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新巴尔虎草原火时空分布特征及对气象因子响应

宫大鹏 康峰峰 刘晓东

宫大鹏, 康峰峰, 刘晓东. 新巴尔虎草原火时空分布特征及对气象因子响应[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2018, 40(2): 82-89. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170402
引用本文: 宫大鹏, 康峰峰, 刘晓东. 新巴尔虎草原火时空分布特征及对气象因子响应[J]. 北京林业大学学报, 2018, 40(2): 82-89. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170402
Gong Da-peng, Kang Feng-feng, Liu Xiao-dong. Spatial and temporal distribution patterns of grassland fire and its response to meteorological factors in XinBarag Prairie of northwestern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2018, 40(2): 82-89. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170402
Citation: Gong Da-peng, Kang Feng-feng, Liu Xiao-dong. Spatial and temporal distribution patterns of grassland fire and its response to meteorological factors in XinBarag Prairie of northwestern China[J]. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2018, 40(2): 82-89. doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170402

新巴尔虎草原火时空分布特征及对气象因子响应

doi: 10.13332/j.1000-1522.20170402
基金项目: 

国家重点研发计划子课题 2017YFD0600106-1

国家自然科学基金项目 31270696

详细信息
    作者简介:

    宫大鹏。主要研究方向:生态学。Email: dp_gong@bjfu.edu.cn 地址:100083北京市海淀区清华东路35号北京林业大学林学院

    责任作者:

    康峰峰,讲师。主要研究方向:生态学。Email:phoonkong@163.com 地址:同上

    刘晓东,副教授。主要研究方向:生态学。Email:xd_liu@bjfu.edu.cn 地址:同上

  • 中图分类号: S762.1

Spatial and temporal distribution patterns of grassland fire and its response to meteorological factors in XinBarag Prairie of northwestern China

  • 摘要: 目的草原火是草原生态系统重要的干扰因子,严重影响着系统的结构与功能。新巴尔虎草原草是我国重要的草原生态系统,随着极端气候事件的频发,加剧了该地区发生重特大草原火灾的可能性。本研究可为草原火的火险区划和管理提供科学依据。方法本研究基于遥感影像,借助地理信息系统和ENVI等软件,分析了2001—2016年新巴尔虎草原火时空特征,并结合气象数据,探讨草原过火面积对气象因子的响应特性。结果新巴尔虎草原火在时间和空间上呈现规律性分布。在时间上,过火面积年变化存周期性变化规律,2003年和2013年分别出现过火面积峰值,周期间隔10年;过火面积月变化差异明显,过火面积集中在4、5月和9、10月,时间对应研究区域火灾频发的春秋两季;在空间上,高频度火灾发生区域全部分布于国境线附近,越境火灾风险比较大。草原火过火面积与气象因子有着密切关系。在月平均气温为0~10 ℃、月总降水量在0~20 mm、月平均相对湿度40%以下及月平均风速大于5 m/s的区域最利于草原火灾的发生和蔓延。结论新巴尔虎草原火预防工作在区域上应集中在新巴尔虎草原西部、东南部和东北部地区,加强边境地区草原火的监测和管理。在时间上应关注每年4、5月和9、10月,特别是月平均气温0~10 ℃、月总降水量0~20 mm、月平均相对湿度40%以下及月平均风速大于5 m/s的地区。未来可从更长的时间和更广的空间尺度来对草原火的发生周期进行模拟和预测,更有效地探究野火的长期动态变化规律及其影响因素。

     

  • 图  1  2001—2016年新巴尔虎草原过火面积年变化趋势

    Figure  1.  Annual changing trend of burned area in XinBarag Prairie from 2001 to 2016

    图  2  2001—2016年新巴尔虎草原过火面积月变化趋势

    Figure  2.  Monthly changing trend of burned area in XinBarag Prairie from 2001 to 2016

    图  3  过火面积与气象因子关系

    月平均气温Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ、Ⅴ级分别为-10 ℃以下、-10~0 ℃、0~10 ℃、10~20 ℃、20 ℃以上;月总降水量Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ、Ⅴ级分别为0~20 mm、20~40 mm、40~60 mm、60~80 mm、80 mm以上;月平均相对湿度Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ、Ⅴ级分别为40%以下、40%~50%、50%~60%、60%~70%、70%以上;月平均风速Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ、Ⅴ级分别为2 m/s以下、2~3 m/s、3~4 m/s、4~5 m/s、5 m/s以上。

    Figure  3.  Correlations between burned area and meteorological factors

    Grade Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ, Ⅳ, Ⅴ of monthly mean temperature are below-10 ℃, -10-0 ℃, 0-10 ℃, 10-20 ℃, above 20 ℃, respectively. Grade Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ, Ⅳ, Ⅴ of monthly total precipitation are 0-20 mm, 20-40 mm, 40-60 mm, 60-80 mm and above 80 mm, respectively. Grade Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ, Ⅳ, Ⅴ of monthly mean relative humidity are below 40%, 40%-50%, 50%-60%, 60%-70%, above 70%, respectively. Grade Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ, Ⅳ, Ⅴ of monthly mean wind speed are below 2 m/s, 2-3 m/s, 3-4 m/s, 4-5 m/s, above 5 m/s, respectively.

    表  1  MCD45A1数据集属性值

    Table  1.   Property values of MCD45A1 data set

    属性值
    Property value
    含义
    Meaning
    0 未燃烧区域Unburned area
    1~366 燃烧儒略日Approximate Julian day of burning
    900 雪或高气溶胶区域Snow or high aerosol area
    9 998 内陆水体Inland water body
    9 999 海洋水体Sea water body
    10 000 数据缺失区域Data deficiency area
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  过火面积提取验证表

    Table  2.   Extraction and verification table of burned area

    项目Item 2010年
    Year 2010
    2011年
    Year 2011
    2012年
    Year 2012
    2013年
    Year 2013
    2014年
    Year 2014
    2015年
    Year 2015
    2016年
    Year 2016
    2010—2016年
    Year 2010-2016
    历史火灾面积/hm2 Historical burned area/ha 4 819.83 11 534.40 23 738 28 302.67 19 883.16 27 614.40 9 971.70 125 864.16
    提取火灾面积/hm2 Extracted burned area/ha 6 575 11 975 26 075 35 175 26 800 30 525 13 800 150 925
    验证精度Verifying accuracy/% 73.3 96.3 91.0 80.5 74.2 90.5 72.3 83.4
    下载: 导出CSV
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    Sun H B, Wang M L, Zhang H X, et al. Correlation analysis between forest fire and meteorological elements in Daxinganling Mountain[J]. Journal of Inner Mongolia Agricultural University(Natural Science Edition), 2012, 33(5-6):87-90. http://cdmd.cnki.com.cn/Article/CDMD-10225-2009133899.htm
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  • 收稿日期:  2017-11-14
  • 修回日期:  2017-12-28
  • 刊出日期:  2018-02-01

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