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大兴安岭北部兴安落叶松林雪水文特征

林尤伟 蔡体久 段亮亮

林尤伟, 蔡体久, 段亮亮. 大兴安岭北部兴安落叶松林雪水文特征[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2018, 40(6): 72-80. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170389
引用本文: 林尤伟, 蔡体久, 段亮亮. 大兴安岭北部兴安落叶松林雪水文特征[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2018, 40(6): 72-80. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170389
Lin Youwei, Cai Tijiu, Duan Liangliang. Snow hydrological characteristics of Larix gmelinii forest in northern Daxing'an Mountains of northeastern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2018, 40(6): 72-80. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170389
Citation: Lin Youwei, Cai Tijiu, Duan Liangliang. Snow hydrological characteristics of Larix gmelinii forest in northern Daxing'an Mountains of northeastern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2018, 40(6): 72-80. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170389

大兴安岭北部兴安落叶松林雪水文特征

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170389
基金项目: 

博士自主创新基金项目 2572016AA33

国家自然科学基金项目 31370460

详细信息
    作者简介:

    林尤伟。主要研究方向:森林水文。Email: 641206399@qq.com 地址:150040  黑龙江省哈尔滨市香坊区和兴路26号东北林业大学林学院

    责任作者:

    蔡体久,教授,博士生导师。主要研究方向:森林生态与森林水文。Email: caitijiu1963@163.com 地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S791.22

Snow hydrological characteristics of Larix gmelinii forest in northern Daxing'an Mountains of northeastern China

  • 摘要: 目的研究大兴安岭北部地区兴安落叶松林雪水文特征,为今后积雪蒸发测定和区域水资源调控提供更为科学的数据支撑和理论基础。方法对观测期内16场降雪的大气降雪量以及对林内积雪深度、积雪密度以及雪水当量进行了周期性观测与统计分析。结果(1) 随着降雪级别的减少,兴安落叶松林的截留率呈现逐渐增加的趋势,分别为6.50%(暴雪)、9.04%(大雪)、9.8%(中雪)、15.7%(小雪)。可见,兴安落叶松林降雪截留最大截留率出现在小雪,暴雪时截留率则最小。(2)兴安落叶松林内积雪深度和林外相比差异不大,其中落叶松林林内积雪深度最深为68.6cm,林外空地积雪深度最深为74.8cm。(3)林内和林外的积雪密度在观测初期会随降雪的输入而降低,无降雪期有相应升高。融雪期随着气温的升高,雪密度减少速度会加快。在4月24—29日达到最大值,减少量分别为0.07和0.11g/cm3。(4)雪水当量速率减少量在4月24—29日达到最大值,分别为30.2和46.4mm。结论和林外空地相比,兴安落叶松林对积雪深度、积雪密度及雪水当量影响不大,说明兴安落叶松林在雪水文过程中对积雪特征影响尽管存在,但并不明显。该区雪蒸发日变化呈单峰曲线变化规律,积雪期的日蒸发量和蒸发速率均值分别为0.04mm和0.2×10-3mm/h,日蒸发量波动幅度在0.02~0.14mm之间,在融雪期间,日蒸发量和蒸发速率的均值分别为0.38mm和1.51×10-3mm/h,采用灰色关联度对各因子进行分析,得出净辐射是影响兴安落叶松林内积雪蒸发的主要因素。

     

  • 图  1  研究区域示意图

    引自参考文献[26]。

    Figure  1.  Schematic plot of research area

    Quoted from reference [26].

    图  2  观测期内大气降雪特征

    Figure  2.  Atmospheric snowfall characteristics in observation period

    图  3  兴安落叶松林林内及林外空地积雪深度特征

    Figure  3.  Snow depth characteristics inside and outside Larix gemelinii forest

    图  4  兴安落叶松林雪密度特征

    Figure  4.  Snow density characteristics of Larix gmelinii forest

    图  5  兴安落叶松林雪水当量特征

    Figure  5.  characteristics of snow water equivalence of larix gmelinii forest

    图  6  积雪融雪期日蒸发量动态变化特征

    Figure  6.  Dynamic variation characteristics of daily evaporation during snowcover and snowmelting period

    图  7  积雪融雪期气象因子的动态变化特征

    Figure  7.  Dynamic variation characteristics of meteorological factors during snowcover and snowmelting period

    表  1  兴安落叶松天然林林冠截留特征

    Table  1.   Canopy interception characteristics of Larix gmelinii forest

    降雪级别
    Snowfall level
    林外降雪量
    Snowfall outsideforest/mm
    林内降雪量
    Snowfall insideforest/mm
    林冠截留量
    Canopy interception/mm
    林冠截留率
    Canopy interception rate/%
    小雪Light snow 1.94 1.63 0.31 15.7
    中雪Moderate snow 2.73 2.46 0.27 9.8
    大雪Heavy snow 5.88 5.35 0.53 9.04
    暴雪Blizzard 20.63 19.28 1.35 6.5
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同气象因子与积雪蒸发量的灰色关联度

    Table  2.   Grey correlation degree of different meteorological factors and snowcover evaporation

    因子Factor 环境温度
    Environment temperature/℃
    环境湿度
    Environment humidity/%
    水汽压
    Water vapor pressure/kPa
    风速
    Wind speed/(m·s-1)
    净辐射
    Net radiation/(MJ·m-2·d-1)
    积雪期蒸发量Snow period evaporation 0.831 1 0.741 2 0.541 1 0.544 6 0.896 5
    融雪期蒸发量Snowmelting period evaporation 0.827 8 0.686 6 0.533 4 0.582 7 0.856 6
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2017-11-01
  • 修回日期:  2018-01-17
  • 刊出日期:  2018-06-01

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