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青藏高原北部戈壁区植物多样性及其环境解释

龙婷 王健铭 李景文 冯益民 吴波 卢琦

龙婷, 王健铭, 李景文, 冯益民, 吴波, 卢琦. 青藏高原北部戈壁区植物多样性及其环境解释[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2017, 39(12): 17-24. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170395
引用本文: 龙婷, 王健铭, 李景文, 冯益民, 吴波, 卢琦. 青藏高原北部戈壁区植物多样性及其环境解释[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2017, 39(12): 17-24. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170395
LONG Ting, WANG Jian-ming, LI Jing-wen, FENG Yi-min, WU Bo, LU Qi. Plant diversity and its environmental explaination in gobi district of northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, northwestern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2017, 39(12): 17-24. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170395
Citation: LONG Ting, WANG Jian-ming, LI Jing-wen, FENG Yi-min, WU Bo, LU Qi. Plant diversity and its environmental explaination in gobi district of northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, northwestern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2017, 39(12): 17-24. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170395

青藏高原北部戈壁区植物多样性及其环境解释

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170395
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 31570610

林业公益性行业科研专项 201404304

详细信息
    作者简介:

    龙婷。主要研究方向:生物多样性。Email:741241478@qq.com   地址: 100083 北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学林学院

    责任作者:

    李景文,博士,教授。主要研究方向:生物多样性。Email: lijingwen@bjfu.edu.cn   地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S718

Plant diversity and its environmental explaination in gobi district of northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, northwestern China

  • 摘要: 为了揭示青藏高原北部戈壁区植物多样性与环境因子的关系,用38个青藏高原北部戈壁区的群落样方调查数据和环境数据,通过单因素方差分析、CCA分析和方差分解等方法研究了青藏高原北部戈壁区植物多样性及其与环境因子的关系。结果表明:1)共记录植物12科29属36种,以藜科、柽柳科、禾本科和菊科植物为主,红砂分布频率最大,该地区植物生活型主要为灌木和草本;2)该区域不同优势群落外貌特征不同,在植株密度上存在极显著差异(P < 0.01),在植被盖度上存在显著差异(P < 0.05),但各群落的物种丰富度和香农指数无明显差异;3)经过CCA分析,年平均降水量显著影响该区域植物物种分布;4)该地区群落结构主要受土壤因子、气候因子、生物因子共同影响,三者的解释率达到51.68%,其中土壤因子的单独解释率最高,达到25.36%,剩余48.91%未解释部分说明还有其他因素影响着该区域植物群落结构。总而言之,青藏高原北部戈壁区植物多样性水平低,群落结构简单,其植物多样性主要受土壤条件的影响。

     

  • 图  1  青藏高原北部戈壁区优势植物群落数量特征

    Ⅰ.合头草群落Sympegma regelii community;Ⅱ.红砂群落Reaumuria songarica community;Ⅲ.芦苇群落Phragmites australis community;Ⅳ.膜果麻黄群落Ephedra przewalskii community;Ⅴ.沙蒿群落Artemisia desertorum community;Ⅵ.宽苞水柏枝群落Myricaria bracteata community;Ⅶ.驼绒藜群落Ceratoides lateens community

    Figure  1.  Quantitative characteristics of dominant plant communities in gobi district, northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    图  2  CCA植物物种排序图

    图中列出了物种加权值大于10%的优势物种。The figure shows the dominant species whose weighted value is greater than 10%. SOC, soil organic carbon; SS, soil salinity; AP, available phosphorus; AK, available potassium; GSMAX, ground stone maxium size; MAT, mean annual temperature; MAP, mean annual precipitation; MTCM, mean temperature in condest month.

    Figure  2.  Plant species sorting map of CCA

    图  3  不同环境因子对植物群落影响

    圆圈代表各环境因子总的解释力。a、b、c分别表示各环境因子的独立作用; d、e、f、g表示各环境因子之间的协同作用。

    Figure  3.  Effects of different environmental factors on plant community

    Circles represent the total explanatory power of each environmental factor. a, b, c represent the independent role of environmental factors, respectively; d, e, f, g represent the synergism among the various environmental factors.

    表  1  青藏高原北部戈壁区植物物种组成(分布频率>5%)

    Table  1.   Plant species composition in gobi district of northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (distribution frequency> 5%)

    科名
    Family name
    属名
    Genus name
    种名
    Species name
    生活型
    Life form
    分布频率
    Distribution
    frequency/%
    藜科
    Chenopodiaceae
    虫实属
    Corispermum
    碟果虫实
    Corispermum patelliforme
    一年生草本
    Annual herbaceous
    5.3
    合头草属
    Sympegma
    合头草
    Sympegma regelii
    小半灌木
    Small half-shrub
    44.7
    梭梭属
    Haloxylon
    梭梭
    Haloxylon ammodendron
    小乔木
    Small tree
    5.3
    驼绒藜属
    Ceratoides
    驼绒藜
    Ceratoides latens
    半灌木
    Subshrub
    50.0
    雾冰藜属
    Bassia
    雾冰藜
    Bassia dasyphylla
    一年生草本
    Annual herbaceous
    7.9
    盐生草属
    Halogeton
    盐生草
    Halogeton glomeratus
    一年生草本
    Annual herbaceous
    7.9
    猪毛菜属
    Salsola
    松叶猪毛菜
    Salsola laricifolia
    小灌木
    Dwarf shrub
    23.7
    柽柳科
    Tamaricaceae
    柽柳属
    Tamarix
    多枝柽柳
    Tamarix ramosissima
    灌木或小乔木状
    Shrub or small tree
    5.3
    红砂属
    Reaumuria
    红砂
    Reaumuria songarica
    小灌木
    Dwarf shrub
    52.6
    五柱红砂
    Reaumuria kaschgarica
    半灌木
    Subshrub
    5.3
    水柏枝属
    Myricaria
    宽苞水柏枝
    Myricaria bracteata
    灌木
    Shrub
    7.9
    禾本科
    Gramineae
    冰草属
    Agropyron
    冰草
    Agropyron cristatum
    多年生草本
    Perennial herb
    7.9
    芨芨草属
    Achnatherum
    芨芨草
    Achnatherum splendens
    多年生草本
    Perennial herb
    5.3
    芦苇属
    Phragmites
    芦苇
    Phragmites australis
    多年生草本
    Perennial herb
    5.3
    菊科
    Compositae
    蒿属
    Artemisia
    沙蒿
    Artemisia desertorum
    多年生草本
    Perennial herb
    7.9
    紫菀木属
    Asterothamnus
    紫菀木
    Asterothamnus alyssoides
    半灌木
    Subshrub
    5.3
    中亚紫菀木
    Asterothamnus centraliasiaticus
    半灌木
    Subshrub
    5.3
    蒺藜科
    Zygophyllaceae
    白刺属
    Nitraria
    白刺
    Nitraria tangutorum
    灌木
    Shrub
    5.3
    大白刺
    Nitraria roborowskii
    灌木
    Shrub
    5.3
    麻黄科
    Ephedraceae
    麻黄属
    Ephedra
    膜果麻黄
    Ephedra przewalskii
    灌木
    Shrub
    36.8
    蓼科
    Polygonaceae
    沙拐枣属
    Calligonum
    沙拐枣
    Calligonum mongolicum
    灌木
    Shrub
    28.9
    白花丹科
    Plumbaginaceae
    补血草属
    Limonium
    黄花补血草
    Limonium aureum
    多年生草本
    Perennial herb
    10.5
    豆科
    Papilionaceae
    岩黄耆属
    Hedysarum
    红花岩黄耆
    Hedysarum multijugum
    半灌木
    Subshrub
    5.3
    茄科
    Solanaceae
    枸杞属
    Lycium
    黑果枸杞
    Lycium ruthenicum
    灌木
    Shrub
    5.3
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  青藏高原北部戈壁区主要植物群落特征

    Table  2.   Characteristics of main plant communities in gobi district, Northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    群落类型
    Community type
    群落组成及其特征
    Community composition and its characteristics
    驼绒藜群落
    Ceratoides lateens
    community
    多分布于戈壁区干旱山坡上, 常与膜果麻黄、红砂、松叶猪毛菜等混生, 植被高度30~50 cm之间
    Mostly distributed in the arid hillside gobi district. Mixed with Ephedra przewalskii, Reaumuria songarica, Salsola laricifolia and others. Vegetation height is between 30-50 cm
    膜果麻黄群落
    Ephedra przewalskii
    community
    多分布于干旱山麓、砾石地等, 常与沙拐枣、驼绒藜混生或者单优, 植被高度多在50~100 cm间
    Mostly distributed in the arid foothills, gravel ground and so on. Mixed with Calligonum mongolicum and Ceratoides lateens or single community. Vegetation height is between 50-100 cm
    红砂群落
    Reaumuria songarica
    community
    广泛分布于戈壁区, 常与合头草、松叶猪毛菜混生或者单优, 植被高度多在20~50 cm间
    Mostly distributed in the gobi district. mixed with Sympegma regelii and Salsola laricifolia or single community. Vegetation height is between 20-50 cm
    合头草群落
    Sympegma regelii
    community
    常分布于干山坡、冲积扇等地, 常与红砂、沙拐枣混合生长, 植被高度多在30~60 cm间
    Mostly distributed in the dry slopes, alluvial fan and other places. Mixed with Reaumuria songarica and Calligonum mongolicum. Vegetation height is between 30-60 cm
    芦苇群落
    Phragmites australis
    community
    常分布于江河湖泽等低湿地, 单优群落, 偶见大白刺混生, 植被高度多在60~100 cm间
    Mostly distributed in the rivers, lakes and other low wetlands. Single community or mixed with Nitraria roborowskii. Vegetation height is between 60-100 cm
    沙蒿群落
    Artemisia desertorum
    community
    常分布于荒坡、砾石坡地等, 单优群落, 或与驼绒藜、红砂混生, 植被高度多在20~50 cm间
    Mostly distributed in the barren slope, gravel slopes and so on. Single community or mixed with Ceratoides lateens and Reaumuria songarica. Vegetation height is between 20-50 cm
    宽苞水柏枝群落
    Myricaria bracteata
    community
    多分布在冲积扇、砾质河滩等地, 单优或与沙蒿、禾本科草本混生, 植被高度多在200~250 cm间
    Mostly distributed in the alluvial fan, gravel beach and other places. Single community or mixed with Artemisia desertorum and gramineous herbs. Vegetation height is between 200-250 cm
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2017-11-06
  • 修回日期:  2017-11-30
  • 刊出日期:  2017-12-01

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