除异常值后树高-胸径异速生长模型拟合结果

    Table  10.   Fitting results of allometric model between DBH and tree height after removing outliers

    编号
    No.
    树种Species a std.err(a) α std.err(α) R2 RMSE F F检验
    F test
    1 侧柏Platycladus orientalis 0.012 0.463 0.694 0.169 0.201 0.320 16.82 0.000
    2 刺槐Robinia pseudoacaci 1.680 0.221 0.289 0.066 0.099 0.311 18.71 0.000
    3 构树Broussonetia papyrifera 1.153 0.250 0.542 0.112 0.065 0.484 23.26 0.000
    4 栾树Koelreuteria paniculata 0.052 0.280 0.806 0.091 0.578 0.228 78.28 0.000
    5 女贞Ligustrum lucidum 0.876 0.072 0.431 0.029 0.539 0.249 219.20 0.000
    6 椤木石楠Photinia davidsoniae -0.071 0.143 0.717 0.062 0.529 0.340 133.00 0.000
    7 雪松Cedrus deodara 0.094 0.205 0.711 0.064 0.542 0.256 121.10 0.000
    8 银杏Ginkgo biloba 0.578 0.117 0.638 0.046 0.771 0.260 189.40 0.000
    9 紫叶李Prunus cerasifera f.atropurpurea 0.907 0.124 0.385 0.061 0.223 0.223 38.86 0.000
    10 桂花Osmanthus fragrans -2.733 1.270 1.543 0.489 0.112 0.509 9.95 0.002
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  11  10种树木树高-胸径最优回归模型

    Table  11.   Optimal regression models of 10 tree species between tree height and DBH

    编号No. 树种Species a α R2 RMSE F h15/m
    1 侧柏Platycladus orientalis 0.012 0.694 0.200 0.320 16.82 6.64
    2 刺槐Robinia pseudoacaci 1.680 0.289 0.099 0.311 18.71 11.76
    3 构树Broussonetia papyrifera 1.153 0.542 0.065 0.484 23.26 13.77
    4 栾树Koelreuteria paniculata 0.052 0.806 0.578 0.228 78.28 9.35
    5 女贞Ligustrum lucidum 0.876 0.431 0.539 0.249 219.20 7.72
    6 椤木石楠Photinia davidsoniae -0.071 0.717 0.529 0.340 133.00 6.50
    7 雪松Cedrus deodara 0.204 0.674 0.547 0.252 131.60 7.61
    8 银杏Ginkgo biloba 0.586 0.564 0.772 0.772 193.00 8.29
    9 紫叶李Prunus cerasifera f.atropurpurea 0.907 0.385 0.223 0.223 38.86 7.03
    10 桂花Osmanthus fragrans -2.733 1.543 0.111 0.509 9.95 4.25
    注:h15为胸径为15cm时的树高。Note:h15 means tree height with DBH of 15cm.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2017-09-12
  • 修回日期:  2017-12-06
  • 刊出日期:  2018-03-01

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